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Original Articles
Effects of Marital Status and Income on Hypertension: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)
Mia Son, Yeon Jeong Heo, Hye-Jin Hyun, Ho Jong Kwak
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):506-519.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.264
  • 5,188 View
  • 194 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to analyze the associations of income, marital status, and health behaviors with hypertension in male and female over 40 years of age in the Korea.
Methods
The data were derived from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES; 4851-302) which included 211 576 participants. To analyze the relationships of income, marital status, and health behaviors with hypertension in male and female over 40 years of age, multiple logistic regression was conducted with adjustments for these variables.
Results
The prevalence of hypertension increased linearly as income decreased. The odds ratio for developing hypertension in people with an income of <0.5 million Korean won (KRW) compared to ≥6.0 million KRW was 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.93) in the total population, 1.58 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.98) in male, and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.35 to 3.28) in female. The combined effect of income level and marital status on hypertension was significant. According to income level and marital status, in male, low income and divorce were most associated with hypertension (1.76 times; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.08). However, in female, the low-income, married group was most associated with hypertension (1.83 times; 95% CI, 1.71 to 1.97).
Conclusions
The results of this study show that it is necessary to approach male and female marital status separately according to income in health policies to address inequalities in the prevalence of hypertension.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국의 40세 이상 성인 남녀를 대상으로 소득수준, 결혼, 건강행태요인이 고혈압에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 이 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업조사(KoGES; 4851-302, 2001-2011)에서 구축한 211576명을 대상으로 다중 로지스틱회귀모델을 이용하여 분석했다. 소득이 고혈압에 미치는 영향은 역의 선형으로 소득이 적을수록 고혈압이 증가하는 경향이 뚜렷하게 나타났다. 소득수준과 혼인상태, 고혈압과의 연관성은 여성보다 남성이 더 강하게 나타났다. 소득수준과 혼인상태가 상호작용하여 고혈압에 미치는 영향에서, 저소득층에서 별거 상태가 고혈압에 미치는 전반적인 영향이 가장 강하게 나타났으며, 남성의 경우 이혼 상태, 여성의 경우 결혼을 유지하고 있는 상태가 고혈압과 가장 강하게 연관되어, 남녀사이에 차이가 존재함을 보여주었다. 이 연구는 소득, 결혼이 고혈압에 중요하게 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타나, 고혈압예방대책에 저소득과 별거 이혼등의 결혼상태를 고려하는것이 필요하다는 것을 제안한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Shapely additive values can effectively visualize pertinent covariates in machine learning when predicting hypertension
    Alexander A. Huang, Samuel Y. Huang
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2023; 25(12): 1135.     CrossRef
Decomposition of Socioeconomic Inequality in Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in the Adult Population: A Cohort-based Cross-sectional Study in Northwest Iran
Farhad Pourfarzi, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Hamed Zandian
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):297-306.   Published online May 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.051
  • 2,776 View
  • 87 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to decompose the socioeconomic inequality of CVD in Iran.
Methods
This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 20 519 adults who enrolled in the Ardabil Non-Communicable Disease cohort study. Principal component analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used, respectively, to estimate socioeconomic status and to describe the relationships between CVD prevalence and the explanatory variables. The relative concentration index, concentration curve, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition model were used to measure and decompose the socioeconomic inequality.
Results
The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CVD was 8.4% in northwest Iran. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older adults, overweight or obese adults, and people with hypertension and diabetes were more likely to have CVD. Moreover, people with low economic status were 38% more likely to have CVD than people with high economic status. The prevalence of CVD was mainly concentrated among the poor (concentration index, -0.077: 95% confidence interval, -0.103 to -0.060), and 78.66% of the gap between the poorest and richest groups was attributed to differences in the distribution of the explanatory variables included in the model.
Conclusions
The most important factors affecting inequality in CVD were old age, chronic illness (hypertension and diabetes), marital status, and socioeconomic status. This study documented stark inequality in the prevalence of CVD, wherein the poor were more affected than the rich. Therefore, it is necessary to implement policies to monitor, screen, and control CVD in poor people living in northwest Iran.
Summary
Review
DALY Estimation Approaches: Understanding and Using the Incidence-based Approach and the Prevalence-based Approach
Young-Eun Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(1):10-18.   Published online January 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.597
  • 4,868 View
  • 255 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) estimates may vary according to factors such as the standard life expectancy, age weighting, time preference and discount rate, calculation of disability weights, and selection of the estimation method. DALY estimation methods are divided into the following 3 approaches: the incidence-based approach, the pure prevalence-based approach, and the hybrid approach. These 3 DALY estimation approaches each reflect different perspectives on the burden of disease using unique characteristics, based on which the selection of a suitable approach may vary by the purpose of the study. The Global Burden of Disease studies, which previously estimated DALYs using the incidence-based approach, switched to using the hybrid approach in 2010, while the National Burden of Disease studies in Korea still mainly apply the incidence-based approach. In order to increase comparability with other international burden of disease studies, more DALY studies using the prevalence-based approach need to be conducted in Korea. However, with the limitations of the hybrid approach in mind, it is necessary to conduct more research using a disease classification system suitable for Korea. Furthermore, more detailed and valid data sources should be established before conducting studies using a broader variety of DALY estimation approaches. This review study will help researchers on burden of disease use an appropriate DALY estimation approach and will contribute to enhancing researchers’ ability to critically interpret burden of disease studies.
Summary
Korean summary
장애보정생존연수 산출 방법은 발생률 접근법, 순수 유병률 접근법 및 하이브리드 접근법으로 나뉜다. 이러한 3가지 장애보정생존연수 산출 접근법은 각각 고유한 특성을 가지고 질병부담에 대한 다양한 관점을 반영하기 때문에, 연구 목적에 따라 산출 접근법의 선택이 달라질 수 있다. 이번 연구의 결과는 연구자들이 장애보정생존연수 산출 방법의 타당성을 향상시키기 위하여 질병부담 연구에 사용할 산출 접근법을 결정하는 데 도움이 될 것이다.

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    Yoon-Sun Jung, Young-Eun Kim, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Aji Kusumaning Asri, Chia-Hao Yeh, Hao-Ting Chang, Hsiao-Yun Lee, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, John D. Spengler, Chih-Da Wu
    Health & Place.2023; 83: 103097.     CrossRef
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    Periklis Charalampous, Juanita A. Haagsma, Lea S. Jakobsen, Vanessa Gorasso, Isabel Noguer, Alicia Padron-Monedero, Rodrigo Sarmiento, João Vasco Santos, Scott A. McDonald, Dietrich Plass, Grant M. A. Wyper, Ricardo Assunção, Elena von der Lippe, Balázs Á
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    Peihong Wu, Qingtao Jiang, Lei Han, Xin Liu
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Environment International.2023; 178: 107966.     CrossRef
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    Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.2023; 8(7): 351.     CrossRef
  • Updating Korean Disability Weights for Causes of Disease: Adopting an Add-on Study Method
    Dasom Im, Noor Afif Mahmudah, Seok-Jun Yoon, Young-Eun Kim, Don-Hyung Lee, Yeon-hee Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(4): 291.     CrossRef
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    Yauhen Statsenko, Nik V. Kuznetsov, Daria Morozova, Katsiaryna Liaonchyk, Gillian Lylian Simiyu, Darya Smetanina, Aidar Kashapov, Sarah Meribout, Klaus Neidl-Van Gorkom, Rifat Hamoudi, Fatima Ismail, Suraiya Anjum Ansari, Bright Starling Emerald, Milos Lj
    Cells.2023; 12(20): 2451.     CrossRef
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    Eun Young Choi, Juyoung Kim, Won Lee, Seung Gyeong Jang, Jeehee Pyo, Minsu Ock
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vertigo and its burden of disease—Results from a population‐based cohort study
    Berit Hackenberg, Karoline O'Brien, Julia Döge, Karl J. Lackner, Manfred E. Beutel, Thomas Münzel, Philipp S. Wild, Norbert Pfeiffer, Julian Chalabi, Christoph Matthias, Katharina Bahr‐Hamm
    Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology.2023; 8(6): 1624.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and DALYs of skin diseases in Ubonratchathani based on real-world national healthcare service data
    Nutchada Prasitpuriprecha, Sumonman Santaweesuk, Prasit Boonkert, Parinya Chamnan
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jacklyn N. Hellwege, Todd L. Edwards
    Trends in Molecular Medicine.2022; 28(12): 1028.     CrossRef
Systematic Review
Prevalence of Sarcopenia Among the Elderly in Korea: A Meta-Analysis
Yoo Jin Choo, Min Cheol Chang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):96-102.   Published online March 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.046
  • 6,325 View
  • 324 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Sarcopenia is a common disease in the elderly population that causes disability, poor quality of life, and a high risk of death. In the current study, we conducted a meta-analysis to report basic knowledge about the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly in Korea.
Methods
We searched for articles in the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus databases published until December 28, 2020. Studies investigating the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Koreans aged ≥65 years were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Publication bias was evaluated using the Egger test and funnel plots.
Results
In total, 3 studies and 2922 patients were included in the meta-analysis. All 3 studies used the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. The total prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1-14.9% in elderly men and 11.4% in elderly women.
Conclusions
This meta-analysis is the first to estimate the pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly Koreans, and its findings suggest that sarcopenia is common in this population. Therefore, attention should be paid to the prevention and control of sarcopenia.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 노인인구에서 삶의 질 저하 및 높은 사망률을 야기시키는 흔한 질환인 근감소증의 유병률을 조사하고자 메타분석을 시행하였다. 분석에는 65세 이상 한국 노년층의 근감소증 유병률을 조사한 3건의 연구들과 총 2,922명의 대상자가 포함되었으며, 3개의 연구 모두 European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria를 통해 근감소증을 진단하였다. 분석 결과, 근감소증의 총 유병률은 남성에서 13.1-14.9%였고, 여성에서는 11.4%였다. 이 결과는 우리나라의 노인 인구에서 근감소증이 흔하게 발생하므로 근감소증의 예방과 통제에 주의를 기울여야 함을 시사한다.

Citations

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    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2024; 117: 105251.     CrossRef
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    Phatcharaphon Whaikid, Noppawan Piaseu
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Perspective
What Else Is Needed in the Korean Government’s Master Plan for People With Developmental Disabilities?
Jin Yong Lee, Jieun Yun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):200-204.   Published online May 7, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.249
  • 4,676 View
  • 113 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
On September 12, 2018, President Jae-In Moon announced the Comprehensive Plan for Lifelong Care for People with Developmental Disabilities, with representatives from the associated government branches (Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Employment and Labor) in attendance. The goals of this plan are to provide health, medical, rehabilitative, special education, and social welfare services according to the life-stages of the affected individuals; to reduce parental pressure; to promote social interventions; and to enhance community-level participation in order to create a ‘welfare society in harmony.’ However, in order for the plan to succeed, additional efforts must be made in the following areas. First, an epidemiological survey is needed to understand the scale, prevalence, and incidence of developmental disabilities and to establish an evidence base to support policy development. Second, accurate definitions of developmental disabilities must be established in order to avoid policy discrimination based on impairment type and age. Third, personal evaluations to assess disabled individuals’ unmet needs and customized service designs to deliver those needs are required. Fourth, the plan must fulfill the goals of accessibility and fairness that the government intends to provide. Fifth, the government should consider an integrated financial support system and to propose a detailed plan for monetary distributions. Finally, an integrated system that links health, medical, employment, educational, and welfare services must be constructed.
Summary
Korean summary
2018년 9월 대통령이 직접 발표한 “발달장애인 평생케어 종합대책”의 성공적인 수행을 위해 필수적인 정책을 제안하였다. 특히, 발달장애인의 정확한 규모, 유병률, 발생률 등 기초적인 현황 파악과 정책 개발을 뒷받침하기 위한 역학연구, 발달장애인 개인평가에 기반한 미충족 필요의 측정과 이를 바탕으로 한 개인별 맟춤형 서비스 디자인, 서비스의 접근성과 형평성 달성, 그리고 보건-의료-고용-교육-복지서비스를 통합적으로 제공할 수 있는 시스템 구축이 필요함을 지적하였다.

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    Young Suk Yoon, Boyoung Jung, Dongsu Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(13): 2391.     CrossRef
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    Doori Kim, Seong-Gyu Ko, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Boyoung Jung
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Original Articles
Validity of Self-reported Hypertension and Factors Related to Discordance Between Self-reported and Objectively Measured Hypertension: Evidence From a Cohort Study in Iran
Farid Najafi, Yahya Pasdar, Ebrahim Shakiba, Behrooz Hamzeh, Mitra Darbandi, Mehdi Moradinazar, Jafar Navabi, Bita Anvari, Mohammad Reza Saidi, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(2):131-139.   Published online March 29, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.257
  • 6,582 View
  • 136 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Self-reporting can be used to determine the incidence and prevalence of hypertension (HTN). The present study was conducted to determine the validity of self-reported HTN and to identify factors affecting discordance between self-reported and objectively measured HTN in participants in the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort.
Methods
The RaNCD cohort included permanent residents of Ravansar, Iran aged 35-65 years. Self-reported data were collected before clinical examinations were conducted by well-trained staff members. The gold standard for HTN was anti-hypertensive medication use and blood pressure measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of self-reporting were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the discordance between self-reported HTN and the gold standard.
Results
Of the 10 065 participants in the RaNCD, 4755 (47.4%) were male. The prevalence of HTN was 16.8% based on self-reporting and 15.7% based on medical history and HTN measurements. Of the participants with HTN, 297 (18.8%) had no knowledge of their disease, and 313 (19.9%) had not properly controlled their HTN despite receiving treatment. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa for self-reported HTN were 75.5%, 96.4%, and 73.4%, respectively. False positives became more likely with age, body mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status, and female sex, whereas false negatives became more likely with age, BMI, high socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban residency.
Conclusions
The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported HTN were acceptable, suggesting that this method can be used for public health initiatives in the absence of countrywide HTN control and detection programs.
Summary

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    Alex Kato, Winnie Kibone, Jerom Okot, Joseph Baruch Baluku, Felix Bongomin
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    Madison Musich, Amy N. Costa, Victoria Salathe, Mary Beth Miller, Ashley F. Curtis
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    Weixi Kang, Sònia Pineda Hernández
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    Mrigesh Bhatia, Priyanka Dixit, Manish Kumar, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi
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    Mahin Amini, Mahdi Moradinazar, Fatemeh Rajati, Moslem Soofi, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Hossein Poustchi, Sareh Eghtesad, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Javad Harooni, Javad Aghazadeh-Attari, Majid Fallahi, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Farhad Moradpour,
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    Naaheed Mukadam, Louise Marston, Gemma Lewis, Gill Livingston, Gyaneshwer Chaubey
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    Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Walaa Mamdouh Reyad El-Meidany, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Mfundi President Sebenele Motsa, Joyce Nyirongo, Gowokani Chijere Chirwa, Arnold Kapachika, Owen Nkoka
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Trends in the Prevalence of Childhood Asthma in Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea: The Seoul Atopy ∙ Asthma-friendly School Project
Yong Min Cho, Chea-Bong Kim, Kyung Nam Yeon, Eun Sun Lee, KyooSang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):275-280.   Published online October 8, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.090
  • 7,233 View
  • 156 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The project Seoul Atopy ∙ Asthma-friendly School investigated the current status of childhood asthma to enable formulation of a preventative policy. We evaluated the current prevalence of childhood asthma in Seoul and its trends and related factors.
Methods
The project was conducted annually from 2011 to 2016 and involved around 35 000 children aged 1-13 years. Based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood guidelines, the survey involved parents. The associations of the particulate matter (PM10) concentration, and the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded in the 25 districts of Seoul, with the prevalence of asthma were assessed.
Results
The age-standardized asthma prevalence in 2011 and 2016 was 6.74 and 4.02%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime asthma treatment and treatment during the last 12 months tended to decrease from 2011 to 2016. Asthma treatment was significantly correlated with the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded, but not with the PM10 concentration.
Conclusions
This study reports the prevalence of asthma among children in Seoul and confirmed the relationship between childhood asthma and known risk factors in a large-scale survey.
Summary
Korean summary
서울시 아토피 천식 안심학교 사업을 통하여 2011년부터 2016년까지 약 25만명의 아동들을 대상으로 천식 유병률을 파악하고 관련 요인을 분석하였다. 천식의 연령표준화 유병률은 2011년 6.745에서 2016년 4.02%로 감소 추세를 보였다. 미세먼지(PM10)의 농도가 기준을 초과한 일수는 천식으로 인한 병원 치료 건 수와 상관성을 보였다.

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  • Association of exposure to indoor molds and dampness with allergic diseases at water-damaged dwellings in Korea
    Seokwon Lee, Seung-Hun Ryu, Woo Jun Sul, Seunghyun Kim, Dohyeong Kim, SungChul Seo
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    Allergy.2023; 78(8): 2232.     CrossRef
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    Children.2023; 10(12): 1918.     CrossRef
  • Forecasting the Effects of Real-Time Indoor PM2.5 on Peak Expiratory Flow Rates (PEFR) of Asthmatic Children in Korea: A Deep Learning Approach
    Jiyoung Woo, Ji-Hyun Lee, Yeonjin Kim, Guillaume Rudasingwa, Dae Hyun Lim, Sungroul Kim
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Avoidable Burden of Risk Factors for Serious Road Traffic Crashes in Iran: A Modeling Study
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Kamyar Mansori, Manoochehr Karami, Farid Zayeri, Reza Khosravi Shadman, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Hamid Soori
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(2):83-90.   Published online February 6, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.085
  • 7,100 View
  • 239 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to model the avoidable burden of the risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran and to prioritize interventions to reduce that burden.
Methods
The prevalence and the effect size of the risk factors were obtained from data documented by the traffic police of Iran in 2013. The effect size was estimated using an ordinal regression model. The potential impact fraction index was applied to calculate the avoidable burden in order to prioritize interventions. This index was calculated for theoretical, plausible, and feasible minimum risk level scenarios. The joint effects of the risk factors were then estimated for all the scenarios.
Results
The highest avoidable burdens in the theoretical, plausible, and feasible minimum risk level scenarios for the non-use of child restraints on urban roads were 52.25, 28.63, and 46.67, respectively. In contrast, the value of this index for speeding was 76.24, 37.00, and 62.23, respectively, for rural roads.
Conclusions
On the basis of the different scenarios considered in this research, we suggest focusing on future interventions to decrease the prevalence of speeding, the non-use of child restraints, the use of cell phones while driving, and helmet disuse, and the laws related to these items should be considered seriously.
Summary

Citations

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  • Safe Traffic Behaviors in Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior
    Alireza Shahab Jahanlou, Laleh Hassani, Vahid Ranaei, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Sonja Forward, Kristin Haglund, Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai
    Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Report
Throat Carriage Rate and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes In Rural Children in Argentina
Gastón Delpech, Mónica Sparo, Beatriz Baldaccini, Gisela Pourcel, Sabina Lissarrague, Leonardo García Allende
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(2):127-132.   Published online January 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.073
  • 7,057 View
  • 190 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status.
Methods
Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed for penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (disk diffusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and erythromycin.
Results
The carriage of β-hemolytic streptococci was detected in 18.1% of participants, with Streptococcus pyogenes in 18 participants followed by S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis in 5. The highest proportion of GAS was found in 8 to 10-year-old children. No significant association between the number of episodes of acute pharyngitis suffered in the last year and the carrier state was detected (p>0.05). Tetracycline resistance (55.5%) and macrolide-resistant phenotypes (11.1%) were observed. Resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol was not expressed in any streptococcal isolate.
Conclusions
The present study demonstrated significant throat carriage of GAS and the presence of group C streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Argentinian rural population. These results point out the need for continuous surveillance of GAS and non-GAS carriage as well as of antimicrobial resistance in highly susceptible populations, such as school-aged rural children. An extended surveillance program including school-aged children from different cities should be considered to estimate the prevalence of GAS carriage in Argentina.
Summary

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Original Articles
Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India
Preeti PS, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Dhiraj Biswas, Aparajita Dasgupta
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):323-328.   Published online September 8, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.020
  • 8,129 View
  • 170 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative) is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal.
Methods
Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal.
Results
The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal.
Conclusions
This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.
Summary

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  • No Child’s Play: Under-five Child Feces Management in a Rural Area of Bengaluru Urban District, India
    Anissa Mary Thomas Thattil, Twinkle Agrawal, Abdul Kader Surti, Stallon Sebastian, Kiyana Mirza, George Jacob, Farah Naaz Fathima
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2024; 49(1): 138.     CrossRef
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    S. Nancy, S Gayathri, K. Mujibur Rahman, P. K. Govindarajan
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    Getu Debalkie Demissie, Muluken Fekadie Zerihun, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies, Yigizie Yeshaw, Tadeg Jemere, Bisrat Misganaw, Amare Tariku, Asmamaw Atnafu, Biniyam Sahiledengle
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    Lina Agestika, Neni Sintawardani, Umi Hamidah, Sikopo Nyambe, Taro Yamauchi
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    Moges Addis, Walelegn Worku, Laekemariam Bogale, Alebachew Shimelash, Eniyew Tegegne
    Environmental Health Insights.2022; 16: 117863022211147.     CrossRef
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    Gloria D. Sclar, Valerie Bauza, Alokananda Bisoyi, Thomas F. Clasen, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Alison Parker
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    Lauren Sprouse, Anna Liles, Ryan Cronk, Valerie Bauza, James B. Tidwell, Musa Manga
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    Abdul-Aziz Seidu
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    Biniyam Sahiledengle, Zinash Teferu, Yohannes Tekalegn, Tadesse Awoke, Demisu Zenbaba, Kebebe Bekele, Abdi Tesemma, Fikadu Seyoum, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Harvie P. Portugaliza
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    Pisey Vong, Pannee Banchonhattakit, Samphors Sim, Chamroen Pall, Rebecca S. Dewey, Alessandra N. Bazzano
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    Rachel Beardsley, Ryan Cronk, Wren Tracy, Lisa Fleming, Maybin Ng'ambi, James B. Tidwell, Musa Manga
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    Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Kwaku Kissah-Korsah, Ebenezer Agbaglo, Louis Kobina Dadzie, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Eugene Budu, John Elvis Hagan, Srinivas Goli
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    Biniyam Sahiledengle
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A 9-year Trend in the Prevalence of Allergic Disease Based on National Health Insurance Data
Byoungin Yoo, Yoonhyung Park, Kwanjun Park, Hoseob Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):301-309.   Published online November 13, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.011
  • 8,846 View
  • 158 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
To investigate trends in the prevalence of allergic disease over a 9-year period.
Methods
Using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, the annual number of patients with allergic disease was obtained for each regional subdivisions (small cities, counties, and districts) from 2003 to 2011. Annual populations for each sub-region were obtained and used to calculate the standardized prevalence. To compare prevalence within the study period, data was standardized spatially and temporally. For standardization, demographic data was used to obtain the registered population and demographic structure for 2010, which was used to perform direct standardization of previous years. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize prevalence for individual sub-regions, and allergic diseases were categorized into five groups according to prevalence.
Results
The nationwide outpatient prevalence of allergic rhinitis increased approximately 2.3-fold, from 1.27% in 2003 to 2.97% in 2013, while inpatient prevalence also increased approximately 2.4-fold,. The outpatient prevalence of asthma increased 1.2-fold, and inpatient prevalence increased 1.3-fold. The outpatient prevalence of atopic dermatitis decreased approximately 12%, and inpatient prevalence decreased 5%.
Conclusions
There was a large difference between prevalence estimated from actual treatment data and prevalence based on patients’ self-reported data, particularly for allergic rhinitis. Prevalence must continually be calculated and trends should be analyzed for the efficient management of allergic diseases. To this end, prevalence studies using NHIS claims data may be useful.
Summary

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  • Cluster Analysis of Inhalant Allergens in South Korea: A Computational Model of Allergic Sensitization
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  • Allergic Rhinitis Is Associated With Loss of Energy and Concentration Difficulty: A Cross-sectional Study
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Prevalence of Depressive Disorder of Outpatients Visiting Two Primary Care Settings
Sun-Jin Jo, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hoo Rim Song, Sang Yhun Ju, Jong Lyul Kim, Tae-Youn Jun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(5):257-263.   Published online September 21, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Although the prevalence of depressive disorders in South Korea’s general population is known, no reports on the prevalence of depression among patients who visit primary care facilities have been published. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the prevalence of depressive disorder in patients that visit two primary care facilities.
Methods
Among 231 consecutive eligible patients who visited two primary care settings, 184 patients consented to a diagnostic interview for depression by psychiatrists following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, or level of education between the groups that consented and declined the diagnostic examination. The prevalence of depressive disorder and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients among depressive disorder patients were calculated.
Results
The prevalence of depressive disorder of patients in the two primary care facilities was 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1 to 19.2), with major depressive disorder 5.4% (95% CI, 2.1 to 8.7), dysthymia 1.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 2.6), and depressive disorder, not otherwise specified 7.6% (95% CI, 3.7 to 11.5). Among the 26 patients with depressive disorder, 19 patients were newly diagnosed.
Conclusions
As compared to the general population, a higher prevalence of depressive disorders was observed among patients at two primary care facilities. Further study is needed with larger samples to inform the development of a primary care setting-based depression screening, management, and referral system to increase the efficiency of limited health care resources.
Summary

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    Lana Alhalaseh, Karim Alsawalha, Mohammed Qussay Al-Sabbagh, Farah Al-Khaleefa
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A Survey on the Status of Hepatitis E Virus Infection Among Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea
Byung-Seok Kim, Hyun-Sul Lim, Kwan Lee, Young-Sun Min, Young-Sil Yoon, Hye-Sook Jeong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(1):53-61.   Published online January 15, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.048
  • 8,352 View
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among high-risk groups overseas is high, but studies in these groups are rare in South Korea. We conducted the present study from April to November 2012 to obtain data on the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for HEV among slaughterhouse workers in South Korea.
Methods
Slaughterhouse workers from 80 workplaces nationwide were surveyed in South Korea in 2012. The subjects comprised 1848 cases: 1434 slaughter workers and 414 residual products handlers. By visiting 80 slaughterhouses, which were mixed with 75 of which also performed residual products handling, we conducted a questionnaire survey for risk factors and obtained blood samples in order to determine the seropositivity and seroprevalence of HEV. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM were measured using HEV IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunospecific assay kits and HEV antigen was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results
The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was 33.5% (slaughter workers 32.8% and residual products handlers 36.2%), and among the seropositive individuals the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM was 0.5% (slaughter workers 0.5%, residual products handlers 0.7%). The response rate of HEV-antigen as measured by RT-PCR was 0.2%. Risk factors significantly related to anti-HEV IgG seropositivity were age, sex , and working duration (slaughter workers only).
Conclusions
There were significant risk factors (sex, age, and working duration) for HEV identified in our study. All three positive cases for HEV-antigen by RT-PCR were related to pig slaughter but without statistical significance. To prevent HEV, an educational program and working guidelines may be needed for high risk groups.
Summary

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Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea
Ju-Young Byun, Seok-Jun Yoon, In-Hwan Oh, Young Ae Kim, Hye-Young Seo, Yo-Han Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):84-93.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.84
  • 14,233 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service.

Methods

Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs.

Results

The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively.

Conclusions

Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention.

Summary

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    In Cheol Hwang, Jooyoung Chang, Sang Min Park, Suminori Akiba
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    Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases.2016; 69(1): 18.     CrossRef
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A Trend Analysis of the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension by Age Group
Jong Youn Moon, Kwan Jun Park, Young Hwangbo, Mee Ri Lee, Byoung In Yoo, Jong Hye Won, Yoon Hyung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):353-359.   Published online November 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.353
  • 11,120 View
  • 112 Download
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

We examined the trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Korea as a basis for improving hypertension control programs.

Methods

12 598 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Weighted linear regression to test time trends from 2007 to 2011 was performed.

Results

The prevalence of hypertension was 20.7% in 2007, 29.4% in 2009, and 26.2% in 2011. Awareness of hypertension was 64.8% in 2007 and 61.1% in 2011. Awareness in those aged 65 and over was greater than in younger groups (age 19 to 44 and 45 to 64; p<0.001). The treatment rates were 58.4% in 2007 and 56.8% in 2011. The treatment rate was greater for those 65 and over than for younger age groups (p<0.001). The percentage of controlled hypertension was 37.6% in 2011. The percentage of controlled hypertension in those 65 and over was higher than in younger age groups (p<0.001). The treatment-control rates were 65.9% in 2007 and 67.7% in 2011. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in the males (p<0.001), while the awareness (p<0.001), treatment (p<0.001), and control (p<0.001) rates were higher in the females.

Conclusions

The prevalence of hypertension was increasing and the hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates were low in younger age groups and males.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health