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Volume 57(3); May 2024
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Systematic Review
Coping Mechanisms Utilized by Individuals With Drug Addiction in Overcoming Challenges During the Recovery Process: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis
Agus Setiawan, Junaiti Sahar, Budi Santoso, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Syamikar Baridwan Syamsir
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):197-211.   Published online May 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.042
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Recovery from drug addiction often poses challenges for the recovering person. The coping mechanisms employed by these individuals to resist temptations and manage stress play a key role in the healing process. This study was conducted to explore the coping strategies or techniques that individuals with addiction use to handle stress and temptation while undergoing treatment.
Methods
A qualitative meta-synthesis approach was utilized to critically evaluate relevant qualitative research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines were used for article selection, with these standards applied to 4 academic databases: Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL. The present review included studies published between 2014 and 2023, selected based on pre-established inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Studies Checklist. This review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the registration number CRD42024497789.
Results
The analysis of 13 qualifying qualitative articles revealed 5 major themes illustrating the coping mechanisms employed in the pursuit of recovery by individuals who use drugs. These themes include seeking social support, as well as psychological coping strategies, spiritual experiences, professional interventions, and the enhancement of awareness.
Conclusions
Among individuals with drug addiction, coping mechanisms are crucial for resisting stress and temptations throughout the recovery process. Healthcare professionals, as medical specialists, can establish more thorough and effective plans to support these patients on their path to recovery.
Summary
Key Message
This study attempts to investigate the coping mechanisms used by individuals with drug addiction during the recovery process. Through a qualitative meta-synthesis of 13 qualitative studies, we identified five main coping mechanisms: seeking social support, psychological coping strategies, spiritual experiences, professional interventions, and the enhancement of awareness. These results suggest that these coping mechanisms are important for managing stress and temptation, supporting a more holistic approach to addiction treatment.
Scoping Review
The Role of Pharmacists’ Interventions in Increasing Medication Adherence of Patients With Epilepsy: A Scoping Review
Iin Ernawati, Nanang Munif Yasin, Ismail Setyopranoto, Zullies Ikawati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):212-222.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.592
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  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Epilepsy is a chronic disease that requires long-term treatment and intervention from health workers. Medication adherence is a factor that influences the success of therapy for patients with epilepsy. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the role of pharmacists in improving the clinical outcomes of epilepsy patients, focusing on medication adherence.
Methods
A scoping literature search was conducted through the ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. The literature search included all original articles published in English until August 2023 for which the full text was available. This scoping review was carried out by a team consisting of pharmacists and neurologists following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Extension for Scoping Reviews and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines, including 5 steps: identifying research questions, finding relevant articles, selecting articles, presenting data, and compiling the results.
Results
The literature search yielded 10 studies that discussed pharmacist interventions for patients with epilepsy. Five articles described educational interventions involving drug-related counseling with pharmacists. Two articles focused on similar pharmacist interventions through patient education, both verbal and written. Three articles discussed an epilepsy review service, a multidisciplinary intervention program involving pharmacists and other health workers, and a mixed intervention combining education and training with therapy-based behavioral interventions.
Conclusions
Pharmacist interventions have been shown to be effective in improving medication adherence in patients with epilepsy. Furthermore, these interventions play a crucial role in improving other therapeutic outcomes, including patients’ knowledge of self-management, perceptions of illness, the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in controlling seizures, and overall quality of life.
Summary
Key Message
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that requires long-term treatment and support from health workers, including pharmacists. Pharmacists can provide interventions independently or in collaboration with other health workers, including treatment education through counseling (essential information about the condition, insights into epilepsy, seizure triggers, and antiepileptic drugs) and education and training with therapy-based behavioral interventions (reminders and skill-based psychological support). Pharmacist intervention is known to increase medication adherence, which is an important factor in the success of therapy for epilepsy patients and can improve other therapy outcomes such as increasing knowledge of epilepsy, seizure control, and quality of life.
Original Articles
Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Tuberculosis Preventive Behaviors Among Tuberculosis Patients’ Household Contacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Border Areas of Northern Thailand
Nantawan Khamai, Katekaew Seangpraw, Parichat Ong-Artborirak
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):223-233.   Published online May 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.453
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has exacerbated the rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection among close contacts of TB patients in remote regions. However, research on preventive behaviors, guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM), among household contacts of TB cases is scarce. This study aimed to employ the HBM as a framework to predict TB preventive behaviors among household contacts of TB patients in the border areas of Northern Thailand.
Methods
A cross-sectional study with multi-stage random sampling was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The study included 422 TB patients’ household contacts aged 18 years or older who had available chest X-ray (CXR) results. A self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct the survey.
Results
The participants’ mean age was 42.93 years. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TB preventive behavior scores were significantly correlated with TB knowledge (r=0.397), perceived susceptibility (r=0.565), perceived severity (r=0.452), perceived benefits (r=0.581), self-efficacy (r=0.526), and cues to action (r=0.179). Binary logistic regression revealed that the modeled odds of having an abnormal CXR decreased by 30.0% for each 1-point score increase in preventive behavior (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.79).
Conclusions
HBM constructs were able to explain preventive behaviors among TB patients’ household contacts. The HBM could be used in health promotion programs to improve TB preventive behaviors and avoid negative outcomes.
Summary
Key Message
- Tuberculosis knowledge and the Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs are associated with preventive behaviors that affect CXR results among pulmonary TB patients’ household contacts. - The HBM could be used in health promotion programs to improve TB preventive behaviors and avoid negative outcomes.
Classification of Healthy Family Indicators in Indonesia Based on a K-means Cluster Analysis
Herti Maryani, Anissa Rizkianti, Nailul Izza
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):234-241.   Published online May 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.497
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Health development is a key element of national development. The goal of improving health development at the societal level will be readily achieved if it is directed from the smallest social unit, namely the family. This was the goal of the Healthy Indonesia Program with a Family Approach. The objective of the study was to analyze variables of family health indicators across all provinces in Indonesia to identify provincial disparities based on the status of healthy families.
Methods
This study examined secondary data for 2021 from the Indonesia Health Profile, provided by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, and from the 2021 welfare statistics by Statistics Indonesia (BPS). From these sources, we identified 10 variables for analysis using the k-means method, a non-hierarchical method of cluster analysis.
Results
The results of the cluster analysis of healthy family indicators yielded 5 clusters. In general, cluster 1 (Papua and West Papua Provinces) had the lowest average achievements for healthy family indicators, while cluster 5 (Jakarta Province) had the highest indicator scores.
Conclusions
In Indonesia, disparities in healthy family indicators persist. Nutrition, maternal health, and child health are among the indicators that require government attention.
Summary
Key Message
This paper explores disparities in family health status across provinces using cluster analysis with the K-means approach applied to 10 family health indicator variables. Secondary data analysis was used from the 2021 Indonesian Health Profile and statistics on people’s welfare. The study identified five distinct clusters, each with different characteristics. Papua and West Papua demonstrate the lowest average level in terms of healthy family indicators, whereas DKI Jakarta shows the greatest indicator level. To eliminate the disparities, the government should prioritize the following indicators: maternal health, infant health, and nutrition.
Association Between Objective Social Isolation and Unmet Medical Needs: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Study in Korea
Jeong Min Yang, Seul Ki Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):242-251.   Published online April 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.516
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between objective social isolation (SI) and unmet medical needs (UMN) in adults aged 19 and older.
Methods
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 208 619 adults aged 19 and older, excluding missing data, using the 2019 Korea Community Health Survey. To analyze the association between objective SI and UMN, the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed.
Results
The prevalence of UMN was 1.14 times higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.23) among those with SI than among those without SI, and the OR for groups with 5 SI types was 2.77 (95% CI, 1.86 to 4.12) compared to those with no SI types. In addition, a stratified analysis by age group showed that the association between SI and UMN existed even in groups under 64 years old. However, among those aged 65 and older, SI was associated with an OR of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.71) for UMN compared to non-SI. As the number of SI types increased, the prevalence of UMN also increased, indicating a strong association between SI and UMN in older adults.
Conclusions
This study found that individuals with SI experienced UMN due to fear and anxiety about interpersonal relationships. Therefore, based on the results of this cross-sectional study, it is necessary to investigate the causal relationship between SI and UMN through future longitudinal data.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2019년 지역사회건강조사를 활용하여 사회적 고립과 미충족의료 간의 연관성을 분석한 연구이다. 분석 결과 사회적 고립이 있을 경우 비사회적고립 집단에 비하여 미충족의료 경험률이 높았고, 사회적 고립의 강도가 높아질수록 강한 연관성을 발견할 수 있었다. 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 미충족의료 취약 집단에 대한 정책적, 제도적 기반 마련이 요구된다.
Key Message
This study analyzed the association between social isolation and unmet medical needs using the 2019 Korea Community Health Survey. The analysis revealed that individuals experiencing social isolation had a higher rate of unmet medical needs compared to the non-social isolation group. Furthermore, a stronger association was observed as the intensity of social isolation increased. Based on the results of this study, there is a need to establish policy and institutional foundations to support vulnerable groups with unmet medical needs.
Factors Associated With Long-term Retention in Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living With HIV: Evidence From a Tertiary Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia
Ifael Yerosias Mauleti, Krishna Adi Wibisana, Djati Prasetio Syamsuridzal, Sri Mulyati, Vivi Lisdawati, Ika Saptarini, Nurhayati , Armedy Ronny Hasugian, Harimat Hendarwan
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):252-259.   Published online April 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.512
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated factors associated with the retention of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the first 3 years of treatment.
Methods
A retrospective study using electronic health records was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Adult HIV-positive patients who started ART from 2010 until 2020 were included. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with ART retention in the first 3 years.
Results
In total, 535 respondents were included in the analysis. The ART retention rates for the first, second, and third years were 83.7%, 79.1%, and 77.2%, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed a negative association between CD4 count when starting ART and retention. Patients with CD4 counts >200 cells/mL were 0.65 times less likely to have good retention than those with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mL. The year of starting ART was also significantly associated with retention. Patients who started ART in 2010-2013 or 2014-2016 were less likely to have good retention than those who started ART in 2017-2020, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.52 and 0.40, respectively. Patients who received efavirenz-based therapy were 1.69 times more likely to have good retention than those who received nevirapine (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 2.72).
Conclusions
Our study revealed a decline in ART retention in the third year. The CD4 count, year of enrollment, and an efavirenz-based regimen were significantly associated with retention. Patient engagement has long been a priority in HIV programs, with interventions being implemented to address this issue.
Summary
Key Message
The administration of antiretroviral therapy to HIV patients has resulted in increased rates of survival, enhanced quality of life, and less transmission of the virus. Nevertheless, a negative correlation exists between the length of antiretroviral therapy and patient retention in care. Our study used data from a tertiary hospital and indicated a decrease in the retention rate of antiretroviral therapy over the third year. Retention was associated with the CD4 count, year of enrollment, and the use of an efavirenz-based treatment. Emphasizing patient engagement has been a longstanding focus in HIV programs, with initiatives being implemented to tackle this matter.
Trends in Regional Disparities in Cardiovascular Surgery and Mortality in Korea: A National Cross-sectional Study
Dal-Lae Jin, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Euy Suk Chung, Seok-Jun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):260-268.   Published online May 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.057
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Regional disparities in cardiovascular care in Korea have led to uneven patient outcomes. Despite the growing need for and access to procedures, few studies have linked regional service availability to mortality rates. This study analyzed regional variation in the utilization of major cardiovascular procedures and their associations with short-term mortality to provide better evidence regarding the relationship between healthcare resource distribution and patient survival.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using nationwide claims data for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stent insertion, or aortic aneurysm resection in 2022. Regional variation was assessed by the relevance index (RI). The associations between the regional RI and 30-day mortality were analyzed.
Results
The RI was lowest for aortic aneurysm resection (mean, 26.2; standard deviation, 26.1), indicating the most uneven regional distribution among the surgical procedures. Patients undergoing this procedure in regions with higher RIs showed significantly lower 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.96; p=0.026) versus those with lower RIs. This suggests that cardiovascular surgery regional availability, as measured by RI, has an impact on mortality rates for certain complex surgical procedures. The RI was not associated with significant mortality differences for more widely available procedures like CABG (aOR, 0.96), PCI (aOR, 1.00), or stent insertion (aOR, 0.91).
Conclusions
Significant regional variation and underutilization of cardiovascular surgery were found, with reduced access linked to worse mortality for complex procedures. Disparities should be addressed through collaboration among hospitals and policy efforts to improve outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
심혈관 관련 수술을 대상으로 지역적 불균형을 분석한 결과, 관상동맥우회술, 경피적 관상동맥중재술, 스텐트 삽입술은 전국적으로 광범위하게 분포되었다. 반면에 대동맥류 절제술은 지역적 불균형이 발생하였고, 사망률 또한 유의한 차이가 있었다. 따라서 의료 격차 해소를 위해 병원 간 협력체계 구축, 지역 균형적 의료자원 확충 등 정책적 노력이 필요하다
Key Message
An analysis of regional disparities in cardiovascular surgeries revealed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and stent insertion procedures were widely distributed nationwide. However, there was a regional imbalance in aortic aneurysm resection (AAR) surgeries, which also showed significant differences in mortality rates. Therefore, policy efforts are needed to bridge the healthcare gap, such as establishing collaborative systems among hospitals and ensuring a balanced distribution of medical resources across regions.
Prevalence and Factors Associated With Adolescent Pregnancy Among an Indigenous Ethnic Group in Rural Nepal: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study
Kusumsheela Bhatta, Pratiksha Pathak, Madhusudan Subedi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):269-278.   Published online April 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.023
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The Chepang people, an indigenous ethnic group in Nepal, experience substantial marginalization and socioeconomic disadvantages, making their communities among the most vulnerable in the region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in the Chepang communities of Raksirang Rural Municipality, Makwanpur District, Bagmati Province, Nepal.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2022 to April 2023 among 231 Chepang women selected using simple random sampling from Raksirang Rural Municipality. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for interviewing the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Variables with a variation inflation factor of more than 2 and a p-value of more than 0.25 were excluded from the final model.
Results
The study revealed that the prevalence rate of adolescent pregnancy among Chepang women was 71.4% (95% CI, 65.14 to 77.16). A large percentage of participants (72.7%) were married before the age of 18 years. Poor knowledge of adolescent pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.3; 95% CI, 8.42 to 14.87), unplanned pregnancy (aOR, 13.3; 95% CI, 10.76 to 19.2), and lack of sex education (aOR, 6.57; 95% CI, 3.85 to 11.27) were significantly associated with adolescent pregnancy.
Conclusions
The prevalence of adolescent pregnancy among the Chepang community was high. These findings highlighted the importance of raising awareness about the potential consequences of adolescent pregnancy and implementing comprehensive sexuality education programs for preventing adolescent pregnancies within this community.
Summary
Key Message
This community-based cross-sectional study found that adolescent pregnancy was highly prevalent (71.4%) among the Chepang community, an indigenous and marginalized ethnic group in Nepal. Key contributing factors included poor knowledge of adolescent pregnancy, unplanned pregnancies, and a lack of sex education. The findings highlighted the urgent need for targeted awareness campaigns and comprehensive sexuality education programs to address and reduce adolescent pregnancies in this vulnerable community.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Letter to the Editor: Teenage Pregnancy in the Philippines: Effects and Interventions
    Dalmacito A. Cordero
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(3): 304.     CrossRef
Validation of the Disaster Adaptation and Resilience Scale for Vulnerable Communities in Vietnam’s Coastal Regions
Thanh Gia Nguyen, Binh Thang Tran, Minh Tu Nguyen, Dinh Duong Le
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):279-287.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.110
  • 2,285 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study validated the Vietnamese version of the Disaster Adaptation and Resilience Scale (DARS) for use in vulnerable communities in Vietnam.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study involving 595 adults from 2 identified communities. The original DARS assessment tool was translated, and the validity and reliability of the Vietnamese version of DARS (V-DARS) were assessed. The internal consistency of the overall scale and its subscales was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega reliability coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to evaluate its construct validity, building upon the factor structure identified in exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Construct validity was assessed based on convergent and discriminant validity.
Results
Following the established criteria for EFA, 8 items were removed, resulting in a refined V-DARS structure comprising 35 items distributed across 5 distinct factors. Both alpha and omega reliability coefficients indicated strong internal consistency for the overall scale (α=0.963, ω=0.963) and for each of the 5 sub-scales (all>0.80). The CFA model also retained the 5-factor structure with 35 items. The model fit indices showed acceptable values (RMSEA: 0.072; CFI: 0.912; TLI: 0.904; chi-square test: <0.01). Additionally, the convergent and discriminant validity of the V-DARS were deemed appropriate and satisfactory for explaining the measurement structure.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the V-DARS is a valid and reliable scale for use within vulnerable communities in Vietnam to assess adaptive responses to natural disasters. It may also be considered for use in other populations.
Summary
Key Message
The current study is one of the few that addresses the need to develop valid and reliable tools for disaster adaptation and resilience, particularly in the poorest and most vulnerable communities affected by natural events. These findings provide evidence supporting the development of community-based interventions for disaster preparedness and response.
Predictors and Prevalence of Alcohol and Cannabis Co-use Among Filipino Adolescents: Evidence From a School-based Student Health Survey
Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III, Jerico B. Ogaya, Victor C. Cañezo Jr., Roland A. Niez, Florante E. Delos Santos, Melchor M. Magramo, Ann Rosanie Yap-Tan, Francis Ann R. Sy, Omar Kasimieh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):288-297.   Published online May 9, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.052
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  • 57 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study explored the prevalence and predictors of alcohol and cannabis co-use among 9263 Filipino adolescents, using data from the 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the GSHS, targeting adolescents aged 13-17 years and excluding cases with incomplete data on alcohol and cannabis use. Our analysis employed the bivariate chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression using Stata version 18 to identify significant predictors of co-use, with a p-value threshold set at 0.05.
Results
The weighted prevalence of co-users was 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.3). Significant predictors included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.50; 95% CI, 3.31 to 6.10; p<0.001) and being in a lower academic year, specifically grade 7 (aOR, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.39 to 6.99; p<0.001) and grade 8 (aOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.72; p=0.003). Poor sleep quality was also a significant predictor (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.44; p<0.001), as was a history of attempted suicide (aOR, 5.31; 95% CI, 4.00 to 7.06; p<0.001). Physical inactivity was associated with lower odds of co-use (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.62; p<0.001). Additionally, non-attendance of physical education classes (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.05; p=0.021), infrequent unapproved parental checks (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.80; p=0.024), and lower parental awareness of free-time activities (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.87; p=0.005) were associated with higher odds of co-use. Factors not significantly linked to co-use included age group, being in grade 9, always feeling lonely, having no close friends, being bullied outside school, and whether a parent or guardian understood the adolescent’s worries.
Conclusions
The findings highlight the critical need for comprehensive interventions in the Philippines, addressing not only physical inactivity and parental monitoring but also focusing on sex, academic grade, participation in physical education classes, sleep quality, and suicide attempt history, to effectively reduce alcohol and cannabis co-use among adolescents.
Summary
Key Message
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence and key predictors of alcohol and cannabis co-use among 9263 Filipino adolescents using data from the 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey. Significant predictors of co-use include male sex, lower academic grade, poor sleep quality, history of attempted suicide, physical inactivity, non-attendance in physical education classes, infrequent parental checks, and low parental awareness of adolescents' activities, with a weighted co-use prevalence of 4.2%. The study underscores the need for comprehensive interventions addressing these factors to reduce substance co-use among Filipino adolescents.
Brief Report
Drug Prescription Indicators in Outpatient Services in Social Security Organization Facilities in Iran
Afsoon Aeenparast, Ali Asghar Haeri Mehrizi, Farzaneh Maftoon, Faranak Farzadi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):298-303.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.424
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to estimate drug prescription indicators in outpatient services provided at Iran Social Security Organization (SSO) healthcare facilities.
Methods
Data on all prescribed drugs for outpatient visits from 2017 to 2018 were extracted from the SSO database. The data were categorized into 4 main subgroups: patient characteristics, provider characteristics, service characteristics, and type of healthcare facility. Logistic regression models were used to detect risk factors for inappropriate drug prescriptions. SPSS and IBM Modeler software were utilized for data analysis.
Results
In 2017, approximately 150 981 752 drug items were issued to outpatients referred to SSO healthcare facilities in Iran. The average number of drug items per outpatient prescription was estimated at 3.33. The proportion of prescriptions that included an injection was 17.5%, and the rate of prescriptions that included an antibiotic was 37.5%. Factors such as patient sex and age, provider specialty, type of facility, and time of outpatient visit were associated with the risk of inappropriate prescriptions.
Conclusions
In this study, all drug prescription criteria exceeded the recommended limits set by the World Health Organization. To improve the current prescription patterns throughout the country, it would be beneficial to provide providers with monthly and annual reports and to consider implementing some prescription policies for physicians.
Summary
Key Message
In present research all drug prescriptions in Iran Social Security outpatient facilities were assessed. In all 45,312,540 studied prescriptions, the average number of drug items per prescriptions was 3.33 items. 17.5% of prescriptions contained injection and 37.5% contained antibiotic. Patient sex and age, provider specialty, type of facility were associated with the risk of inappropriate prescriptions. It seems that correct policy making and proper supervision alongside health education will be core basis for improving drug prescription and use.
Correspondence
Letter to the Editor: Teenage Pregnancy in the Philippines: Effects and Interventions
Dalmacito A. Cordero Jr.
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):304-305.   Published online May 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.221
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PDF
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health