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Empowering Rural Housewives in Iran: Utilizing the Transtheoretical Model to Increase Physical Activity
Mahboobe Borhani, Zakieh Sadat Hosseini, Najme Shahabodin, Ali Mehri, Mohadese Kiani, Marzieh Abedi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):167-175.   Published online January 31, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.457
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  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Rural housewives are integral to household management and family care, yet their sedentary lifestyles present significant health risks. This study used the transtheoretical model (TTM) to investigate strategies that encourage and maintain regular exercise habits among rural housewives.
Methods
A semi-experimental study was conducted in 2021 with 114 housewives aged 30 to 59 who attended rural health centers in Gorgan, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Data collection involved a validated questionnaire that gathered demographic information and constructs of the TTM. The intervention group participated in a comprehensive educational program, which included four 60-minute sessions. Data were collected again 6 months post-intervention and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS version 21.
Results
The study encompassed women with an average age of 39.75±6.05 years, the majority of whom had educational levels below a diploma, and over 90% were married. We observed strong correlations between the processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance. At the outset, there were no significant differences in demographics or model structures between the 2 groups. However, 6 months post-intervention, the intervention group exhibited statistically significant differences in the mean scores of model structures, stages of change, and body mass index (<>p<0.05).
Conclusions
This study highlights the importance of physical activity training for rural housewives. The findings suggest that the educational intervention, which utilized the TTM, significantly impacted the participants’ model structures and their stages of change.
Summary
Key Message
The study aimed to investigate strategies for promoting and sustaining regular exercise habits among rural housewives using the transtheoretical model (TTM). A semi-experimental study was conducted with 114 housewives aged 30 to 59 in Iran. The intervention group received a comprehensive educational program, and after 6 months, they exhibited significant differences in model structures, stages of change, and body mass index compared to the control group. These findings underscore the importance of physical activity training for rural housewives and suggest that the educational intervention utilizing the TTM substantially impacted the participants' model structures and stages of change.
Impact of Physical Activity on the Association Between Unhealthy Adolescent Behaviors and Anxiety Among Korean Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study
Hyo-jung Lee, Jeong Pil Choi, Kunhee Oh, Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):552-562.   Published online November 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.313
  • 1,237 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Adolescents who engage in unhealthy behaviors are particularly vulnerable to anxiety. We hypothesized that participation in physical activity could influence the relationship between anxiety and unhealthy behaviors in adolescents. These behaviors include smoking, alcohol consumption, and unsafe sexual activity.
Methods
This study included 50 301 students from the first year of middle school to the third year of high school, all from Korea. The unhealthy adolescent behaviors examined included current alcohol consumption, current smoking, and unsafe sexual behavior. Anxiety levels were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7).
Results
The participants had a mean age of 15.19 years and an average GAD-7 score of 4.23. No significant differences were observed in GAD-7 score among exercising participants when categorized by smoking status (p=0.835) or unsafe sexual behavior (p=0.489). In contrast, participants in the non-exercise group who engaged in these behaviors demonstrated significantly higher GAD-7 scores (p<0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The only significant interaction was found between unsafe sexual behavior and exercise (p=0.009). Based on logistic regression analysis, within the non-exercise group, significant positive associations were observed between current smoking and anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.57), as well as between unsafe sexual behavior and anxiety (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.73). However, within the exercise group, no significant association was found between anxiety and either smoking or unsafe sexual behavior. Furthermore, no significant interaction was observed between unhealthy behaviors and exercise.
Conclusions
These findings are insufficient to conclude that physical activity influences the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and anxiety.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 신체활동이 한국 청소년들사이에서 불안과 불건강행태간의 관계에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 조사하였다. 이 연구에서 신체활동을 하지 않는 청소년에서만 흡연 및 불안전한 성행위와 같은 불건강행태와 불안 간의 유의미한 연관성을 보였음에도 불구하고, 이러한 불건강행태와 운동 간에는 같은 방향의 유의미한 상호작용이 관찰되지 않았다. 따라서 이 연구는 신체 활동이 청소년들의 불건강행태와 불안간의 관계에 직접 미치는 영향에 대해 명확하게 결론을 내릴 수 없었다.
Key Message
Among Korean adolescents, this study found that significant associations between unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and unsafe sex, and anxiety were only observed in adolescents who did not engage in physical activity. Despite this, no significant interaction was observed between these unhealthy behaviors and exercise. Contrary to popular belief, this study concludes that the evidence is insufficient to definitively say that physical activity influences the relationship between adolescent unhealthy behaviors and anxiety.
Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):18-27.   Published online November 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.306
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  • 153 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 44 908 students (22 823 boys and 22 085 girls) as study subjects. The dependent variables included changes in health behaviors (breakfast habits, physical activity, and alcohol use) that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aggravation of economic hardship by COVID-19 and the subjective economic status of the family were used as exposure variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to calculate the prevalence odds ratios (PORs).
Results
Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents, including increased breakfast skipping (POR, 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 2.21 for boys and POR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.92 for girls) and decreased physical activity (POR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.57 for boys and POR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60 for girls). These negative changes in health behaviors were further amplified when combined with a low subjective family economic status.
Conclusions
The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나바이러스감염증-19 (COVID-19) 대유행 기간 악화된 가구의 경제적 상황과 청소년의 건강 행태 변화의 관련성을 청소년건강행태조사를 이용하여 분석하였다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 COVID-19로 인해 심각하게 악화된 경우, 청소년 건강 행태의 부정적인 변화와 연관성이 관찰되었다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 악화되는 경험은 청소년들의 건강 행태에 부정적인 변화를 초래할 수 있다. COVID-19와 같은 사회적 사건으로 인해 발생하는 경제적 어려움에 대응하는 조치를 마련하고, 이러한 상황에서 청소년들의 건강 행태를 개선하기 위한 개입이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents using the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents. The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Effects of the Short Foot Exercise With Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Navicular Height in Flexible Flatfoot in Thailand: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Juntip Namsawang, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Ratana Vichiansiri, Somchai Rattanathongkom
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(4):250-257.   Published online July 14, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.072
  • 10,260 View
  • 552 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Flatfoot, or low medial longitudinal arch, contributes to back and lower extremity injuries and is caused by weak abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short foot exercise (SFE) alone or with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on navicular height, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the AbdH muscle, and AbdH muscle activity in flexible flatfoot.
Methods
Thirty-six otherwise healthy people with flexible flatfoot were randomly assigned to a group that received SFE with placebo NMES treatment (the control group) or a group that received both SFE and NMES treatment (the experimental group). Each group received 4 weeks of treatment (SFE alone or SFE with NMES). Navicular height, the CSA of the AbdH muscle, and AbdH muscle activity were assessed before and after the intervention.
Results
No significant differences were found in navicular height or the CSA of the AbdH muscle between the control and experimental groups, while AbdH muscle activity showed a statistically significant difference between the groups (SFE=73.9±11.0% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; SFE with NMES=81.4±8.3% of MVIC; p<0.05). Moreover, the CSA of the AbdH muscle showed a statistically significant increase after treatment in the SFE with NMES group (pre-treatment=218.6±53.2 mm2; post-treatment=256.9±70.5 mm2; p<0.05).
Conclusions
SFE with NMES was more effective than SFE alone in increasing AbdH muscle activity. Therefore, SFE with NMES should be recommended to correct or prevent abnormalities in people with flexible flatfoot by a physiotherapist or medical care team.
Summary

Citations

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  • Additional effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in a conservative intervention on morphology and strength of abductor hallucis muscle and correction of hallux valgus deformity: a randomized controlled trial
    Nasrin Moulodi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Fatemeh Azadinia, Ali Shakourirad, Maryam Jalali
    Physiotherapy Theory and Practice.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Arch Height Flexibility in Individuals With Flatfoot on Abductor Hallucis Muscle Activity and Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle During Short Foot Exercises
    Haruki Ishiyama, Tomoya Takabayashi, Shiori Hiratsuka, Wataru Ito, Takanori Kikumoto, Masayoshi Kubo
    The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery.2023; 62(1): 168.     CrossRef
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    Shigeyuki Hara, Masashi Kitano, Shintarou Kudo
    Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation.2023; 36(1): 21.     CrossRef
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    Fizjoterapia Polska.2023; 23(3): 190.     CrossRef
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    Romain Tourillon, Hugo Bothorel, Patrick O. McKeon, Boris Gojanovic, François Fourchet
    Journal of Athletic Training.2023; 58(1): 51.     CrossRef
  • Does Kinesio taping of tibialis posterior or peroneus longus have an immediate effect on improving foot posture, dynamic balance, and biomechanical variables in young women with flexible flatfoot?
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    The Foot.2023; 56: 102032.     CrossRef
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    Anushri R Patil, Swapna Jawade, Kamya J Somaiya, Manali A Boob
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ridwan Abdul Rachman, Wawan Sundawan Suherman, Budi Calamita Sandra, Ahmad Nasrulloh
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    Waleed S. Mahmoud
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  • Combined Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Short Foot Exercise Improves Navicular Height, Muscle Size, Function Mobility, and Risk of Falls in Healthy Older Adults
    Juntip Namsawang, Pornpimol Muanjai
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(12): 7196.     CrossRef
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The Role of Social Support and the Neighborhood Environment on Physical Activity in Low-income, Mexican-American Women in South Texas
Jennifer J. Salinas, Marisol McDaniel, Deborah Parra-Medina
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):234-241.   Published online July 25, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.052
  • 5,565 View
  • 148 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To determine the relationships between physical activity (PA), the neighborhood environment support for PA, and social support for PA among Mexican-American women living in South Texas. The Enlace study was a randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of a promotora-led PA intervention among low-income Mexican origin women (n=614) living in colonias.
Methods
The dependent measures included accelerometer-measured average moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary breaks and the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors PA 41-item questionnaire. The independent measures included the Physical Activity and Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) and the 13-item Physical Activity Social Support (PASS) scale.
Results
Enlace participants were on average 40.4 (standard deviation, 10.3) years old, born in Mexico (86.1%), and uninsured (83.1%). Adjusted linear regression results indicated that each 1-point increment in the PANES overall score was associated with 0.050 (p<0.001) unit increase in sedentary break and a −0.043 (p=0.001) unit decrease in sedentary break duration. Both PANES (β=0.296; p=0.002) and PASS scores (β=0.076; p<0.001) were associated with weekly average self-reported MVPA. Interaction effects were observed between PASS scores and accelerometer-measured frequency of sedentary breaks and sedentary time duration.
Conclusions
The findings of this study indicate that the relationships between PA and built environment and social support are measure-dependent and suggest that reducing sedentary time in this population may require a closer assessment of social support for PA.
Summary

Citations

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    Carina Nigg, Shaima A. Alothman, Abdullah F. Alghannam, Jasper Schipperijn, Reem AlAhmed, Reem F. Alsukait, Severin Rakic, Volkan Cetinkaya, Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Saleh A. Alqahtani
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Bess H. Marcus, Britta A. Larsen, Sarah E. Linke, Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Tanya Benitez, James Sallis, Andrea S. Mendoza-Vasconez, Shira I. Dunsiger
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    Neomie C. Congello, Deborah Koniak-Griffin, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Ron D. Hays, Mary-Sue V. Heilemann, Adeline M. Nyamathi
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High Level Physical Activity and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, 2007-2013
Kyounghoon Park, Byung-Joo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(5):320-327.   Published online September 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.073
  • 7,102 View
  • 223 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between the intensity of physical activity (PA) and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using Korean representative data. Methods: We analyzed 39 804 participant data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2013. Exposure variable was three levels of PA (low, medium, and high) in a week, and outcome variable was prevalence of CVD based on patient self-recognition and doctor’s diagnosis. Complex logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between level of PA and CVD adjusted by body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, stress recognition, household income, smoking, and current drinking. The indices of association w ere estimated as crude prevalence odds ratio (POR), adjusted POR, and their 95% confidence interval (CI). All statistical analyzes were performed using complex sample analysis procedure of the SPSS version 23.0. Results: When all variables were adjusted, only high level PA in women showed a significant association with stroke (adjusted POR by patient’s self-recognition, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.99, adjusted POR by doctor’s diagnosis, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.87) and CVD (adjusted POR by doctor’s diagnosis, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96). Conclusions: High level PA in women has a significant reverse association with prevalence of stroke and CVD in Korea. Further study for elucidating the mechanism will be needed.
Summary

Citations

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  • Role of regular physical activity in modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors among elderly Korean women
    Seunghui Baek, Youngmee Kim, Lorraine S. Evangelista
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Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults
Peter D. Hart, Gabriel Benavidez, James Erickson
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(1):10-17.   Published online December 19, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.080
  • 10,714 View
  • 298 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults.
Methods
A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables.
Results
Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker.
Conclusions
In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.
Summary

Citations

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    Jeanette M. Thom, Sharon M. Nelis, Jennifer K. Cooney, John V. Hindle, Ian R. Jones, Linda Clare
    Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.2021; 29(1): 80.     CrossRef
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    Min Xu, Caroline J. Lodge, Adrian J. Lowe, Shyamali C. Dharmage, Raisa Cassim, Daniel Tan, Melissa A. Russell
    Journal of Asthma.2021; 58(11): 1426.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Up-to-Date Colonoscopy Use Among Puerto Ricans in New York City, 2003–2016
    Sandy Ng, Yuhe Xia, Matthew Glenn, Neha Nagpal, Kevin Lin, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Andrea B. Troxel, Simona C. Kwon, Peter S. Liang
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2021; 66(9): 2907.     CrossRef
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    Lavlin Agrawal, Theophile Ndabu, Pavankumar Mulgund, Raj Sharman
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  • Characterizing Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Adults With Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
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Special Article
Exercise and Physical Activity in Mental Disorders: Clinical and Experimental Evidence
Elisabeth Zschucke, Katharina Gaudlitz, Andreas Ströhle
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(Suppl 1):S12-S21.   Published online January 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.S.S12
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Several epidemiological studies have shown that exercise (EX) and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay the onset of different mental disorders, and have therapeutic benefits when used as sole or adjunct treatment in mental disorders. This review summarizes studies that used EX interventions in patients with anxiety, affective, eating, and substance use disorders, as well as schizophrenia and dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Despite several decades of clinical evidence with EX interventions, controlled studies are sparse in most disorder groups. Preliminary evidence suggests that PA/EX can induce improvements in physical, subjective and disorder-specific clinical outcomes. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed, as well as implications for psychiatric research and practice.

Summary

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Original Articles
Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Muscle Strength in Japanese Men
Takeshi Saito, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Noriko Sakano, Kanae Oda, Akihiko Katayama, Kenji Nishii, Takeyuki Numata
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(6):381-386.   Published online November 29, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.6.381
  • 11,954 View
  • 133 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To investigate the link between cigarette smoking and muscle strength in Japanese men.

Methods

We used data on 4249 Japanese men, aged 43.3±13.9 years, in this cross-sectional investigation study. Grip strength and leg strength were measured as indicators of overall muscle strength. Meanwhile, subjects' cigarette smoking habits were recorded by trained medical staff. The effect of cigarette smoking on muscle strength was evaluated.

Results

A total of 1618 men (38.1%) were smokers and 1481 men (34.9%) exercised regularly. Significant differences in muscle strength were noted between men with and without a Brinkman index of 400 or greater, after adjusting for age. After adjusting for age, height, body weight and exercise habits, associations between the Brinkman index and leg strength and the ratio of leg strength to body weight were attenuated.

Conclusions

Cigarette smoking might be negatively associated with muscle strength, especially grip strength in Japanese men.

Summary

Citations

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Indoor Physical Activity Reduces All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Elderly Women
Soyoung Park, Joongyub Lee, Dong Yoon Kang, Chul Woo Rhee, Byung-Joo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(1):21-28.   Published online January 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.1.21
  • 10,103 View
  • 85 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate whether a medium to high degree of total physical activity and indoor physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Korean women.

Methods

A prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the association between physical activity and mortality. The cohort was made up of elderly (≥65 years of age) subjects. Baseline information was collected with a self-administered questionnaire and linked to death certificates retrieved from a database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) levels.

Results

Women who did not suffer from stroke, cancer, or ischemic heart disease were followed for a median of 8 years (n=5079). A total of 1798 all-cause deaths were recorded, of which 607 (33.8%) were due to cardiovascular disease. The group with the highest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity was significantly associated to a reduced all-cause mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.71 and HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.67, respectively) compared to the group with the lowest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity. Additionally, the group with the highest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity was significantly associated to a lower cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.71 and HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.67, respectively) compared to the group with the lowest level of total physical activity and indoor physical activity.

Conclusions

Our study showed that regular indoor physical activity among elderly Korean women has healthy benefits.

Summary

Citations

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Trends in Body Mass Index and Associations With Physical Activity Among Career Soldiers in South Korea
Kyoung-Ki Bae, Ho Kim, Sung-Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(4):167-175.   Published online July 29, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.4.167
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective

This study was designed to describe the trends in body mass index (BMI) during 6 years (2002 - 2008) and to identify associations between these trends and the amount of physical activity of South Korean career soldiers.

Method

This study targeted the 40 993 (38 857 men and 2136 women) of the 58 657 career soldiers who had undergone four (2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008) biennial medical examinations conducted by the National Health Insurance Corporation; 17 664 soldiers with missing data on height, weight, and physical activity were excluded. A linear mixed-regression model was used to categorize changes in BMI due to age versus those due to amount of physical activity.

Results

Career soldiers experienced significant increases in BMI compared with baseline data gathered in 2002. The increases in each age group were as follows: men aged 20- 29: 1.16, men aged 30 - 39: 0.61, men aged 40 - 49: 0.05, women aged 20- 29: 0.35, women aged 30- 39: 0.30, women aged 40-49: 0.26, and women aged 50- 59: 0.21. However, men aged 50 or older showed significant decreases (as high as 0.5) in BMI compared with baseline data obtained in 2002. They also experienced significant decreases in BMI compared with those who reported no physical activity. The differences between baseline and final BMIs were: 0.02 for men exercising 1- 2 times per week, -0.07 for men exercising 3-4 times per week, -0.19 for men exercising 5-6 times per week, -0.21 for men exercising seven times per week, -0.05 for women exercising 1- 2 times per week, -0.19 for women exercising 3- 4 times per week, -0.30 for women exercising 5-6 times per week, and -0.30 for women exercising seven times per week.

Conclusions

Obesity in South Korean career soldiers increased markedly between 2002 and 2008, and our data showed that the amount of physical activity was inversely related to increases in BMI. Policies to prevent obesity are needed to reduce this trend.

Summary

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English Abstracts
Suggestions for Increasing Physical Activity Levels of Korean Older Adults: A Public Health Perspective.
Seung Youn Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):362-365.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.362
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AbstractAbstract PDF
2010 is the year when the Korean baby boomer generation faces retirement. With the need for affective strategies to keep this population healthy, the government has placed much effort to increase the regular physical activity (PA) level of older adults. Yet the prevalence of active seniors is still relatively low. This paper reviews the recent government strategies and efforts to enhance the physical activity levels of older adults and the PA programs provided in the community settings by major organizations and institutions. In addition, the problems of the current approaches are shown, and based on a review, the author provides five suggestions for promoting the PA level of older adults as follows. First, specific physical activity goals and objectives for older adults should be included in the National Health Plan 2020. Second, the recommendations for PA for seniors, which include a proper intensity, duration and frequency of exercise, should be provided. Third, the role of organizations and institutions should be rearranged for the proper dissemination of government provided community-based exercise programs. Fourth, a standard quality-control system should be provided, and finally, an evidence-based exercise program, which should be specifically created for the older Korean population, should be developed. Physical activity offers opportunities for people to extend the years of their active independent life and reduce functional limitations. To maximize the effects of government efforts to promote PA for seniors, we feel the comments provided in this paper should be closely examined.
Summary

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  • Clustering of multiple healthy lifestyles among older Korean adults living in the community
    Yunhwan Lee, Joung Hwan Back, Jinhee Kim, Haewon Byeon, Seihee Kim, Mikyung Ryu
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Association between the Physical Activity of Korean Adolescents and Socioeconomic Status.
In Hwan Oh, Goeun Lee, Chang Mo Oh, Kyung Sik Choi, Bong Keun Choe, Joong Myung Choi, Tai Young Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):305-314.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.305
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The physical activity of Korean adolescents and its distribution based on social characteristics have not yet been fully assessed. This study intends to reveal the distribution of physical activity by its subgroups and offer possible explanatory variables. METHODS: The 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was analyzed for this study. The appropriateness of physical activity was defined by Korea's Health Plan 2010 and physical inactivity was assessed independently. Family affluence scale, parents' education levels, subjective economic status, grade, and school location were considered explanatory variables. All statistical analysis was conducted using SAS ver. 9.1. RESULTS: The proportion of participants engaging in vigorous physical activity was high in males (41.6%), at a low grade (38.5%), within the high family affluence scale group (35.5%). The distribution of participants engaging in moderate physical activity showed similar patterns, but the overall proportion was lower (9.8%). Low family affluence and students with lower subjective economic status reported a higher prevalence of physical inactivity. In multiple logistic regression analysis for physical activity, significant factors included family affluence scale (p<0.05). For physical inactivity, family affluence scale, parents education levels, and subjective economic status were included as significant factors (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the physical activity and inactivity of adolescents may be affected by socioeconomic variables, such as family affluence scale. This implies the need to take proper measures to address these socio-economic inequalities.
Summary

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Original Article
South Korean Study in a Public Health: Preventive Medicine and Sports Environment.
Dan Silviu Radut, You Jin Kim, Byung Nam Min, Ki Jeoung Cho, Jong Young Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):209-214.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.209
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to develop search filters able to retrieve the South Korean scientific output and relating the fields of public health, preventive medicine, and physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport in MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007. METHODS: The search filters were constructed and applied in MEDLINE accessed through PubMed according to the affiliation and subject. The language and place of publication were identified and the evaluation of the geographical filter performance was done. RESULTS: The search format was successfully elaborated and applied, and the articles originated, published in Korea and/or abroad focusing on the fields of public health, preventive medicine, physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport, added to MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved. Publications in six languages originated in South Korea were detected. CONCLUSIONS: A geographic search filter determined the South Korean research output, and combined with additional filters focused on specific areas. The dynamics of the scientific output followed an increased evolution in all categories. Articles were written mainly in English/Korean. Further research is recommended on developing search strategies in order to retrieve precise and reliable information.
Summary
English Abstract
A Prospective Cohort Study of Exercise and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Fasting Glucose Group.
Hong Dae Um, Duck Chul Lee, Sang Yi Lee, Yeon Soo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):45-50.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.1.45
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To determine the relationship between exercise and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in an impaired fasting glucose group. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in 19,440 men and 4,297 women, aged 30-69 years, with impaired fasting glucose at baseline who had undergone biennial medical evaluation through the National Health Insurance Corporation from 2000 to 2004. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose of 100 to 125 mg/dl and the subjects were divided into 3 groups depending on weekly exercise frequency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the baseline exercise status and incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up, a total of 3,239 men and 283 women developed type 2 diabetes, a cumulative incidence of 16.6% for men, and 6.5% for women. Also, 1,688 men (21.2%) and 127 women (15.2%) developed type 2 diabetes in the obese group. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of developing type 2 diabetes in non-exercising men was significantly higher than exercising men regularly (RR= 1.375, 95% CI=1.236-1.529)(p<0.0001), and the RR for non-exercising women was higher than exercising women regularly (RR=1.124, 95% CI=0.711-1.778). The RR for non-exercise men/women in the obese group was 1.571 (95% CI=1.351-1.827)(p<0.0001)/1.869(95% CI=0.846-4.130). CONCLSIONS: Regular exercise is effective in preventing type 2 diabetes in people with impaired fasting glucose, and particularly in obese people. People with risk factors for diabetes should participate in a regular exercise program.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health