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Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength
Jihye Lee, Yeon-pyo Hong, Hyun Ju Shin, Weonyoung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(1):35-44.   Published online November 23, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.055
  • 14,997 View
  • 377 Download
  • 65 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome.
Methods
Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was defined as a weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass index more than two standard deviations below the mean of a sex-specific young reference group (class II sarcopenia). Two cut-off values for low handgrip strength were used: the first criteria were <26 kg for men and <18 kg for women, and the second criteria were the lowest quintile of handgrip strength among the study subjects. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as the combination of class II sarcopenia and being in the two highest quintiles of total body fat percentage among the subjects. The associations of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome were evaluated using logistic regression models.
Results
The age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of metabolic syndrome being compared in people with or without sarcopenia defined in terms of muscle mass were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.47, p=0.008) in men and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19, p<0.001) in women, which were found to be statistically significant relationships. The RRs of metabolic syndrome being compared in people with or without sarcopenic obesity were 1.31 in men (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.56, p=0.003) and 1.17 in women (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.25, p<0.001), which were likewise found to be statistically significant relationships.
Conclusions
The associations of sarcopenia defined in terms of muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome were statistically significant in both men and women. Therefore, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity must be considered as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases.
Summary

Citations

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Serum Uric Acid Level and the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged Korean Men: A 5-Year Follow-up Study
Jong-Keun Lee, Jae-Hong Ryoo, Joong-Myung Choi, Sung Keun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(6):317-326.   Published online November 4, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.028
  • 9,988 View
  • 89 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Elevated serum uric acid (UA) has been known to be associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, no prospective studies have examined whether serum UA levels are actually associated with the development of MetS. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the longitudinal effects of baseline serum UA levels on the development of MetS.
Methods
A MetS-free cohort of 14 906 healthy Korean men, who participated in a medical check-up program in 2005, was followed until 2010. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Cox proportional hazards models were performed.
Results
During 52 466.1 person-years of follow-up, 2428 incident cases of MetS developed between 2006 and 2010. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident MetS for the second, the third, and the fourth quartile to the first quartile of serum UA levels were 1.09 (0.92-1.29), 1.22 (1.04-1.44), and 1.48 (1.26-1.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). These associations were also significant in the clinically relevant subgroup analyses.
Conclusions
Elevated serum UA levels were independently associated with future development of MetS in Korean men during the 5-year follow-up period.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome
Ju-Mi Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hye Min Cho, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):181-187.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.181
  • 16,064 View
  • 173 Download
  • 52 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. However, the direct association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in a community-based cohort study in Korea.

Methods

We performed cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 889 males and 1491 females (aged 38 to 87) who participated in baseline examinations of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study: Kanghwa study. Blood samples were collected after at least an 8 hour fast. Uric acid quartiles were defined as follows: <4.8, 4.8-<5.6, 5.6-<6.5, ≥6.5 mg/dL in males; and <3.8, 3.8-<4.3, 4.3-<5.1, ≥5.1 mg/dL in females. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria with adjusted waist circumference cutoffs (90 cm for males; 80 cm for females). The association between serum uric acid quartiles and metabolic syndrome was assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results

The odds ratio for having metabolic syndrome in the highest versus lowest quartiles of serum uric acid levels was 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 4.46) in males and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.50 to 3.05) in females after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, total cholesterol, HbA1c, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and log C-reactive protein. The number of metabolic abnormalities also increased gradually with increasing serum uric acid levels (adjusted p for trend < 0.001 in both sexes).

Conclusions

Higher serum uric acid levels are positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean males and females.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Relationship Between Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Metabolic Syndrome Among Non-Diabetic Adults.
Sun Kyun Park, Hyo Kyung Son, Sung Kook Lee, Jung Ho Kang, Yoon Seok Chang, David R Jacobs, Duk Hee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(1):1-8.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate if organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance among non-diabetes. METHODS: Among subjects who participated in a community-based health survey, 50 non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome and 50 normal controls were selected. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Eight OCPs were selected. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders except for body mass index (BMI), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) and heptachlor epoxide were positively associated with metabolic syndrome. Odds ratios across tertiles of beta-HCH and heptachlor epoxide were 1.0, 3.2 and 4.4, and 1.0, 4.0 and 6.0, respectively (p for trend = 0.01 and <0.01). After additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), heptachlor epoxide still showed an increasing trend with adjusted odds ratios of 1.0, 4.1, and 4.6 (p for trend = 0.10). When the five components of metabolic syndrome (with the definition of high fasting glucose (> or =100 mg/dL)) were separately analyzed, all components were positively, but not significantly, associated with heptachlor epoxide. As the serum concentration of heptachlor epoxide increased, HOMA-IR increased significantly in subjects with metabolic syndrome even after adjusting for BMI (p value <0.05 and <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small sample size, this study suggests that the background exposure to some OCPs may be associated with metabolic syndrome.
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English Abstracts
Lifestyle and Metabolic Syndrome among Male Workers in an Electronics Research and Development Company.
Jun Pyo Myong, Hyoung Ryoul Kim, Yong Kyu Kim, Jung Wan Koo, Chung Yill Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):331-336.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.331
  • 4,845 View
  • 60 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between lifestyle-implementation and metabolic syndrome in an electronics research and development company, and to provide a foundation for health providers of health management programs for setting priorities. METHODS: From July 1 to July 16, 2008 we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Consecutive workers of one R & D company in Seoul, Korea (N=2,079) were enrolled in study. A checklist for lifestyle (from the National Health Insurance Corporation) consisted of questions regarding diet, drinking, smoking and exercise. After the survey, researchers obtained data from health profiles for metabolic syndrome(waist-circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar level). Lifestyle was recorded as good or not good. Statistical analysis of metabolic syndrome and the lifestyle of subjects was done using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study gropu was 13.3% (N=277). After adjustment for age, the adjusted odds ratios (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome increased in proportion to the number of bad habits: two (1.72, 1.23-2.44), three (2.47, 1.73-3.56), and four (3.63, 2.03-6.34). Relative to subjects eating both vegetables and meat', the OR for 'meat' eaters was 1.66 (1.18-2.31). Compared with 'non-smokers and ever-smoker', the OR for 'current-smoker' was 1.62 (1.25-2.10). Compared with 'Healthy drinker', the OR for 'unhealthy drinker' was 1.38 (1.05-1.83). CONCLUSIONS: Poor lifestyle was associated with an increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that lifestyle-based occupational health interventions for young employees should include a specific diet, smoking cessation, and healthy-drinking programs.
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  • Metabolic Syndrome Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy Attending Clinic at a District Hospital in Ghana
    Prince Osei Akumiah, Kwabena Opoku-Addai, Adwoa Safowaa, Akosua Serwaa Akumiah
    SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hosihn Ryu, Dal Lae Chin
    Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health.2017; 72(5): 249.     CrossRef
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    Dae-Sik Ko, Bu-Yeon Park, Gyeong-Hyu Seok
    The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences.2013; 8(12): 1941.     CrossRef
  • Actual Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Related Factors: A Cross-sectional Study of Korean Blue Collar Workers Employed by Small Businesses
    Jong Uk Won, Oi Saeng Hong, Won Ju Hwang
    Workplace Health & Safety.2013; 61(4): 163.     CrossRef
  • Actual Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Related Factors
    Jong Uk Won, Oi Saeng Hong, Won Ju Hwang
    Workplace Health & Safety.2013; 61(4): 163.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Workforce
    Dae Ryong KANG, Yeongmi HA, Won Ju HWANG
    Industrial Health.2013; 51(3): 256.     CrossRef
Associations of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver with the Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Carotenoids.
Sun kyun Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Ae Kim, Hye Sung Lee, Hyo Kyung Son, Sung Hi Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):39-44.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.1.39
  • 5,593 View
  • 66 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the associations of non alcoholic fatty liver with metabolic syndrome and the serum carotenoids. METHODS: This study was conducted in a general hospital in South Korea from November, 2004 to August, 2005. The study subjects were 350 sampled persons who were aged from 40 years and older (males: 180, females: 170). They were grouped into the normal, mild and severe groups according to fat accumulation in their livers, as determined by ultrasonography. We analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis and we analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and the serum carotenoids by a general linear model(ANCOVA). RESULTS: After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with fat accumulation in the liver (p trend <0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the mild group is 2.80 (95% C.I=1.17-6.71) and that of the severe group is 7.29 (95% C.I=2.76-19.30). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome, according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver, was significantly increased, except for criteria of high blood pressure, a large waist circumference and low HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol level (p trend <0.001). The level of serum beta-carotene was decreased according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver (p trend=0.036), but the levels of serum alpha-carotene, lycopene, bata-cryptoxanthin and lutein were not decreased. CONCLSIONS: This study shows that non alcoholic fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome and with the serum beta-carotene level.
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The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Korean Cardiocerebrovascular Risk Assessment: for Male Researchers in a Workplace.
Jongwan Yoon, Kyungjin Yi, Janggyun Oh, Sangyun Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):397-403.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.397
  • 5,276 View
  • 35 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has recently increased. Payments from the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation for compensation for mortality in workers caused by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have also increased in Korea in recent years. The association of metabolic syndrome and cardiocere brovascular disease has been investigated by several researchers in recent studies. This study was conducted in an attempt to characterize the relationship between metabolic syndrome and Korean cardiocerebrovascular disease risk assessment, and to provide basic data to group health practices for the prevention of cardiocere brovascular disease. METHODS: Health examinations were previously conducted for 1526 male researchers at a private laboratory. The prevalence by age and the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome scores into the "cardiocerebrovascular risk group" (sum of low, intermediate, and high risk groups) of the Korean cardiocerebrovascular disease risk assessment were assessed, in an effort to elucidate the associations between metabolic syndrome and cardiocere brovascular disease risk assessment. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and inclusion in the cardiocerebrovascular risk group was 11.7% and 22.1% respectively. The severity of metabolic syndrome and cardiocerebrovascular risk assessment showed that individuals in their 40's and 50's were at higher risk than those in their 30's (p<0.001). The age-adjusted odds ratio of metabolic syndrome to cardiocere brovascular risk group inclusion was 5.6. CONCLUSIONS: An active prevention program for cardiocerebrovascular disease needs to begin in the 40's, as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the risk group of cardiocerebrovascular risk assessment peak in the 40's age group. The odds ratio between metabolic syndrome and the cardiocerebrovascular risk group was high, which indicates that metabolic syndrome scores should be utilized as guidelines during the consultation and behavioral modification program for the workplace prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in group health practices.
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    Dae-Sik Ko, Bu-Yeon Park, Gyeong-Hyu Seok
    The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences.2013; 8(12): 1941.     CrossRef
  • Actual Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Related Factors: A Cross-sectional Study of Korean Blue Collar Workers Employed by Small Businesses
    Jong Uk Won, Oi Saeng Hong, Won Ju Hwang
    Workplace Health & Safety.2013; 61(4): 163.     CrossRef
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    Jong Uk Won, Oi Saeng Hong, Won Ju Hwang
    Workplace Health & Safety.2013; 61(4): 163.     CrossRef
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  • Lifestyle and Metabolic Syndrome among Male Workers in an Electronics Research and Development Company
    Jun Pyo Myong, Hyoung Ryoul Kim, Yong Kyu Kim, Jung-Wan Koo, Chung Yill Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(5): 331.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health