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Original Articles
The Relationship Between Obesity, Overweight, and the Human Development Index in World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region Countries
Amin Ataey, Elnaz Jafarvand, Davoud Adham, Eslam Moradi-Asl
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(2):98-105.   Published online March 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.100
  • 11,513 View
  • 266 Download
  • 65 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity is regarded as one of the most prominent health threats worldwide and a serious risk factor for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. Given the role that societal development—as reflected by the Human Development Index (HDI)—may play in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, this study aimed to investigate the degree to which the prevalence of obesity and overweight is affected by HDI and its components.
Methods
In this ecological study, the required data on HDI and its components were gathered from the latest report of the United Nations Development Program, and data on obesity and overweight were acquired from the latest reports published on the World Health Organization website. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 24.0.
Results
The prevalence of obesity was determined to be significantly higher among females than males, and the gross national index per capita was found to be significantly higher for males than females (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between HDI and its components and sex, as well as indices of obesity and overweight.
Conclusions
A significant positive correlation exists between HDI and obesity. As policy-makers attempt to improve the general welfare of the people, they should be aware of potential unwanted effects of development on the risk of obesity and overweight among the population.
Summary

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Interactions of Behavioral Changes in Smoking, High-risk Drinking, and Weight Gain in a Population of 7.2 Million in Korea
Yeon-Yong Kim, Hee-Jin Kang, Seongjun Ha, Jong Heon Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(4):234-241.   Published online July 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.290
  • 4,508 View
  • 162 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
To identify simultaneous behavioral changes in alcohol consumption, smoking, and weight using a fixed-effect model and to characterize their associations with disease status.
Methods
This study included 7 000 529 individuals who participated in the national biennial health-screening program every 2 years from 2009 to 2016 and were aged 40 or more. We reconstructed the data into an individual-level panel dataset with 4 waves. We used a fixed-effect model for smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, and overweight. The independent variables were sex, age, lifestyle factors, insurance contribution, employment status, and disease status.
Results
Becoming a high-risk drinker and losing weight were associated with initiation or resumption of smoking. Initiation or resumption of smoking and weight gain were associated with non-high-risk drinkers becoming high-risk drinkers. Smoking cessation and becoming a high-risk drinker were associated with normal-weight participants becoming overweight. Participants with newly acquired diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer tended to stop smoking, discontinue high-risk drinking, and return to a normal weight.
Conclusions
These results obtained using a large-scale population-based database documented interactions among lifestyle factors over time.
Summary
Korean summary
이 분석은 흡연, 음주, 체중의 동시적 변화에 대해 패널분석방법론인 고정효과 모형을 이용하여 분석하였으며, 2009년부터 2016년까지 2년 주기로 4차례 모두 건강검진을 수검받은 720만 명을 대상으로 하였다. 흡연, 음주, 체중의 동시적 변화에 대한 방향성을 탐색하여 생활습관 관련 행태가 독자적이 아닌 유기적으로 변화하는 양상을 확인하였다, 또한 당뇨병, 뇌졸중, 암이 신규로 진단되었을 때 행태 변화가 나타나는 것을 확인하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between Body Mass Index and Risk of Gastric Cancer by Anatomic and Histologic Subtypes in Over 500,000 East and Southeast Asian Cohort Participants
    Jieun Jang, Sangjun Lee, Kwang-Pil Ko, Sarah K. Abe, Md. Shafiur Rahman, Eiko Saito, Md. Rashedul Islam, Norie Sawada, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Atsuko Sadakane, Ichiro Tsuji, Jeongseon Kim, Isao Oze, Chisato Nagata, Shoichiro Tsugane, Hui Cai, Jian-Min
    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2022; 31(9): 1727.     CrossRef
The Relationship of Socioeconomic and Behavioral Risk Factors With Trends of Overweight in Korea
Jin Hee Shin, Matthew E. Dupre, Truls Østbye, Gwen Murphy, Mina Silberberg
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):310-318.   Published online November 17, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.001
  • 8,419 View
  • 114 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Previous studies have shown that overweight (including obesity) has increased significantly in Korea in recent decades. However, it remains unclear whether this change has been uniform among all Koreans and to what extent socioeconomic and behavioral factors have contributed to this increase.
Methods
Changes in overweight were estimated using data from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, and 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=55 761).
Results
Overweight increased significantly among men but not among women between 1998 and 2012. Changes in socioeconomic and behavioral factors over the time period were not associated with overall trends for both men and women. However, we found significant differences in the prevalence of overweight relative to key risk factors. For men, overweight increased at a significantly greater rate among the non-exercising (predicted probability [PP] from 0.23 to 0.32] and high-calorie (PP from 0.18 to 0.37) groups compared to their active and lower-calorie counterparts, respectively. For women, overweight increased only among the non-exercising (PP from 0.27 to 0.28) and low-income (PP from 0.31 to 0.36) groups during this period.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing overweight should target Korean men and women in specific socioeconomic and behavioral risk groups differentially.
Summary

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Behavioural Determinants for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study Among Urban Adolescents in India
M. Anitha Rani, B.W.C. Sathiyasekaran
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):192-200.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.192
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To measure the prevalence of behavioural risk factors for obesity among urban adolescent school children in Chennai, India.

Methods

This study was performed as a cross-sectional study using a World Health Organization-designed Global School-based Student Health Survey questionnaire (modified for India) among adolescent school children studying in 30 randomly selected secondary and higher secondary schools in Chennai city. 1842 adolescents studying in the VIII to XII standards were randomly selected for the study.

Results

In the present study, 40.7% of the students ate fruit one or more times per day and 74.5% of the students ate vegetables one or more times per day. Nearly 20% of the students ate fast food items on 4 to 7 days during the previous week. Among the students, 30.4% watched television for more than two hours per day. Nearly 68% of the girls and 22% of the boys did not participate in outdoor sports activities. When the pattern of physical activity of the students was assessed, it was observed that 15.6% were inactive, 43.4% were minimally active, and the remaining 41.0% belonged to the category of health enhancing physical activity. Among the students, 6.2% were overweight and 5.2% were obese.

Conclusions

The prevalence of risk factors for obesity was quite high among the adolescents. This study also showed that a great proportion of overweight/obese adolescents had a correct perception of their body weight and they were making efforts to modify risk factors such as television viewing, computer use, a sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary habits.

Summary

Citations

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    Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 27(3): 242.     CrossRef
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The Effect of Eating Behavior on Being Overweight or Obese During Preadolescence
Hye Ah Lee, Won Kyung Lee, Kyoung-Ae Kong, Namsoo Chang, Eun-Hee Ha, Young Sun Hong, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(5):226-233.   Published online September 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.5.226
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Being overweight or obese is central to metabolic syndrome, and these characteristics constitute dominant risk factors for chronic diseases. Although behavioral factors, including eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, are considered to be determinants of obesity, the specific childhood factors that contribute to this condition have not been clearly defined.

Methods

The subjects consisted of 261 children aged 7-9 years who were recruited from an elementary school during October 2003. Information was obtained from their parents using a questionnaire focused on eating behaviors and lifestyle factors, additional data were also collected via anthropometric measurements and biochemical examinations, including blood tests.

Results

A total of 48 (18.4%) of the 261 children were overweight, and 34 (70.8%) had at least one other component of metabolic syndrome. Eating behaviors emerged as significant lifestyle-related risk factors for being overweight or obese. Those who engaged in overeating more than twice per week had three times the risk of being overweight (odds ratio [OR], 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 6.92), and those who ate rapidly had three times the risk of being overweight (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.68 to 6.41). Those who had fewer family meals (fewer than 2-3/month) had a nine times higher risk of being overweight than those who had family meals more frequently (at least 1/day) (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 1.21 to 74.82).

Conclusions

This study showed that being overweight or obese during preadolescence is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and is related to unhealthy eating behaviors. Thus, weight-control strategies and healthy eating behaviors should be developed early in life to reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The Impacts of Obesity on Psychological Well-being: A Cross-sectional Study about Depressive Mood and Quality of Life.
Ji Yeong Kim, Dong Jae Oh, Tae Young Yoon, Joong Myung Choi, Bong Keun Choe
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):191-195.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.191
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who visit clinics to ask medical help for obesity treatment depict comparable levels of depression, body dissatisfaction, eating psychopathology and lower quality of life. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study with 534 females who sought treatment for their obesity or overweight being recruited in seven clinical units in Seoul, Korea. The patients group was divided into two groups. The group 1 consisted of the patients with BMI >25 kg/m2. The women who showed BMI < or =25 kg/m2 among patients recruited for this study were classified as the group 2. The control group (group 3) was composed of 398 healthy females who have never tried to lose weight. RESULTS: We found that group 1 had higher frequency of more than moderate level of depression than group 2 and group3 did. Both patients groups showed greater eating disordered attitudes and behaviors regardless of obese condition than the control group. Group1 showed relatively lower level of quality of life than group2 and group3 in terms of the quality of life related to physical well-being. In addition, the control group reported higher quality of life in psychological health than both patients groups did. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, it is necessary for clinicians to make a careful evaluation of depressive tendency and eating disorders when obese women seek for medical help. The combination of medical treatment and psychological approach for obese women would result in higher quality of life.
Summary

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Original Article
Increasing Prevalence of Obesity Related Disease for Koreans Associated with Overweight and Obesity.
Nam Soon Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Jae Heon Kang, Sang Yi Lee, Baek Geun Jeong, Sin Jae Lee, Tae Ho Yoon, Kyung Hwa Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):309-315.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To develop a better understanding of the relationship between weight status and the prevalence of obesity related diseases in the Korean population. METHODS: The 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey was used and 10,880 persons who had previously taken health examinations were selected for study. The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity's classification of weight status was used. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, chronic heart disease, stroke were included as obesity related disease. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the prevalence odds ratio by obesity class adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors and we converted the odds ratio to a prevalence ratio using the base line prevalence of disease to aid in the interpretation of the ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 26.3% based on the KSSO classification (BMI> or =25). A graded increase in the prevalence ratio was observed with increasing severity of overweight and obesity for all health outcomes with the exception of chronic heart disease in men and stroke in both men and women. With normal weight individuals as the reference, for men who were younger than 50 years, the prevalence ratios were highest for hypertension BMI<23-25: 1.70(95% CI=1.41-2.05), 25 or =30: 4.83(95% CI=3.78-5.84). The prevalence ratios for dyslipidemia were as high as hypertension, but were lower than hypertension for diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis. Prevalence ratios generally were greater in younger adults. The prevalence of having 2 or more obesity related diseases increased with weight status category, except in people who were older than 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Based on results, obesity is an increasingly important health problem in Korea and the disease burden increases according to weight status. For Korean adults, the strongest relationship was seen between weight status and hypertension and dyslipidemia. In older people the impact of excess weight and obesity is stronger than that seen in younger people. Increased efforts in the study of obesity and prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity related disease are required.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health