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Original Articles
Trends in Regional Disparities in Cardiovascular Surgery and Mortality in Korea: A National Cross-sectional Study
Dal-Lae Jin, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Euy Suk Chung, Seok-Jun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):260-268.   Published online May 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.057
  • 923 View
  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Regional disparities in cardiovascular care in Korea have led to uneven patient outcomes. Despite the growing need for and access to procedures, few studies have linked regional service availability to mortality rates. This study analyzed regional variation in the utilization of major cardiovascular procedures and their associations with short-term mortality to provide better evidence regarding the relationship between healthcare resource distribution and patient survival.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using nationwide claims data for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stent insertion, or aortic aneurysm resection in 2022. Regional variation was assessed by the relevance index (RI). The associations between the regional RI and 30-day mortality were analyzed.
Results
The RI was lowest for aortic aneurysm resection (mean, 26.2; standard deviation, 26.1), indicating the most uneven regional distribution among the surgical procedures. Patients undergoing this procedure in regions with higher RIs showed significantly lower 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.96; p=0.026) versus those with lower RIs. This suggests that cardiovascular surgery regional availability, as measured by RI, has an impact on mortality rates for certain complex surgical procedures. The RI was not associated with significant mortality differences for more widely available procedures like CABG (aOR, 0.96), PCI (aOR, 1.00), or stent insertion (aOR, 0.91).
Conclusions
Significant regional variation and underutilization of cardiovascular surgery were found, with reduced access linked to worse mortality for complex procedures. Disparities should be addressed through collaboration among hospitals and policy efforts to improve outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
심혈관 관련 수술을 대상으로 지역적 불균형을 분석한 결과, 관상동맥우회술, 경피적 관상동맥중재술, 스텐트 삽입술은 전국적으로 광범위하게 분포되었다. 반면에 대동맥류 절제술은 지역적 불균형이 발생하였고, 사망률 또한 유의한 차이가 있었다. 따라서 의료 격차 해소를 위해 병원 간 협력체계 구축, 지역 균형적 의료자원 확충 등 정책적 노력이 필요하다
Key Message
An analysis of regional disparities in cardiovascular surgeries revealed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and stent insertion procedures were widely distributed nationwide. However, there was a regional imbalance in aortic aneurysm resection (AAR) surgeries, which also showed significant differences in mortality rates. Therefore, policy efforts are needed to bridge the healthcare gap, such as establishing collaborative systems among hospitals and ensuring a balanced distribution of medical resources across regions.
Classification of Healthy Family Indicators in Indonesia Based on a K-means Cluster Analysis
Herti Maryani, Anissa Rizkianti, Nailul Izza
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):234-241.   Published online May 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.497
  • 1,063 View
  • 92 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Health development is a key element of national development. The goal of improving health development at the societal level will be readily achieved if it is directed from the smallest social unit, namely the family. This was the goal of the Healthy Indonesia Program with a Family Approach. The objective of the study was to analyze variables of family health indicators across all provinces in Indonesia to identify provincial disparities based on the status of healthy families.
Methods
This study examined secondary data for 2021 from the Indonesia Health Profile, provided by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, and from the 2021 welfare statistics by Statistics Indonesia (BPS). From these sources, we identified 10 variables for analysis using the k-means method, a non-hierarchical method of cluster analysis.
Results
The results of the cluster analysis of healthy family indicators yielded 5 clusters. In general, cluster 1 (Papua and West Papua Provinces) had the lowest average achievements for healthy family indicators, while cluster 5 (Jakarta Province) had the highest indicator scores.
Conclusions
In Indonesia, disparities in healthy family indicators persist. Nutrition, maternal health, and child health are among the indicators that require government attention.
Summary
Key Message
This paper explores disparities in family health status across provinces using cluster analysis with the K-means approach applied to 10 family health indicator variables. Secondary data analysis was used from the 2021 Indonesian Health Profile and statistics on people’s welfare. The study identified five distinct clusters, each with different characteristics. Papua and West Papua demonstrate the lowest average level in terms of healthy family indicators, whereas DKI Jakarta shows the greatest indicator level. To eliminate the disparities, the government should prioritize the following indicators: maternal health, infant health, and nutrition.
Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Tuberculosis Preventive Behaviors Among Tuberculosis Patients’ Household Contacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Border Areas of Northern Thailand
Nantawan Khamai, Katekaew Seangpraw, Parichat Ong-Artborirak
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):223-233.   Published online May 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.453
  • 1,270 View
  • 113 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has exacerbated the rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection among close contacts of TB patients in remote regions. However, research on preventive behaviors, guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM), among household contacts of TB cases is scarce. This study aimed to employ the HBM as a framework to predict TB preventive behaviors among household contacts of TB patients in the border areas of Northern Thailand.
Methods
A cross-sectional study with multi-stage random sampling was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The study included 422 TB patients’ household contacts aged 18 years or older who had available chest X-ray (CXR) results. A self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct the survey.
Results
The participants’ mean age was 42.93 years. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TB preventive behavior scores were significantly correlated with TB knowledge (r=0.397), perceived susceptibility (r=0.565), perceived severity (r=0.452), perceived benefits (r=0.581), self-efficacy (r=0.526), and cues to action (r=0.179). Binary logistic regression revealed that the modeled odds of having an abnormal CXR decreased by 30.0% for each 1-point score increase in preventive behavior (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.79).
Conclusions
HBM constructs were able to explain preventive behaviors among TB patients’ household contacts. The HBM could be used in health promotion programs to improve TB preventive behaviors and avoid negative outcomes.
Summary
Key Message
- Tuberculosis knowledge and the Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs are associated with preventive behaviors that affect CXR results among pulmonary TB patients’ household contacts. - The HBM could be used in health promotion programs to improve TB preventive behaviors and avoid negative outcomes.
Association Between Objective Social Isolation and Unmet Medical Needs: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Study in Korea
Jeong Min Yang, Seul Ki Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):242-251.   Published online April 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.516
  • 7,529 View
  • 101 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between objective social isolation (SI) and unmet medical needs (UMN) in adults aged 19 and older.
Methods
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 208 619 adults aged 19 and older, excluding missing data, using the 2019 Korea Community Health Survey. To analyze the association between objective SI and UMN, the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed.
Results
The prevalence of UMN was 1.14 times higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.23) among those with SI than among those without SI, and the OR for groups with 5 SI types was 2.77 (95% CI, 1.86 to 4.12) compared to those with no SI types. In addition, a stratified analysis by age group showed that the association between SI and UMN existed even in groups under 64 years old. However, among those aged 65 and older, SI was associated with an OR of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.71) for UMN compared to non-SI. As the number of SI types increased, the prevalence of UMN also increased, indicating a strong association between SI and UMN in older adults.
Conclusions
This study found that individuals with SI experienced UMN due to fear and anxiety about interpersonal relationships. Therefore, based on the results of this cross-sectional study, it is necessary to investigate the causal relationship between SI and UMN through future longitudinal data.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2019년 지역사회건강조사를 활용하여 사회적 고립과 미충족의료 간의 연관성을 분석한 연구이다. 분석 결과 사회적 고립이 있을 경우 비사회적고립 집단에 비하여 미충족의료 경험률이 높았고, 사회적 고립의 강도가 높아질수록 강한 연관성을 발견할 수 있었다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 미충족의료 취약 집단에 대한 정책적, 제도적 기반 마련이 요구된다.
Key Message
This study analyzed the association between social isolation and unmet medical needs using the 2019 Korea Community Health Survey. The analysis revealed that individuals experiencing social isolation had a higher rate of unmet medical needs compared to the non-social isolation group. Furthermore, a stronger association was observed as the intensity of social isolation increased. Based on the results of this study, there is a need to establish policy and institutional foundations to support vulnerable groups with unmet medical needs.
Mortality Burden Due to Short-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Korea
Jongmin Oh, Youn-Hee Lim, Changwoo Han, Dong-Wook Lee, Jisun Myung, Yun-Chul Hong, Soontae Kim, Hyun-Joo Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):185-196.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.514
  • 1,521 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Excess mortality associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been documented. However, research on the disease burden following short-term exposure is scarce. We investigated the cause-specific mortality burden of short-term exposure to PM2.5 by considering the potential non-linear concentration–response relationship in Korea.
Methods
Daily cause-specific mortality rates and PM2.5 exposure levels from 2010 to 2019 were collected for 8 Korean cities and 9 provinces. A generalized additive mixed model was employed to estimate the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 exposure and cause-specific mortality levels. We assumed no detrimental health effects of PM2.5 concentrations below 15 μg/m3. Overall deaths attributable to short-term PM2.5 exposure were estimated by summing the daily numbers of excess deaths associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure.
Results
Of the 2 749 704 recorded deaths, 2 453 686 (89.2%) were non-accidental, 591 267 (21.5%) were cardiovascular, and 141 066 (5.1%) were respiratory in nature. A non-linear relationship was observed between all-cause mortality and exposure to PM2.5 at lag0, whereas linear associations were evident for cause-specific mortalities. Overall, 10 814 all-cause, 7855 non-accidental, 1642 cardiovascular, and 708 respiratory deaths were attributed to short-term exposure to PM2.5. The estimated number of all-cause excess deaths due to short-term PM2.5 exposure in 2019 was 1039 (95% confidence interval, 604 to 1472).
Conclusions
Our findings indicate an association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and various mortality rates (all-cause, non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory) in Korea over the period from 2010 to 2019. Consequently, action plans should be developed to reduce deaths attributable to short-term exposure to PM2.5.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2010~2019년 한국의 초미세먼지 단기 노출로 인한 사망 부담을 추정하였으며 2010~2019년간, 초미세먼지 단기노출로 인한 전체원인 사망은 10,814명, 비사고 사망은 7,855명, 심혈관 사망은 1,642명, 호흡기 사망은 708명으로 추정하였다. 본 연구 결과는 대기오염 관리, 규제, 정책 수립에 있어 도움을 줄 것으로 예상한다.
Key Message
- We estimated mortality burden attributable to short-term exposure to PM 2.5 in Korea from 2010 to 2019 - Over the 10-years study period, the estimated excess deaths due to short-term exposure to PM 2.5 totaled 10,814 for all-causes, 7,855 for non-accidental, 1,642 for cardiovascular disease, and 708 for respiratory disease. - Our findings can assist in air pollution management, regulation, and policy-making.
Symptoms, Mental Health, and Quality of Life Among Patients After COVID-19 Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Vietnam
Hai Nguyen Thanh, Duc Cap Minh, Hien Hoang Thu, Duc Nguyen Quang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):128-137.   Published online February 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.511
  • 1,742 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study was conducted to characterize the symptoms, mental health, quality of life (QoL), and associated factors following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 394 participants previously infected with COVID-19 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Mental health was assessed using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Participants self-reported health-related QoL was measured with the EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) scale.
Results
Among the participants, 76.4% reported experiencing at least one symptom following COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms were fatigue (42.1%), cognitive dysfunction (42.9%), and hair loss (27.9%). According to the DASS-21 results, the proportions of depression, anxiety, and stress were 28.7%, 26.4%, and 20.6%, respectively. The mean scores on the EQ-5D-5L and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale were 0.94±0.11 and 84.20±13.11, respectively. Regarding QoL issues, the highest proportion of participants (32.7%) reported experiencing anxiety or depression, followed by pain or discomfort (25.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with the presence of symptoms following COVID-19 infection included female (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.91) and having QoL issues (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.19).
Conclusions
The study investigated the prevalence rates of various symptoms following COVID-19 infection. These findings underscore the need to prioritize comprehensive care for individuals recovering from COVID-19 and to implement strategies to mitigate the long-term impact of the disease on mental health and QoL.
Summary
Key Message
This cross-sectional study in Vietnam investigated symptoms, mental health, and quality of life among patients recovering from COVID-19. The study found that most participants experienced post-infection symptoms, with fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and hair loss being the most common. Mental health issues were prevalent, and participants reported varying levels of quality of life. The findings highlight the importance of comprehensive care and strategies to address the long-term impact of COVID-19 on mental health and quality of life.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Dengue Prevention Among Health Volunteers in an Urban Area – Malang, Indonesia
Alidha Nur Rakhmani, Lilik Zuhriyah
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):176-184.   Published online February 21, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.484
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The dengue prevention program known as “One House One Mosquito Larva Inspector” involves health volunteers who play a crucial role in the surveillance of mosquito larvae and reporting their findings to local public health officials. This study aimed to identify factors related to the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of dengue prevention behavior among these health volunteers.
Methods
A study was conducted in 5 sub-districts in Malang, an urban area in Indonesia. We employed a cross-sectional design and utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to assess the KAP of 400 health volunteers. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews.
Results
Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with a more positive attitude (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; p<0.05) and those with family sizes greater than five persons (OR, 1.90; p<0.05) were more likely to engage in effective dengue prevention practices. Additionally, possesing good knowledge was significantly assocated with more positive attitude (OR, 2.24; p<0.001). Furthermore, 40% reduction in positive attitude was observed in those over 45 years (OR, 0.60; p<0.05). The best practices most frequently reported by the majority of respondents included always reporting their surveillance activities (75.8%) and cleaning the water container in the bathroom at least once a week (65.2%). However, only 52.2% of respondents regularly checked for mosquito larvae in their neighborhood.
Conclusions
Sustainable promotion and training for the “One House One Mosquito Larva Inspector” initiative are necessary, particularly among young health volunteers, to improve dengue prevention behaviors both within their own homes and in the surrounding environment.
Summary
Key Message
The study among health volunteers emphasizes that better knowledge and younger age < 45 were associated with a positive attitude. While a positive attitude and family size > 5 persons were associated with better dengue prevention practices. Therefore, there is a need for sustained promotion and training among health volunteers to enhance the knowledge and attitude that may shape good dengue prevention practices.
Environmental Health Literacy Regarding Fine Particulate Matter and Related Factors Among Village Health Volunteers in Upper Northern Thailand
Nattapon Pansakun, Warangkana Naksen, Waraporn Boonchieng, Parichat Ong-artborirak, Tippawan Prapamontol
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):138-147.   Published online February 10, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.434
  • 1,639 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Fine particulate matter pollution has emerged as a significant life-threatening issue in Thailand. Recognizing the importance of environmental health literacy (EHL) in disease prevention is crucial for protecting public health. This study investigated EHL levels and aimed to identify associated factors among village health volunteers (VHVs) in the upper northern region of Thailand.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from 710 VHVs using the EHL assessment tool developed by the Department of Health, Thailand.
Results
The overall EHL score was moderate (mean, 3.28 out of a possible 5.0), with the highest and lowest domain-specific mean score for the ability to make decisions (3.52) and the ability to access (3.03). Multiple linear regression revealed that the factors associated with EHL score were area of residence (urban areas in Chiang Mai: B=0.254; urban areas in Lampang: B=0.274; and rural areas in Lampang: B=0.250 compared to rural areas in Chiang Mai), higher education levels (senior high school: B=0.212; diploma/high vocational certificate: B=0.350; bachelor’s degree or above: B=0.528 compared to elementary school or lower), having annual health checkups compared to not having annual health check-ups (B=0.142), monthly family income (B=0.004), and individuals frequently facing air pollution issues around their residence (B=0.199) compared to those who reported no such issues.
Conclusions
The VHVs exhibited moderate EHL associated with residence area, education, health check-ups, family income, and residential air pollution. Considering these factors is vital for enhancing VHVs’ EHL through strategic interventions.
Summary
Perspective
The Paradox of the Ugandan Health Insurance System: Challenges and Opportunities for Health Reform
Emmanuel Otieno, Josephine Namyalo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):91-94.   Published online December 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.110
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
For nearly four decades, Ugandans have experienced a period marked by hope, conflict, and resilience across various aspects of healthcare reform. The health insurance system in Uganda lacks a legal framework and does not extend benefits to the entire population. In Uganda, community-based health insurance is common among those in the informal sector, while private medical insurance is typically provided to employees by their workplaces and agencies. The National Health Insurance Scheme Bill, introduced in 2019, was passed in 2021. If the President of Uganda gives his assent to the National Health Insurance Bill, it will become a significant policy driving health and universal health coverage. However, this bill is not without its shortcomings. In this perspective, we aim to explore the complex interplay of challenges and opportunities facing Uganda’s health sector.
Summary
Key Message
For the Ugandans, nearly the last four decades have been years of hope, conflict, and resilience in a myriad of contexts for healthcare reform. Health insurance system has no legal framework and provides benefits not to the entire national population. The 2019 National Health Insurance scheme Bill was passed in 2021. If the President of Uganda assents to the National Health Insurance Bill, it will be a compelling policy in health and health for all policies. But this Bill has several drawbacks. In this perspective, we aimed to provide intricacies and mix of challenges and opportunities for the health sector.
Original Articles
Relationship Between Pesticide Exposure Factors and Health Symptoms Among Chili Farmers in Northeast Thailand
Ratchadaporn Pengpan, Kulthida Y. Kopolrat, Sribud Srichaijaroonpong, Nutta Taneepanichskul, Patiwat Yasaka, Ratanee Kammoolkon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):73-82.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.353
  • 1,290 View
  • 95 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The unsafe use of pesticides in agriculture represents a major hazard to human health. This study was conducted to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and health symptoms among chili farmers in northeast Thailand.
Methods
This cross-sectional analytic study included 141 chili farmers in Sakon Nakhon Province, in northeast Thailand. Data regarding health symptoms were gathered using a self-report questionnaire. A medical technician tested blood cholinesterase activity using an erythrocyte method, and an occupational medicine specialist at Ramathibodi Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand reviewed the results. Associations between personal characteristics, pesticide exposure factors, and health symptoms were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.
Results
Of the 141 chili farmers studied, 66.7% experienced pesticide poisoning, as indicated by below-normal cholinesterase levels. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom associated with pesticide exposure, affecting 37.6% of participants. This was followed by nausea and vomiting (31.9%), dizziness (14.9%), and dry throat (14.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that several factors were significantly associated with adverse symptoms: amount of work experience, volume of pesticides used, use of chemical pesticides, use of leaking containers during spraying, direct pesticide exposure while working, contact with pesticide-soaked clothing, consumption of food and drinks in the fields, and blood cholinesterase level indicating risk.
Conclusions
This study suggests potential health risks for chili farmers stemming from exposure to and contamination by pesticides used in agricultural practices. To mitigate these risks, it is essential to supply personal protective equipment and to implement educational programs aimed at improving protective behaviors among farmers.
Summary
Key Message
This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of pesticide exposure on health symptoms. In a cross-sectional study, the effects of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase erythrocyte activity in blood during agricultural practices were examined as potential health risks for chili farmers. It is crucial to provide personal protective equipment and to implement educational initiatives targeted at encouraging farmers to adopt more protective behaviors to reduce these risks.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emerging diseases: trend research and omics-based analysis reveals mechanisms of endophytes modulate Chilli plant resilience
    Wiwiek Harsonowati, Evy Latifah, Arinal Haq Izzawati Nurrahma, Jati Purwani, Rashid Iqbal, Javid Ahmad Parray, Ashish D. Patel
    Symbiosis.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Mental Health Among Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Vietnam
Nhan Phuc Thanh Nguyen, Ha Phan Ai Nguyen, Cao Khoa Dang, Minh Tri Phan, Huynh Ho Ngoc Quynh, Van Tuan Le, Chinh Van Dang, Tinh Huu Ho, Van Trong Phan, Thang Van Dinh, Thang Phan, Thi Anh Thu Dang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):37-46.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.327
  • 1,295 View
  • 135 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to characterize mental health issues among Vietnamese healthcare workers (HCWs) and to identify related factors.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 990 HCWs in 2021. Their mental health status was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale.
Results
In total, 49.9%, 52.3%, and 29.8% of respondents were found to have depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The multivariable linear regression model revealed that factors associated with increased anxiety scores included depression scores (β, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.51) and stress scores (β, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.52). Factors associated with increased depression scores included being frontline HCWs (β, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.10), stress scores (β, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.56), and anxiety scores (β, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.47), while working experience was associated with reduced depression scores (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.01). Factors associated with increased stress scores included working experience (β, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.16), personal protective equipment interference with daily activities (β, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.00), depression scores (β, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.59), and anxiety scores (β, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.50), while age was associated with reduced stress scores (β, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.05).
Conclusions
Specific interventions are necessary to enhance and promote the mental health of HCWs so they can successfully cope with the circumstances of the pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
A cross-sectional study of 990 Vietnamese healthcare workers in Vietnam, 2021 revealed significant mental health issues: 49.9 % suffered from depression, 52.3 % from anxiety, and 29.8 % from stress. The study found a correlation between these conditions, with frontline workers being particularly vulnerable to depression. These findings highlight the critical need for targeted mental health interventions for healthcare workers, particularly those new to the field and working on the front lines, in order to better manage pandemic-related stressors.
Prevalence and Determinants of Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditures in Iran From 2013 to 2019
Abdoreza mousavi, Farhad lotfi, Samira Alipour, Aliakbar Fazaeli, Mohsen Bayati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):65-72.   Published online November 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.291
  • 1,175 View
  • 88 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Protecting people against financial hardship caused by illness stands as a fundamental obligation within healthcare systems and constitutes a pivotal component in achieving universal health coverage. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) in Iran, over the period of 2013 to 2019.
Methods
Data were obtained from 7 annual national surveys conducted between 2013 and 2019 on the income and expenditures of Iranian households. The prevalence of CHE was determined using a threshold of 40% of household capacity to pay for healthcare. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants influencing CHE.
Results
The prevalence of CHE increased from 3.60% in 2013 to 3.95% in 2019. In all the years analyzed, the extent of CHE occurrence among rural populations exceeded that of urban populations. Living in an urban area, having a higher wealth index, possessing health insurance coverage, and having employed family members, an employed household head, and a literate household head are all associated with a reduced likelihood of CHE (p<0.05). Conversely, the use of dental, outpatient, and inpatient care, and the presence of elderly members in the household, are associated with an increased probability of facing CHE (p<0.05).
Conclusions
Throughout the study period, CHE consistently exceeded the 1% threshold designated in the national development plan. Continuous monitoring of CHE and its determinants at both household and health system levels is essential for the implementation of effective strategies aimed at enhancing financial protection.
Summary
Key Message
• The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) in Iran. • Catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) are used for monitoring financial protection within health systems. • The World Health Organization defines CHE as out-of-pocket payments for healthcare that exceed 40% of a household’s capacity to pay. • In Iran, the prevalence of CHE increased from 3.60% in 2013 to 3.95% in 2019. • Continuous monitoring of CHE and its determinants is essential for implementing effective strategies aimed at enhancing financial protection.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An analysis of financial protection and financing incidence of out-of-pocket health expenditures in Kazakhstan from 2018 to 2021
    Askhat Shaltynov, Yulia Semenova, Madina Abenova, Assel Baibussinova, Ulzhan Jamedinova, Ayan Myssayev
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Adjusting for Confounders in Outcome Studies Using the Korea National Health Insurance Claim Database: A Review of Methods and Applications
Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):1-7.   Published online November 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.250
  • 1,514 View
  • 189 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Adjusting for potential confounders is crucial for producing valuable evidence in outcome studies. Although numerous studies have been published using the Korea National Health Insurance Claim Database, no study has critically reviewed the methods used to adjust for confounders. This study aimed to review these studies and suggest methods and applications to adjust for confounders.
Methods
We conducted a literature search of electronic databases, including PubMed and Embase, from January 1, 2021 to December 31, 2022. In total, 278 studies were retrieved. Eligibility criteria were published in English and outcome studies. A literature search and article screening were independently performed by 2 authors and finally, 173 of 278 studies were included.
Results
Thirty-nine studies used matching at the study design stage, and 171 adjusted for confounders using regression analysis or propensity scores at the analysis stage. Of these, 125 conducted regression analyses based on the study questions. Propensity score matching was the most common method involving propensity scores. A total of 171 studies included age and/or sex as confounders. Comorbidities and healthcare utilization, including medications and procedures, were used as confounders in 146 and 82 studies, respectively.
Conclusions
This is the first review to address the methods and applications used to adjust for confounders in recently published studies. Our results indicate that all studies adjusted for confounders with appropriate study designs and statistical methodologies; however, a thorough understanding and careful application of confounding variables are required to avoid erroneous results.
Summary
Korean summary
건강보험청구자료를 사용한 성과연구에서는 교란요인 통제가 중요하다. 최근 발표된 연구들은 연구설계와 통계 분석 과정에 적절하게 교란요인을 통제하였다. 연구의 질을 높이기 위해서는 건강보험청구자료에서 수집 가능한 교란 요인에 대한 이해와 방법론적 가이드라인이 요구된다.
Key Message
All recently published studies using Health Insurance Claims Database adjusted for confounders with appropriate study designs and statistical methodologies. The review suggests the need for careful application of confounding variables and the methodological guidance to improve the quality of outcome studies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Worsening of health disparities across COVID-19 pandemic stages in Korea
    Hyejin Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Jae-ryun Lee, Hyemin Jung, Jin Yong Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2024; : e2024038.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Regional Disparities in Cardiovascular Surgery and Mortality in Korea: A National Cross-sectional Study
    Dal-Lae Jin, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Euy Suk Chung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(3): 260.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Teachers’ Negative Attitudes and Limited Health Literacy Levels as Risks for Low Awareness of Epilepsy in Turkey
Gulay Yilmazel
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):573-582.   Published online November 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.330
  • 1,293 View
  • 66 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
For students with epilepsy, schools are a critical environment for managing the disease properly. This study examined awareness of epilepsy, attitudes toward epilepsy, and health literacy among school teachers in Turkey.
Methods
This study was conducted in a city in Turkey with 1408 public school teachers from June 2021 to September 2021.
Results
The median scores of the scales were 5, 29, and 32 for epilepsy awareness, epilepsy attitudes, and health literacy, respectively. Epilepsy awareness was higher in women, and epilepsy attitudes were more positive in women than men (p<0.05). While epilepsy awareness was higher in primary school teachers, epilepsy attitudes were more positive in secondary school teachers (p<0.05). Epilepsy awareness was lower in secondary school teachers (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; p<0.05), those who did not have an individual with epilepsy in their family/social environment (OR, 1.57; p<0.001), those who did not have a student with epilepsy in their class (OR, 1.45; p<0.05), and in those who had not witnessed an epilepsy seizure (OR,1.19; p<0.05). Compared to those with positive attitudes regarding epilepsy, epilepsy awareness was 1.36 times lower in those with negative attitudes (p<0.001). Epilepsy awareness was 1.92 times lower in those with limited health literacy than those with adequate health literacy (p<0.001).
Conclusions
In this study, low epilepsy awareness, negative epilepsy attitudes, and limited health literacy were common among teachers. The findings from this study suggest that panels, workshops, and health training on epilepsy should be organized for school teachers and included at regular intervals in certified first-aid practices.
Summary
Key Message
• This article examined school teachers' barriers to epilepsy awareness. • Awareness was low, negative attitudes were high, and health literacy level was limited. • Negative attitudes and limited health literacy were the most effective risks for poor awareness.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Role of Pharmacists’ Interventions in Increasing Medication Adherence of Patients With Epilepsy: A Scoping Review
    Iin Ernawati, Nanang Munif Yasin, Ismail Setyopranoto, Zullies Ikawati
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(3): 212.     CrossRef
An Important Strategy to Improve Adolescent Health Literacy: COVID-19 Modules in High School in Indonesia
Nurina Hasanatuludhhiyah, Visuddho Visuddho, Abdul Khairul Rizki Purba, Annette d’ Arqom, Ancah Caesarina Novi Marchianti
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):523-532.   Published online November 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.113
  • 1,313 View
  • 109 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
During the second coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge, cases increased sharply due to low awareness and compliance with measures to limit disease spread. Health literacy (HL) is an important component of public health initiatives, and schools are potential sources of health education to increase HL via the presentation of COVID-19 educational modules.
Methods
This cross-sectional study involved an online questionnaire administered to students from 5 high schools in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia, 6-7 weeks after the start of government-issued directives restricting public gatherings. We collected data on each respondent’s age, gender, parental education, and socioeconomic variables. HL was determined by the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents. We additionally measured their attitudes and behaviors related to preventing the spread of COVID-19. The students were asked if they watched the COVID-19 module at school, their feelings about vaccination, and preferred online sources of COVID-19-related information.
Results
Most of the 432 respondents had viewed COVID-19 modules at school. Module exposure was associated with significantly higher total and domain-specific HL and more positive attitudes toward government-issued COVID-19 restrictions on travel and public gatherings (p<0.05). However, behaviors to prevent COVID-19 spread and vaccine acceptance were not associated with module exposure. Most students chose social media as their source of COVID-19-related information.
Conclusions
Schools can provide information to increase adolescents’ HL and the public’s support for health initiatives to prevent or limit the spread of COVID-19.
Summary
Key Message
A cross-sectional study carried out on high school students during the second surge of COVID-19 in Indonesia revealed that they benefitted from the COVID-19 module. Students who viewed the module had higher scores on health literacy measures of adolescents (HELMA), had a more favorable attitude toward government-issued restrictive policies, and were more likely to have adequate health literacy, in regard to the ability to use health information. These imply schools as part of the public health response by providing education to increase adolescents’ health literacy and the public’s support for health initiatives to prevent and limit the spread of COVID-19.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health