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Symptoms, Mental Health, and Quality of Life Among Patients After COVID-19 Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Vietnam
Hai Nguyen Thanh, Duc Cap Minh, Hien Hoang Thu, Duc Nguyen Quang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):128-137.   Published online February 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.511
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study was conducted to characterize the symptoms, mental health, quality of life (QoL), and associated factors following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 394 participants previously infected with COVID-19 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Mental health was assessed using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Participants self-reported health-related QoL was measured with the EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) scale.
Results
Among the participants, 76.4% reported experiencing at least one symptom following COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms were fatigue (42.1%), cognitive dysfunction (42.9%), and hair loss (27.9%). According to the DASS-21 results, the proportions of depression, anxiety, and stress were 28.7%, 26.4%, and 20.6%, respectively. The mean scores on the EQ-5D-5L and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale were 0.94±0.11 and 84.20±13.11, respectively. Regarding QoL issues, the highest proportion of participants (32.7%) reported experiencing anxiety or depression, followed by pain or discomfort (25.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with the presence of symptoms following COVID-19 infection included female (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.91) and having QoL issues (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.19).
Conclusions
The study investigated the prevalence rates of various symptoms following COVID-19 infection. These findings underscore the need to prioritize comprehensive care for individuals recovering from COVID-19 and to implement strategies to mitigate the long-term impact of the disease on mental health and QoL.
Summary
Key Message
This cross-sectional study in Vietnam investigated symptoms, mental health, and quality of life among patients recovering from COVID-19. The study found that most participants experienced post-infection symptoms, with fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and hair loss being the most common. Mental health issues were prevalent, and participants reported varying levels of quality of life. The findings highlight the importance of comprehensive care and strategies to address the long-term impact of COVID-19 on mental health and quality of life.
Excess Deaths During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Southern Iran: Estimating the Absolute Count and Relative Risk Using Ecological Data
Mohammadreza Zakeri, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Habibollah Azarbakhsh, Seyed Sina Dehghani, Maryam Janfada, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Leila Moftakhar, Mehdi Sharafi, Alireza Heiran
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):120-127.   Published online February 7, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.198
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to increased mortality rates. To assess this impact, this ecological study aimed to estimate the excess death counts in southern Iran.
Methods
The study obtained weekly death counts by linking the National Death Registry and Medical Care Monitoring Center repositories. The P-score was initially estimated using a simple method that involved calculating the difference between the observed and expected death counts. The interrupted time series analysis was then used to calculate the mean relative risk (RR) of death during the first year of the pandemic.
Results
Our study found that there were 5571 excess deaths from all causes (P-score=33.29%) during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 48.03% of these deaths directly related to COVID-19. The pandemic was found to increase the risk of death from all causes (RR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.33), as well as in specific age groups such as those aged 35-49 (RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.32), 50-64 (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.49), and ≥65 (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.32) years old. Furthermore, there was an increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.22).
Conclusions
There was a 26% increase in the death count in southern Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of these excess deaths were not directly related to COVID-19, but rather other causes, with cardiovascular diseases being a major contributor.
Summary
Key Message
During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in southern Iran, there was a notable increase in excess deaths, representing a 33.29% rise compared to expected figures. Approximately half of these excess deaths were directly attributed to COVID-19. Moreover, the pandemic heightened the risk of death across all causes by 26%, with specific age groups, notably those aged 50-64, experiencing heightened vulnerability. Notably, cardiovascular diseases emerged as a significant contributor to excess mortality during this period, while decreases were observed in deaths related to chronic respiratory diseases and cancers.
Alleviation of PM2.5-associated Risk of Daily Influenza Hospitalization by COVID-19 Lockdown Measures: A Time-series Study in Northeastern Thailand
Benjawan Roudreo, Sitthichok Puangthongthub
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):108-119.   Published online January 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.349
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Abrupt changes in air pollution levels associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak present a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of air pollution on influenza risk, at a time when emission sources were less active and personal hygiene practices were more rigorous.
Methods
This time-series study examined the relationship between influenza cases (n=22 874) and air pollutant concentrations from 2018 to 2021, comparing the timeframes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in and around Thailand’s Khon Kaen province. Poisson generalized additive modeling was employed to estimate the relative risk of hospitalization for influenza associated with air pollutant levels.
Results
Before the COVID-19 outbreak, both the average daily number of influenza hospitalizations and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) concentration exceeded those later observed during the pandemic (p<0.001). In single-pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 before COVID-19 was significantly associated with increased influenza risk upon exposure to cumulative-day lags, specifically lags 0-5 and 0-6 (p<0.01). After adjustment for co-pollutants, PM2.5 demonstrated the strongest effects at lags 0 and 4, with elevated risk found across all cumulative-day lags (0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5, and 0-6) and significantly greater risk in the winter and summer at lag 0-5 (p<0.01). However, the PM2.5 level was not significantly associated with influenza risk during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Conclusions
Lockdown measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic could mitigate the risk of PM2.5-induced influenza. Effective regulatory actions in the context of COVID-19 may decrease PM2.5 emissions and improve hygiene practices, thereby reducing influenza hospitalizations.
Summary
Key Message
In the present research, both single- and multi-pollutant models indicated that the level of PM2.5 was significantly related to the daily number of influenza cases in Khon Kaen, Thailand, prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Additionally, a significant risk difference was observed between the pre-outbreak and the pandemic periods due to the reduction in air pollutant concentrations because of lockdown measures to control the spread of COVID-19. These findings could be useful for developing environmental policies and strategies accordingly to mitigate respiratory health issues.
Trends in Research on Patients With COVID-19 in Korean Medical Journals
Heejeong Choi, Seunggwan Song, Heesang Ahn, Hyobean Yang, Hyeonseong Lim, Yohan Park, Juhyun Kim, Hongju Yong, Minseok Yoon, Mi Ah Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):47-54.   Published online January 17, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.254
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study was conducted to systematically summarize trends in research concerning patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as reported in Korean medical journals.
Methods
We performed a literature search of KoreaMed from January 2020 to September 2022. We included only primary studies of patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, then performed full-text screening, both independently and in duplicate. We first identified the 5 journals with the greatest numbers of eligible publications, then extracted data pertaining to the general characteristics, study population attributes, and research features of papers published in these journals.
Results
Our analysis encompassed 142 primary studies. Of these, approximately 41.0% reported a funding source, while 3.5% disclosed a conflict of interest. In 2020, 42.9% of studies included fewer than 10 participants; however, by 2022, the proportion of studies with over 200 participants had increased to 40.6%. The most common design was the cohort study (48.6%), followed by case reports/series (35.2%). Only 3 randomized controlled trials were identified. Studies most frequently focused on prognosis (58.5%), followed by therapy/intervention (20.4%). Regarding the type of intervention/exposure, therapeutic clinical interventions comprised 26.1%, while studies of morbidity accounted for 13.4%. As for the outcomes measured, 50.7% of studies assessed symptoms/clinical status/improvement, and 14.1% evaluated mortality.
Conclusions
Employing a systematic approach, we examined the characteristics of research involving patients with COVID-19 that was published in Korean medical journals from 2020 onward. Subsequent research should assess not only publication trends over a longer timeframe but also the quality of evidence provided.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2020년 이후 국내 의학저널에 보고된 코로나19 환자를 대상으로 진행된 연구의 특성을 체계적 방법론을 통해 살펴보았다. 142개 연구 중 5개는 국제 연구자들과 협력했으며 약 50%가 자금 지원에 관해 보고하였으며, 2022년에는 2020년에 비해 대규모 환자 코호트를 포함하는 연구 수가 증가하였다. 연구의 약 20%는 약물 치료와 같은 개입의 영향을 평가하였으며, 향후 연구에서는 장기간에 걸친 연구 경향 뿐만 아니라 연구의 질도 평가해야 할 것이다.
Key Message
This study employed a systematic approach to examine the characteristics of research conducted among patients with COVID-19, as reported in Korean medical journals from 2020 onward. Of 142 studies, 5 involved collaborations with international researchers, and approximately 50% made any declaration regarding funding, and By 2022, an increase was evident in the number of studies that included a large patient cohort relative to the year 2020. Roughly 20% of the studies assessed the impact of interventions, such as pharmaceutical treatments, and further research should assess not only publication trends over a longer timeframe but also the quality of evidence provided.
Mental Health Among Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Vietnam
Nhan Phuc Thanh Nguyen, Ha Phan Ai Nguyen, Cao Khoa Dang, Minh Tri Phan, Huynh Ho Ngoc Quynh, Van Tuan Le, Chinh Van Dang, Tinh Huu Ho, Van Trong Phan, Thang Van Dinh, Thang Phan, Thi Anh Thu Dang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):37-46.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.327
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to characterize mental health issues among Vietnamese healthcare workers (HCWs) and to identify related factors.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 990 HCWs in 2021. Their mental health status was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale.
Results
In total, 49.9%, 52.3%, and 29.8% of respondents were found to have depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The multivariable linear regression model revealed that factors associated with increased anxiety scores included depression scores (β, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.51) and stress scores (β, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.52). Factors associated with increased depression scores included being frontline HCWs (β, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.10), stress scores (β, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.56), and anxiety scores (β, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.47), while working experience was associated with reduced depression scores (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.01). Factors associated with increased stress scores included working experience (β, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.16), personal protective equipment interference with daily activities (β, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.00), depression scores (β, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.59), and anxiety scores (β, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.50), while age was associated with reduced stress scores (β, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.05).
Conclusions
Specific interventions are necessary to enhance and promote the mental health of HCWs so they can successfully cope with the circumstances of the pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
A cross-sectional study of 990 Vietnamese healthcare workers in Vietnam, 2021 revealed significant mental health issues: 49.9 % suffered from depression, 52.3 % from anxiety, and 29.8 % from stress. The study found a correlation between these conditions, with frontline workers being particularly vulnerable to depression. These findings highlight the critical need for targeted mental health interventions for healthcare workers, particularly those new to the field and working on the front lines, in order to better manage pandemic-related stressors.
Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):18-27.   Published online November 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.306
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 44 908 students (22 823 boys and 22 085 girls) as study subjects. The dependent variables included changes in health behaviors (breakfast habits, physical activity, and alcohol use) that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aggravation of economic hardship by COVID-19 and the subjective economic status of the family were used as exposure variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to calculate the prevalence odds ratios (PORs).
Results
Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents, including increased breakfast skipping (POR, 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 2.21 for boys and POR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.92 for girls) and decreased physical activity (POR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.57 for boys and POR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60 for girls). These negative changes in health behaviors were further amplified when combined with a low subjective family economic status.
Conclusions
The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나바이러스감염증-19 (COVID-19) 대유행 기간 악화된 가구의 경제적 상황과 청소년의 건강 행태 변화의 관련성을 청소년건강행태조사를 이용하여 분석하였다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 COVID-19로 인해 심각하게 악화된 경우, 청소년 건강 행태의 부정적인 변화와 연관성이 관찰되었다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 악화되는 경험은 청소년들의 건강 행태에 부정적인 변화를 초래할 수 있다. COVID-19와 같은 사회적 사건으로 인해 발생하는 경제적 어려움에 대응하는 조치를 마련하고, 이러한 상황에서 청소년들의 건강 행태를 개선하기 위한 개입이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents using the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents. The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
An Important Strategy to Improve Adolescent Health Literacy: COVID-19 Modules in High School in Indonesia
Nurina Hasanatuludhhiyah, Visuddho Visuddho, Abdul Khairul Rizki Purba, Annette d’ Arqom, Ancah Caesarina Novi Marchianti
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):523-532.   Published online November 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.113
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
During the second coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge, cases increased sharply due to low awareness and compliance with measures to limit disease spread. Health literacy (HL) is an important component of public health initiatives, and schools are potential sources of health education to increase HL via the presentation of COVID-19 educational modules.
Methods
This cross-sectional study involved an online questionnaire administered to students from 5 high schools in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia, 6-7 weeks after the start of government-issued directives restricting public gatherings. We collected data on each respondent’s age, gender, parental education, and socioeconomic variables. HL was determined by the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents. We additionally measured their attitudes and behaviors related to preventing the spread of COVID-19. The students were asked if they watched the COVID-19 module at school, their feelings about vaccination, and preferred online sources of COVID-19-related information.
Results
Most of the 432 respondents had viewed COVID-19 modules at school. Module exposure was associated with significantly higher total and domain-specific HL and more positive attitudes toward government-issued COVID-19 restrictions on travel and public gatherings (p<0.05). However, behaviors to prevent COVID-19 spread and vaccine acceptance were not associated with module exposure. Most students chose social media as their source of COVID-19-related information.
Conclusions
Schools can provide information to increase adolescents’ HL and the public’s support for health initiatives to prevent or limit the spread of COVID-19.
Summary
Key Message
A cross-sectional study carried out on high school students during the second surge of COVID-19 in Indonesia revealed that they benefitted from the COVID-19 module. Students who viewed the module had higher scores on health literacy measures of adolescents (HELMA), had a more favorable attitude toward government-issued restrictive policies, and were more likely to have adequate health literacy, in regard to the ability to use health information. These imply schools as part of the public health response by providing education to increase adolescents’ health literacy and the public’s support for health initiatives to prevent and limit the spread of COVID-19.
Vaccination Status and In-hospital Mortality Among Adults With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: A Retrospective Hospital-based Cohort Study
Hotma Martogi Lorensi Hutapea, Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara, Anton Suryatma, Raras Anasi, Harimat Hendarwan, Mondastri Korib Sudaryo, Dwi Gayatri
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):542-551.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.360
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Prospective studies on vaccination status and mortality related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in low-resource settings are still limited. We assessed the association between vaccination status (full, partial, or none) and in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients at most hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia during the Delta predomination wave.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among hospitalized COVID-19 patients who met the study criteria (>18 years old and admitted for inpatient treatment because of laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection). We linked individual-level data in the hospital admission database with vaccination records. Several socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also analyzed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the association between vaccination status and in-hospital mortality in this patient group.
Results
In total, 40 827 patients were included in this study. Of these, 70% were unvaccinated (n=28 543) and 19.3% (n=7882) died during hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 49 years (range, 35-59), 53.2% were female, 22.0% had hypertension, and 14.2% were treated in the intensive care unit, and the median hospital length of stay across the group was 9 days. Our study showed that the risk of in-hospital mortality among fully and partially vaccinated patients was lower than among unvaccinated adults (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.47 and aHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.77, respectively).
Conclusions
Vaccinated patients had fewer severe outcomes among hospitalized adults during the Delta wave in Jakarta. These features should be carefully considered by healthcare professionals in treating adults within this patient group.
Summary
Key Message
During the COVID-19 pandemic the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was dominating and challenging. Vaccination is one of many approaches to control the pandemic. We assessed the association between vaccination status and in-hospitalized mortality in COVID-19 patients. We found that vaccination status was associated with lower mortality, and fully vaccinated patients experienced lower risk of in-hospitalized mortality compared to partially vaccinated ones.
Healthcare Systems and COVID-19 Mortality in Selected OECD Countries: A Panel Quantile Regression Analysis
Jalil Safaei, Andisheh Saliminezhad
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):515-522.   Published online October 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.162
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exerted an unprecedented impact on the health of populations worldwide. However, the adverse health consequences of the pandemic in terms of infection and mortality rates have varied across countries. In this study, we investigate whether COVID-19 mortality rates across a group of developed nations are associated with characteristics of their healthcare systems, beyond the differential policy responses in those countries.
Methods
To achieve the study objective, we distinguished healthcare systems based on the extent of healthcare decommodification. Using available daily data from 2020, 2021, and 2022, we applied quantile regression with non-additive fixed effects to estimate mortality rates across quantiles. Our analysis began prior to vaccine development (in 2020) and continued after the vaccines were introduced (throughout 2021 and part of 2022).
Results
The findings indicate that higher testing rates, coupled with more stringent containment and public health measures, had a significant negative impact on the death rate in both pre-vaccination and post-vaccination models. The data from the post-vaccination model demonstrate that higher vaccination rates were associated with significant decreases in fatalities. Additionally, our research indicates that countries with healthcare systems characterized by high and medium levels of decommodification experienced lower mortality rates than those with healthcare systems involving low decommodification.
Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that stronger public health infrastructure and more inclusive social protections have mitigated the severity of the pandemic’s adverse health impacts, more so than emergency containment measures and social restrictions.
Summary
Key Message
This study investigates whether COVID-19 mortality rates across a group of developed nations are associated with characteristics of their healthcare systems, beyond the differential policy responses in those countries. To this aim, a quantile regression with non-additive fixed effects is applied to estimate mortality rates across quantiles. The results of this study indicate that stronger public health infrastructure and more inclusive social protections have mitigated the severity of the pandemic’s adverse health impacts, more so than emergency containment measures and social restrictions.
Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Post-COVID-19 Condition in Korea
Myungwon Jang, Dongkwon Choi, Jonghyuk Choi, Ho-Jang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):431-439.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.124
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Numerous studies have explored the causes and spread of outbreaks, yet there is a lack of research on post-coronavirus disease 2019 condition (PCC) in Korea. The goal of this study was to identify the various types of PCC and associated factors in discharged patients and to provide directions for the ongoing health management of confirmed patients.
Methods
A telephone survey was conducted among 680 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients diagnosed between July 7, 2021 and August 26, 2021, in Dangjin, Chungnam, Korea. A descriptive analysis of characteristics, univariate analysis, and regression were performed using data from basic epidemiological surveys conducted at the time of diagnosis and post-discharge questionnaires.
Results
Of the 585 patients who responded, 159 (27.2%) developed PCC. Of the 211 patients with no initial symptoms, 27 (12.8%) developed PCC, versus 132 (35.3%) of the 374 patients with initial symptoms. Among the initial symptoms, fever or chills, cough or sputum, loss of smell, and sore throat were associated with PCC. Compared to patients with less than 10 days of hospitalization, those with a hospitalization period of 21 days to 30 days (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.2) and 31 days or more (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.9 to 18.1) had a higher risk of PCC.
Conclusions
More than a quarter of COVID-19 patients, including those who had no initial symptoms, experienced PCC in Korea. People with the initial symptoms of fever, chills, and respiratory symptoms and those who had prolonged hospital stays had a high risk of PCC.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 후유증은 진단 시 초기증상과 연관되며, 입원기간이 길어질수록 후유증 발병 위험이 높았다. 코로나19 후유증의 위험인자에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하며, 이러한 특징을 갖는 확진환자를 대상으로 퇴원 후 지속직인 환자관리가 필요하다.
Key Message
Post-coronavirus disease 2019 condition (PCC) are associated with initial symptoms at diagnosis, and the risk of this increases with longer hospital stays. Further research on the risk factors for PCC is needed, and continued patient care is necessary for confirmed patients with these characteristics after discharge.
Gender Inequalities in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-based Study in Korea
Minku Kang, Sarah Yu, Seung-Ah Choe, Daseul Moon, Myung Ki, Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):413-421.   Published online August 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.170
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study explored the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on psychosocial stress in prime working-age individuals in Korea, focusing on gender inequalities. We hypothesized that the impact of COVID-19 on mental health would differ by age and gender, with younger women potentially demonstrating heightened vulnerability relative to men.
Methods
The study involved data from the Korea Community Health Survey and included 319 592 adults aged 30 years to 49 years. We employed log-binomial regression analysis, controlling for variables including age, education, employment status, marital status, and the presence of children. The study period included 3 phases: the period prior to the COVID-19 outbreak (pre–COVID-19), the early pandemic, and the period following the introduction of vaccinations (post-vaccination).
Results
The findings indicated that women were at a heightened risk of psychosocial stress during the early pandemic (relative risk [RR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.05) and post-vaccination period (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.10) compared to men. This pattern was prominent in urban women aged 30-34 years (pre–COVID-19: RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10; early pandemic: RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.25; post-vaccination period, RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.31).
Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted unequal impacts on psychosocial stress among prime working-age individuals in Korea, with women, particularly those in urban areas, experiencing a heightened risk. The findings highlight the importance of addressing gender-specific needs and implementing appropriate interventions to mitigate the psychosocial consequences of the pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 대유행이 국내 경제활동인구의 정신건강에 미친 젠더화된 영향을 조사하였다. 연구대상자는 2017-2021년 지역사회건강조사 조사대상자 319,592명이다. 연구 결과, 대유행 이후 30-39세 연령대 여성의 스트레스 수준이 남성에 비하여 현저히 증가한 것으로 나타났으며, 사회적 거리두기를 엄격하게 시행하였던 도시 지역에서 이러한 경향이 두드러졌다. 이번 연구 결과는 대유행 대응 노력에서 취약 집단을 지원하기 위한 중재 정책의 필요성을 강조한다
Key Message
We investigate the gendered impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the working-age population in Korea, focusing on ages 30-49, utilizing data from the Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) from 2017 to 2021 including 319,592 participants. Findings reveal a notable increase in stress levels among women in the 30-39 age group after the pandemic compared to men, accentuating in urban areas with stringent social distancing measures. Our results underscore the necessity for intervention policies to support vulnerable groups in pandemic response efforts.
Non-vaccination Against COVID-19 Among Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants Adults in Peru: A Cross-sectional Study, 2022
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):397-406.   Published online August 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.078
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with non-vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the Venezuelan immigrant population residing in Peru.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using data obtained from the Second Survey of the Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru in 2022. The dependent variable was vaccination status against COVID-19. The independent variables included socio-demographic, economic, and migratory characteristics of the included population. Crude and adjusted generalized linear Poisson-family models were used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
A total of 7739 Venezuelan migrants aged 18 years or older were included. The proportion of non-vaccination against COVID-19 was 5.7%. Regarding associated factors, unemployment (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.65) was linked to an increased likelihood of not being vaccinated against COVID-19. In contrast, women (aPR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.95), possessing a migration permit (aPR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.54), and having health insurance (aPR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.81) were associated with a decreased likelihood of being unvaccinated.
Conclusions
The primary governmental and non-governmental institutions responsible for supporting and protecting the Venezuelan migrant and refugee population should improve vaccination access by issuing migration permits and providing health insurance.
Summary
Key Message
• Vaccination against COVID-19 is a strategy that should be provided equitably to the entire population. However, there are vulnerable groups such as Venezuelan migrants who have structural, cultural and socioeconomic barriers that limit access to this prevention system. • In Peru, about 6% of Venezuelan migrants have not received the complete vaccination schedule against COVID-19 due to the lack of employment in this population. In fact, the majority (61.9%) of Venezuelan migrants have only received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine by February 2022.
Brief Report
Utilization of the Unlinked Case Proportion to Control COVID-19: A Focus on the Non-pharmaceutical Interventional Policies of the Korea and Japan
Yeri Jeong, Sanggu Kang, Boeun Kim, Yong Jin Gil, Seung-sik Hwang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):377-383.   Published online June 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.056
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Korea and Japan have managed the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using markedly different policies, referred to as the “3T” and “3C” strategies, respectively. This study examined these differences to assess the roles of active testing and contact tracing as non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We compared the proportion of unlinked cases (UCs) and test positivity rate (TPR) as indicators of tracing and testing capacities.
Methods
We outlined the evolution of NPI policies and investigated temporal trends in their correlations with UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR prior to the Omicron peak. Spearman correlation coefficients were reported between the proportion of UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR. The Fisher r-to-z transformation was employed to examine the significance of differences between correlation coefficients.
Results
The proportion of UCs was significantly correlated with confirmed cases (r=0.995, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.659, p<0.001) in Korea and with confirmed cases (r=0.437, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.429, p<0.001) in Japan. The Fisher r-to-z test revealed significant differences in correlation coefficients between the proportion of UCs and confirmed cases (z=16.07, p<0.001) and between the proportion of UCs and TPR (z=2.12, p=0.034) in Korea and Japan.
Conclusions
Higher UCs were associated with increases in confirmed cases and TPR, indicating the importance of combining testing and contact tracing in controlling COVID-19. The implementation of stricter policies led to stronger correlations between these indicators. The proportion of UCs and TPR effectively indicated the effectiveness of NPIs. If the proportion of UCs shows an upward trend, more testing and contact tracing may be required.
Summary
Korean summary
“3T”전략과 “3C”전략으로 대표되는 한국과 일본의 코로나 19 유행 시기의 NPI 정책을 비교하고, 접촉자 추적 및 검사 역량의 지표로 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(unlinked case)와 검사 양성률(TPR)의 역할을 평가하였다. 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(UC)는 전체 확진자수 증가 및 검사 양성률의 증가와 관련이 있었으며, 이는 COVID-19 통제에 있어 검사와 접촉자 추적을 적절히 조합하는 것이 중요함을 보여준다.
Original Articles
COVID-19 Vaccination and Clinical Outcomes at a Secondary Referral Hospital During the Delta Variant-dominant Period in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Didan Ariadapa Rahadi, Elfira Yusri, Syandrez Prima Putra, Rima Semiarty, Dian Pertiwi, Cimi Ilmiawati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):221-230.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.077
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Indonesia, during which the Delta variant predominated, took place after a vaccination program had been initiated in the country. This study was conducted to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes including hospitalization, severe COVID-19, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death using a real-world model.
Methods
This single-center retrospective cohort study involved patients with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years who presented to the COVID-19 emergency room at a secondary referral teaching hospital between June 1, 2021 and August 31, 2021. We used a binary logistic regression model to assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes, with age, sex, and comorbidities as confounding variables.
Results
A total of 716 patients were included, 32.1% of whom were vaccinated. The elderly participants (≥65 years) had the lowest vaccine coverage among age groups. Vaccination had an effectiveness of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 66) for preventing hospitalization, 97% (95% CI, 77 to 99) for preventing severe COVID-19, 95% (95% CI, 56 to 99) for preventing ICU admission, and 90% (95% CI, 22 to 99) for preventing death. Interestingly, patients with type 2 diabetes had a 2-fold to 4-fold elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes.
Conclusions
Among adults, COVID-19 vaccination has a moderate preventive impact on hospitalization but a high preventive impact on severe COVID-19, ICU admission, and death. The authors suggest that relevant parties increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage, especially in the elderly population.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in the intrinsic severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 according to the emerging variant: a nationwide study from February 2020 to June 2022, including comparison with vaccinated populations
    Boyeong Ryu, Eunjeong Shin, Dong Hwi Kim, HyunJu Lee, So Young Choi, Seong-Sun Kim, Il-Hwan Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Sangwon Lee, Jaehyun Jeon, Donghyok Kwon, Sungil Cho
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Determinant Factors of Mortality in Pre-elderly and Elderly Patients With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia
Thresya Febrianti, Ngabila Salama, Inggariwati , Dwi Oktavia
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):231-237.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.008
  • 1,645 View
  • 127 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in pre-elderly and elderly individuals in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Methods
We employed a case-control study design, utilizing secondary data from the Epidemiology Surveillance, Immunization Prevention, and Disease Control Sections of the DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office, collected from December 2020 to January 2021. The study included 188 cases and an equal number of controls. Cases were COVID-19 patients confirmed to have died, as reported by hospitals and communities and subsequently verified by healthcare workers. Control subjects were patients who completed a 14-day isolation period and had been officially declared recovered by healthcare professionals. The dependent variable was the mortality of COVID-19 patients in the January 2021 period. The independent variables consisted of demographic data (age and sex), clinical symptoms (cough, runny nose, anosmia, diarrhea, headaches, abdominal pain, muscle pain, and nausea/vomiting), and comorbidities (hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes). Multivariate analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression.
Results
The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed several factors associated with COVID-19 fatalities in Jakarta: age of 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 4.84; 95% CI, 3.00 to 7.80), male (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.41 to 3.68), dyspnea (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.04 to 7.55), anosmia (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.46), and heart disease (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.04 to 18.46).
Conclusions
The control and prevention of COVID-19 among elderly individuals require particular vigilance. When a COVID-19 case is detected within this demographic, prompt treatment and medication administration are crucial to mitigate the presenting symptoms.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Tuberculosis Coinfection among COVID-19 Patients: Clinical Presentation and Mortality in a Tertiary Lung Hospital in Indonesia
    Heni Muflihah, Fajar A. Yulianto, Rina, Edi Sampurno, Astri Ferdiana, Santun B. Rahimah
    The International Journal of Mycobacteriology.2024; 13(1): 58.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health