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Association Between Parental BMI and Offspring’s Blood Pressure by Mediation Analysis: A Study Using Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyowon Choi, Hunju Lee, Yeon-Soon Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):533-541.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.289
  • 1,360 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study analyzed the relationship between parental body mass index (BMI; BMI_p) and hypertension in their adolescent offspring (HTN_a), focusing on the mediating effect of adolescents’ BMI (BMI_a).
Methods
Utilizing data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including participants aged 12-18, we conducted a mediation analysis while controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, physical activity, dietary habits, household income quartile, and parents’ alcohol and smoking habits.
Results
The study included a total of 5731 participants, of whom 3381 and 5455 participants had data on fathers’ and mothers’ BMI, respectively. For adolescent systolic blood pressure (SBP_a), the father’s BMI (BMI_f) had a significant total effect (β, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.34) and average controlled mediated effect (ACME) (β, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.32), but the average direct effect (ADE) was not significant. The mother’s BMI (BMI_m) had a significant total effect (β, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.25), ACME (β, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.28) and ADE (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.00). For adolescent diastolic blood pressure, both BMI_f and BMI_m had significant ACMEs (β, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.12 and β, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.12, respectively), BMI_m had a significant ADE (β, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02) but BMI_f had an insignificant ADE and total effect.
Conclusions
The study found that parental BMI had a significant effect on SBP_a, mediated through BMI_a. Therefore, a high BMI in parents could be a risk factor, mediated through BMI_a, for systolic hypertension in adolescents, necessitating appropriate management.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구를 통해 부모의 BMI가 청소년기의 BMI를 매개하여 청소년의 수축기 혈압에 영향을 미침을 확인할 수 있었습니다. 그러나 본 연구는 단면적인 데이터를 활용하였으며, 후향적 연구로 이에 대한 한계를 가지고 있으며, 이후 이에 대한 추가 연구가 필요합니다.
Key Message
This study was able to confirm that parents' BMI mediated their BMI during adolescence and affected systolic blood pressure in adolescents. However, this study utilized cross-sectional data, and has limitations on this as a retrospective study, so further studies are needed.
Discrete-time Survival Analysis of Risk Factors for Early Menarche in Korean Schoolgirls
Yong Jin Gil, Jong Hyun Park, Joohon Sung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):59-66.   Published online December 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.428
  • 1,730 View
  • 86 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body weight status and sleep duration on the discrete-time hazard of menarche in Korean schoolgirls using multiple-point prospective panel data.
Methods
The study included 914 girls in the 2010 Korean Children and Youth Panel Study who were in the elementary first-grader panel from 2010 until 2016. We used a Gompertz regression model to estimate the effects of weight status based on age-specific and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentile and sleep duration on an early schoolchild’s conditional probability of menarche during a given time interval using general health condition and annual household income as covariates.
Results
Gompertz regression of time to menarche data collected from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study 2010 suggested that being overweight or sleeping less than the recommended duration was related to an increased hazard of menarche compared to being average weight and sleeping 9 hours to 11 hours, by 1.63 times and 1.38 times, respectively, while other covariates were fixed. In contrast, being underweight was associated with a 66% lower discrete-time hazard of menarche.
Conclusions
Weight status based on BMI percentiles and sleep duration in the early school years affect the hazard of menarche.
Summary
Korean summary
초경연령의 조기화는 세계적인 현상이나 유독 우리나라에서는 그 단축속도가 매우 빠르나. 그 위험요인은 비만 이외에 확립되어 있지 못하다. 본 연구는 한국아동청소년패널의 2010-16년도까지 추적관찰된 914 명의 여아 자료를 Gompetz 회귀모형 (다중 분절형 생존분석모형)을 통해 분석하였며, 그 결과 과체중은 1년의 초경연령 단축을 유발할 위험도가 정상체중 여아에 비해 1.63배, 수면시간이 충분하지 못한 여아는 충분한 수면을 취하는 여아에 비해 1년의 초경연령 단축이 발생할 위험도가 1.38배 높은 것으로 나타났다.
The Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Obesity Status in Korean Women: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Seong-geun Moon, Boyoung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):475-484.   Published online September 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.286
  • 2,645 View
  • 110 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to determine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korean women with obesity.
Methods
Cancer-free women (n=6 142 486) aged 40-79 years, who underwent National Health Insurance Service health examinations in 2009 and 2010 were included. The incidence of CRC was followed until 2018. The hazard ratio (HR) of MetS for the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was analyzed according to body mass index (BMI) categories, adjusting for confounders such as women’s reproductive factors. In addition, the heterogeneity of associations across BMI categories was assessed.
Results
Women with MetS were at increased risk of colon and rectal cancer compared to women without MetS (HR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.23 and HR,1.15; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.20), respectively. The HR of MetS for colon cancer across BMI categories was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19), 1.14 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.20), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.21) in women with BMIs <23.0 kg/m2, 23.0-24.9 kg/m2, and ≥25.0 kg/m2, respectively. The HR of MetS for rectal cancer across corresponding BMI categories was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.26), 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.23), and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.20). The heterogeneity of associations across BMI categories was not significant in either colon or rectal cancer (p=0.587 for colon cancer and p=0.927 for rectal cancer).
Conclusions
Women with MetS were at increased risk of colon and rectal cancer. Clinical and public health strategies should be considered for primary CRC prevention with an emphasis on improving women’s metabolic health across all BMI groups.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 여성에서 대사증후군은 대장암 발생과 직장암 발생에 유의한 위험요인으로 보인다. 이는 체질량지수를 층화하고 여성력과 관련된 요인들을 보정하더라도 유의했다. 한국 여성의 대장암 및 직장암 예방을 위해 비만도에 관계 없이 대사증후군 요소를 관리하는 것이 필요하다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Increased risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality in middle-aged Korean women with prediabetes and diabetes: a population-based study
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Huiyeon Song, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023080.     CrossRef
Self-efficacy to Engage in Physical Activity and Overcome Barriers, Sedentary Behavior, and Their Relation to Body Mass Index Among Elderly Indonesians With Diabetes
Qonita Rachmah, Stefania Widya Setyaningtyas, Mahmud Aditya Rifqi, Diah Indriani, Triska Susila Nindya, Hario Megatsari, Trias Mahmudiono, Wantanee Kriengsinyos
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(4):242-249.   Published online July 2, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.003
  • 7,091 View
  • 270 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Elderly individuals with diabetes should maintain a normal body mass index (BMI) to help control their blood glucose levels. This study investigated barriers to physical activity (PA), self-efficacy to overcome those barriers, and PA self-efficacy among elderly individuals with diabetes in relation to BMI.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 56 participants. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview and direct measurements for anthropometric data. PA self-efficacy was measured using 8 questions describing different levels of PA, where participants rated the strength of their belief that they could engage in that activity. Self-efficacy to overcome barriers was measured using 10 questions capturing participants’ confidence in their ability to engage in PA despite different possible barriers. Mean scores for these parameters were analyzed using the chi-square test and the independent t-test.
Results
In total, 89.3% of participants had a low PA level and 58.9% had more than 3 hours of sedentary activity per day. Furthermore, 55.4% were obese and 14.3% were overweight. The mean scores for PA self-efficacy and self-efficacy to overcome barriers were 59.1± 26.4 and 52.5±13.8, respectively. PA level was related to BMI (p<0.001; r=0.116) and sedentary activity (p<0.05; r=0.274). PA self-efficacy and age were not related to BMI. Barriers to PA were associated with PA levels (p<0.05).
Conclusions
Physical inactivity was a major problem in elderly individuals with diabetes, and was correlated with higher BMI. Lower levels of PA might be mediated by sedentary activity.
Summary

Citations

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  • Implications on self-care behaviors among older Korean immigrants diagnosed with diabetes residing in the United States: a path analytical approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Ying Hong Jiang, Vivien Dee
    Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on Theory of Planned Behavior Approach on Complementary Feeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Qonita Rachmah, Junaida Astina, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka, Leli Khairani, Chiara Leoni
    International Journal of Pediatrics.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
  • The application of social cognitive theory (SCT) to the mHealth diabetes physical activity (PA) app to control blood sugar levels of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Takalar regency
    Zainuddin, Andi Zulkifli Abdullah, Nurhaedar Jafar, Suriah, Nursalam, Darmawansyah, Syahrul Syahrul, Wahiduddin, Fransiskus Xaverius Widiantoro, Rizal Irfandi
    Journal of Public Health Research.2023; 12(2): 227990362311727.     CrossRef
  • Classroom-Based Physical Activity as a Means to Improve Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement among Normal-Weight and Overweight Youth
    Francesca Latino, Francesco Tafuri, Emma Saraiello, Domenico Tafuri
    Nutrients.2023; 15(9): 2061.     CrossRef
  • Incorporating Physical Activity Assessments and Behavior Change Techniques Into Geriatrics
    Mariana Wingood, Jonathan F. Bean, Amy M. Linsky
    Archives of Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Translation.2023; 5(4): 100293.     CrossRef
  • Examining physical activity participation barriers among adults 50 years and older: a scoping review
    Mariana Wingood, Michelle G. Criss, Kent E. Irwin, Patricia M. Bamonti, Rebekah Harris, Emma L. Phillips, Jennifer L. Vincenzo, Kevin K. Chui
    Physical Therapy Reviews.2023; 28(3): 195.     CrossRef
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    Firman Sugiharto, Aan Nuraeni, Yanny Trisyani, Azalia Putri, Nuraulia Armansyah, Asroful Zamroni
    Vascular Health and Risk Management.2023; Volume 19: 719.     CrossRef
  • Yaşlı Bireylerin Fiziksel Aktivite Engellerinin İncelenmesi
    Gülseren YÜREKLİ, Behsat SAVAS, Fatma ÇELİK KAYAPINAR
    CBÜ Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi.2023; 18(2): 803.     CrossRef
  • The Effectiveness of Nutrition and Health Intervention in Workplace Setting: A Systematic Review
    Qonita Rachmah, Tri Martiana, Mulyono, Indriati Paskarini, Endang Dwiyanti, Noeroel Widajati, Meirina Ernawati, Yustinus D Ardyanto, Abdul R. Tualeka, Dani N. Haqi, Shintia Y. Arini, Putri A. Alayyannur
    Journal of Public Health Research.2022; 11(1): jphr.2021.2312.     CrossRef
  • Regular Exercise and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Older Adults
    Young-Mee Kim, Sung-il Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(1): 303.     CrossRef
  • Self-efficacy in physical activity and glycemic control among older adults with diabetes in Jagir Subdistrict, Surabaya, Indonesia
    Trias Mahmudiono, Stefania W. Setyaningtyas, Qonita Rachmah, Triska S. Nindya, Hario Megatsari, Diah Indriani, Mahmud A. Rifqi, Wantanee Kriengsinyos
    Heliyon.2021; 7(7): e07578.     CrossRef
  • The Influence of Physical Education on Self-Efficacy in Overweight Schoolgirls: A 12-Week Training Program
    Francesca Latino, Stefania Cataldi, Valerio Bonavolontà, Roberto Carvutto, Michele De Candia, Francesco Fischetti
    Frontiers in Psychology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zhanbing Ren, Linlin Hu, Jane Yu, Qian Yu, Sitong Chen, Yudan Ma, Jingyuan Lin, Lin Yang, Xiaoyun Li, Liye Zou
    Children.2020; 7(3): 23.     CrossRef
Non-linear Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Males
Chang Kyun Choi, Sun A Kim, Ji-An Jeong, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):147-153.   Published online March 29, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.259
  • 10,181 View
  • 187 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Korean males.
Methods
This study was conducted on males aged ≥50 years who participated in the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. LUTS severity was assessed using the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and was dichotomized as severe (IPSS >19) and non-severe (IPSS ≤19). BMI was divided into 6 categories: <18.5, 18.5-22.9, 23.0-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2. To evaluate the relationship between BMI and LUTS, a survey-weighted multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, educational level, household income, and comorbidities were adjusted for in the multivariate model.
Results
A U-shaped relationship was detected between BMI and severe LUTS. Compared with a BMI of 23.0-24.9 kg/m2, the PRR for a BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 2.02), that for a BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.44), that for a BMI of 25.0-27.4 kg/m2 was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.45), that for a BMI of 27.5-29.9 kg/m2 was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.47), and that for a BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2 was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.88).
Conclusions
This study showed that both high and low BMI were associated with severe LUTS.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 2011 지역사회건강조사를 기반으로 하였다. 한국인 남성에서 체질량지수와 하부요로증상 간에는 U자형 관련성이 있었으며, 저체중과 비만 모두 높은 하부요로증상 유병률을 보였다. 따라서 전립선 질환의 건강서비스 제공에 있어서 비만 뿐만 아니라 저체중 또한 위험인자로 함께 고려할 필요가 있다.

Citations

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  • Metabolic syndrome and male lower urinary tract symptoms
    Gallus B. INEICHEN, Fiona C. BURKHARD
    Panminerva Medica.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Can Obesity Cause Depression? A Pseudo-panel Analysis
Hyungserk Ha, Chirok Han, Beomsoo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):262-267.   Published online June 27, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.067
  • 12,092 View
  • 238 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The US ranks ninth in obesity in the world, and approximately 7% of US adults experience major depressive disorder. Social isolation due to the stigma attached to obesity might trigger depression. Methods: This paper examined the impact of obesity on depression. To overcome the endogeneity problem, we constructed pseudopanel data using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1997 to 2008. Results: The results were robust, and body mass index (BMI) was found to have a positive effect on depression days and the percentage of depressed individuals in the population. Conclusions: We attempted to overcome the endogeneity problem by using a pseudo-panel approach and found that increases in the BMI increased depression days (or being depressed) to a statistically significant extent, with a large effect size.
Summary

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    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(3): e0299029.     CrossRef
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    Sergio Macho, Ana Andrés, Carmina Saldaña
    Obesity.2023; 31(8): 2178.     CrossRef
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    Ayça ŞOLT, Derya KANZA GÜL
    Acibadem Universitesi Saglik Bilimleri Dergisi.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Willie M. Abel, Lauren N. Scanlan, Carolyn E. Horne, Patricia B. Crane
    Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.2022; 37(4): 359.     CrossRef
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    Eulla Keimili Fernandes Ferreira Cavalheiro, Larissa Espindola da Silva, Mariana Pacheco Oliveira, Marina Goulart Silva, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Catharina de Bem Ribeiro, Marina Lummertz Magenis, Luana Cucker, Monique Michels, Larissa Joaquim, Richard S
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    Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabany, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Sonia Hosseinpour-Arjmand, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani
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    Olivia Remes, João Francisco Mendes, Peter Templeton
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    Nevzat DEMİRCİ
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The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation
Jaeyong Shin, Young Choi, Kyu-Tae Han, Sung-Youn Cheon, Jae-Hyun Kim, Sang Gyu Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(2):94-104.   Published online March 14, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.055
  • 10,327 View
  • 141 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation.
Methods
Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion.
Results
Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59).
Conclusions
Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.
Summary

Citations

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    Youngha Choi, Jeana Hong
    Children.2023; 10(4): 620.     CrossRef
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    Yejin Kim, Bomgyeol Kim, Vasuki Rajaguru, Sang Gyu Lee, Tae Hyun Kim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2023; 17(6): 1143.     CrossRef
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    Christoph Stenzel, Nina Dalkner, Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Armin Birner, Susanne A. Bengesser, Frederike T. Fellendorf, Andreas Fink, Eva Fleischmann, Melanie Lenger, Alexander Maget, Martina Platzer, Robert Queissner, Elena Schönthaler, Adelina Tmava-
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    Ana Luísa Patrão, Maria da Conceição Almeida, Ana Henriques, Sheila M. Alvim Matos, Henrique Barros, Rosane Harter Griep, Estela M.L. Aquino
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Analysis of the Change of Health Status Among the Republic of Korea Air Force Soldiers During Military Service
Seok-Ju Yoo, Won-Ju Park, Kwan Lee, Hyun-Sul Lim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Suk-Ho Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(4):230-235.   Published online July 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.4.230
  • 8,498 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the health status of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) soldiers changed after one year of military service. Methods: We selected 483 ROKAF soldiers from the 11 749 recruits who participated in the 2011 physical examination. The selected soldiers underwent another physical examination in 2012 for advancement to senior airman. Data from 2011 and 2012 were merged. To collect data on lifestyle, a questionnaire was sent to all included subjects via the military intranet e-mail service. Results: The percentage of recruits with an abnormal alanine transaminase level (normal range <40 IU/L) decreased from recruitment (13.7%) to the following year (2.7%). Moreover, the percentage of obese soldiers (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) decreased from recruitment (20.5%) to the following year (10.4%). There was a significant change in mean duration of exercise carried out each day before (0.8±1.3 hours) and after (1.0±0.7 hours) joining the ROKAF service. Conclusions: These ROKAF soldiers were generally in good health before and after joining the armed service. After one year of military service, the health status of most soldiers improved, especially with respect to body mass index and alanine transaminase level.
Summary

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  • Behavioral impact of national health campaigns on healthy lifestyle practices among young adults in Singapore: a cross-sectional study
    Yong Zhi Khow, Talia Li Yin Lim, Jarret Shoon Phing Ng, Jiaxuan Wu, Chuen Seng Tan, Kee Seng Chia, Nan Luo, Wei Jie Seow
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Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Adults: Evidence From the 2001 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jihye Kim, Shreela V. Sharma, Sung Kyun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):94-103.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.94
  • 12,227 View
  • 101 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study examined relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity and body mass index (BMI) as well as the effects of health-related behavioral and psychological factors on the relationships.

Methods

A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years using data from the 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of obesity and mean differences in BMI, respectively, across SES levels after controlling for health-related behavioral and psychological factors.

Results

We observed significant gender-specific relationships of SES with obesity and BMI after adjusting for all covariates. In men, income, but not education, showed a slightly positive association with BMI (p<0.05 in 2001 and 2005). In women, education, but not income, was inversely associated with both obesity and BMI (p<0.0001 in all datasets). These relationships were attenuated with adjusting for health-related behavioral factors, not for psychological factors.

Conclusions

Results confirmed gender-specific disparities in the associations of SES with obesity and BMI among adult Korean population. Focusing on intervention for health-related behaviors may be effective to reduce social inequalities in obesity.

Summary

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    Yunmin Han, Hoyong Sung, Younghwan Choi, Yeon Soo Kim, Hee-Taik Kang
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    Jung-Hua Shao, Su-Hui Chen
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    Shazia Jehan, Ferdinand Zizi, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Samy I McFarlane, Girardin Jean-Louis, Alyson K Myers
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Social Network Characteristics and Body Mass Index in an Elderly Korean Population
Won Joon Lee, Yoosik Youm, Yumie Rhee, Yeong-Ran Park, Sang Hui Chu, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):336-345.   Published online November 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.336
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in an elderly Korean population.

Methods

This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140).

Conclusions

Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association.

Summary

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Interaction of Body Mass Index and Diabetes as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Mortality in a Cohort Study
Seung Hyun Ma, Bo-Young Park, Jae Jeong Yang, En-Joo Jung, Yohwan Yeo, Yungi Whang, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue Kyung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(6):394-401.   Published online November 29, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.6.394
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Diabetes and obesity each increases mortality, but recent papers have shown that lean Asian persons were at greater risk for mortality than were obese persons. The objective of this study is to determine whether an interaction exists between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, which can modify the risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods

Subjects who were over 20 years of age, and who had information regarding BMI, past history of diabetes, and fasting blood glucose levels (n=16 048), were selected from the Korea Multi-center Cancer Cohort study participants. By 2008, a total of 1290 participants had died; 251 and 155 had died of CVD and stroke, respectively. The hazard for deaths was calculated with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) by Cox proportional hazard model.

Results

Compared with the normal population, patients with diabetes were at higher risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.56; HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.76; respectively). Relative to subjects with no diabetes and normal BMI (21 to 22.9 kg/m2), lean subjects with diabetes (BMI <21 kg/m2) had a greater risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 5.09; HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.58 to 6.76; respectively), while obese subjects with diabetes (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) had no increased death risk (p-interaction <0.05). This pattern was consistent in sub-populations with no incidence of hypertension.

Conclusions

This study suggests that diabetes in lean people is more critical to CVD deaths than it is in obese people.

Summary

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Smoking Is Associated With Abdominal Obesity, Not Overall Obesity, in Men With Type 2 Diabetes
Ji Eun Yun, Heejin Kimm, Young Ju Choi, Sun Ha Jee, Kap Bum Huh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(5):316-322.   Published online September 28, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.316
  • 9,294 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Abdominal obesity increases mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease and there is a possibility that smoking effects obesity. However, previous studies concerning the effects of smoking on obesity are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine whether smoking is positively related to abdominal obesity in men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Subjects consisted of 2197 type 2 diabetic patients who visited Huh's Diabetes Center from 2003 to 2009. Indices of abdominal obesity were defined as visceral fat thickness (VFT) measured by ultrasonography and waist circumference (WC). Overall obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI).

Results

Statistically significant differences in WC and VFT by smoking status were identified. However, there was no statistical difference in BMI according to smoking status. Means of WC and VFT were not significantly higher in heavy smokers and lower in mild smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, the BMI confounder adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for VFT in ex-smokers and current-smokers were 1.70 (1.21 to 2.39) and 1.86 (1.27 to 2.73), respectively.

Conclusions

Smoking status was positively associated with abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients.

Summary

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Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Early Menarche of Adolescent Girls in Seoul
Chang-Mo Oh, In-Hwan Oh, Kyung-Sik Choi, Bong-Keun Choe, Tai-Young Yoon, Joong-Myung Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(4):227-234.   Published online July 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.4.227
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The object of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and early menarche in adolescent girls in Seoul.

Methods

A retrospective study was conducted with 144 middle school students in Seoul who provided informed consent. We measured their body composition, and used the questionnaire survey method for data collection from November to December 2008. Past elemental body composition data were collected from elementary school health records of first year of middle school.

Results

The early menarcheal group was taller and heavier than the late menarcheal group (p<0.05 from 8-12 years old). The body fat percentage (%), BMI were higher in the early menarcheal girls than the late-menarcheal girls (p<0.05, age at 13). In the result of multiple logistic regression, the BMI at the age of 8 and 9 was associated with early menarche after adjusting for birth weight, breast feeding and age at menarche of the mother (BMI at the age of 8: p for trend=0.01, BMI at the age of 9: p for trend=0.04). An increase in BMI from 7 to 8 year was associated with early menarche after adjusting for birth weight, breast feeding, age at menarche of the mother (p for trend=0.048).

Conclusions

The BMI at the age of 8 and 9 was associated with the early menarche of girls and increase in BMI from 7 to 8 year was associated with the early menarche of girls. These results suggest that BMI and increase in BMI before menarche cause early menarche. Although this study does not represent all Korean adolescent girls, it is one of the few studies that have investigated the temporal relationship between BMI and early menarche.

Summary

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Differences in Obesity Rates Between People With and Without Disabilities and the Association of Disability and Obesity: A Nationwide Population Study in South Korea
Moo-Kyung Oh, Hyeongap Jang, Yong-Ik Kim, Belong Jo, Yoon Kim, Jong-Heon Park, Jin-Seok Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(4):211-218.   Published online July 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.4.211
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective of this study was to identify the differences in obesity rates among people with and without disabilities, and evaluate the relationship between obesity rates and the existence of disabilities or characteristics of disabilities.

Methods

Mass screening data from 2008 from the National Disability Registry and National Health Insurance (NHI) are used. For analysis, we classified physical disability into three subtypes: upper limb disability, lower limb disability, and spinal cord injury. For a control group, we extracted people without disabilities by each subtype. To adjust for the participation rate in the NHI mass screening, we calculated and adopted the weight stratified by sex, age, and grade of disability. Differences in obesity rates between people with and without disabilities were examined by a chi-squared test. In addition, the effect of the existence of disabilities and grade of disabilities on obesity was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

People with disabilities were found to have a higher obesity rate than those without disabilities. The obesity rates were 35.2% and 35.0% (people with disabilities vs. without disabilities) in the upper limb disability, 44.5% and 34.8% in the lower limb disability, 43.4% and 34.6% in the spinal cord injury. The odds for existence of physical disability and grade of disability are higher than the non-disabilities.

Conclusions

These results show that people with physical disability have a higher vulnerability to obesity.

Summary

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Validation Studies
Validity of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey Questionnaire.
Jisuk Bae, Hyojee Joung, Jong Yeon Kim, Kyoung Nam Kwon, Yoonjung Kim, Soon Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(5):396-402.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.5.396
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Self-reported anthropometric values, such as height and weight, are used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and assess the prevalence of obesity among adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported height, weight, and BMI of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey questionnaire. METHODS: A convenience sample of 137 middle school students and 242 high school students completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2008. Body height and weight were directly measured after self-reported values were obtained from the questionnaire survey. Sensitivity, specificity, and kappa statistics were computed in order to evaluate the validity of the prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile or > or = 25 kg/m2) based on self-reported data. RESULTS: Self-reported weight and BMI tended to be underestimated. Self-reported height tended to be overestimated among middle school females and high school males. Obese adolescents tended to underestimate their weight and BMI and overestimate their height more than non-obese adolescents. The prevalence estimate of obesity based on self-reported data (10.6%) was lower than that based on directly measured data (15.3%). The estimated sensitivity of obesity based on self-reported data was 69.0% and the specificity was 100.0%. The value of kappa was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that self-reported height and weight may lead to the underestimation of BMI and consequently the prevalence of obesity. These biases should be taken into account when self-reported data are used for monitoring the prevalence and trends of obesity among adolescents nationwide.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health