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26 "Sun Ha Jee"
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Original Article
The Korea Cohort Consortium: The Future of Pooling Cohort Studies
Sangjun Lee, Kwang-Pil Ko, Jung Eun Lee, Inah Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Aesun Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin, Sangmin Park, Seungho Ryu, Sun Young Yang, Seung Ho Choi, Jeongseon Kim, Sang-Wook Yi, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):464-474.   Published online September 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.299
  • 3,239 View
  • 120 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We introduced the cohort studies included in the Korea Cohort Consortium (KCC), focusing on large-scale cohort studies established in Korea with a prolonged follow-up period. Moreover, we also provided projections of the follow-up and estimates of the sample size that would be necessary for big-data analyses based on pooling established cohort studies, including population-based genomic studies.
Methods
We mainly focused on the characteristics of individual cohort studies from the KCC. We developed “PROFAN”, a Shiny application for projecting the follow-up period to achieve a certain number of cases when pooling established cohort studies. As examples, we projected the follow-up periods for 5000 cases of gastric cancer, 2500 cases of prostate and breast cancer, and 500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The sample sizes for sequencing-based analyses based on a 1:1 case-control study were also calculated.
Results
The KCC consisted of 8 individual cohort studies, of which 3 were community-based and 5 were health screening-based cohorts. The population-based cohort studies were mainly organized by Korean government agencies and research institutes. The projected follow-up period was at least 10 years to achieve 5000 cases based on a cohort of 0.5 million participants. The mean of the minimum to maximum sample sizes for performing sequencing analyses was 5917-72 102.
Conclusions
We propose an approach to establish a large-scale consortium based on the standardization and harmonization of existing cohort studies to obtain adequate statistical power with a sufficient sample size to analyze high-risk groups or rare cancer subtypes.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 코호트 컨소시엄(KCC)은 “2015년 한국의 생활 습관 및 환경 요인에 따른 암 기여분율” 프로젝트의 3단계 과업으로써, 본 프로젝트에 참여한 기존의 구축된 개인 코호트 연구의 연구자들을 주도로 다수의 대규모 한국 코호트 연구를 기반으로 구성되었다. 따라서 본 연구는 KCC에 포함된 한국 코호트 연구를 소개하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 또한 여러 기 확립된 국제 컨소시엄을 기반으로 빅데이터 기반 코호트 풀링 연구의 중요성을 제시하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The relationship between regional inequalities in the provision of emergency health services and other health services
    Erkan Boğa
    Medicine.2023; 102(45): e35930.     CrossRef
Special Article
Well-being Index Scores and Subjective Health Status of Korean Healthcare Workers
Yoonhee Shin, Bohyun Park, Nam-eun Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Minsu Ock, Sun Ha Jee, Sue K. Park, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):226-233.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.114
  • 2,985 View
  • 123 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective level of health-related quality of life of Korean healthcare workers using various quality-of-life instruments.
Methods
This study included 992 participants, who were doctors and nurses. A survey was conducted between November 28 and December 4, 2019. Data from 954 participants divided into 3 groups (physicians, residents, and nurses) were analyzed. Four measurement tools (29 questions) were used in the survey to evaluate subjective health status and well-being.
Results
In the Mayo Well-being Index, burnout during work (88.5%) and emotional difficulties caused by work (84.0%) were frequently cited by the respondents. Regarding questions on burnout and emotional difficulties, residents and nurses had the highest scores (91.0 and 89.6%, respectively). Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability, accounted for a high percentage (73.1%) of the total, while 82.2% of respondents reported that their work schedules interfered with their leisure and family time. There was no significant difference among the groups in subjective health status. However, 10.1% of the residents experienced very low quality of life, which was a higher proportion than that of physicians (2.7%) and nurses (5.2%).
Conclusions
The level of well-being that Korean medical workers experienced in relation to work was lower than the results of the United States healthcare workers surveyed using the same tool. This study was unique in that it conducted a subjective quality-of-life survey on Korean healthcare workers.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구의 목적은 다양한 삶의 질 도구를 사용하여 한국 의료종사자들의 건강과 관련된 삶의 질에 대한 주관적인 수준을 평가하는 것이다. 피로와 정서적 어려움, 업무로 인한 일상생활의 방해 등 한국 의료종사자의 일부 삶의 질 점수가 낮았다. 의료 종사자의 소진 경험이 환자의 치료에 부정적인 영향을 미친다는 것을 고려할 때 의료 종사자들의 삶의 질을 향상시키는 정책이 마련되어야하며, 건강과 관련된 직업적 위험요인 연구도 추가적으로 필요하다.
Original Articles
Smoking Is Associated With Abdominal Obesity, Not Overall Obesity, in Men With Type 2 Diabetes
Ji Eun Yun, Heejin Kimm, Young Ju Choi, Sun Ha Jee, Kap Bum Huh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(5):316-322.   Published online September 28, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.316
  • 9,300 View
  • 98 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Abdominal obesity increases mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease and there is a possibility that smoking effects obesity. However, previous studies concerning the effects of smoking on obesity are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine whether smoking is positively related to abdominal obesity in men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Subjects consisted of 2197 type 2 diabetic patients who visited Huh's Diabetes Center from 2003 to 2009. Indices of abdominal obesity were defined as visceral fat thickness (VFT) measured by ultrasonography and waist circumference (WC). Overall obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI).

Results

Statistically significant differences in WC and VFT by smoking status were identified. However, there was no statistical difference in BMI according to smoking status. Means of WC and VFT were not significantly higher in heavy smokers and lower in mild smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, the BMI confounder adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for VFT in ex-smokers and current-smokers were 1.70 (1.21 to 2.39) and 1.86 (1.27 to 2.73), respectively.

Conclusions

Smoking status was positively associated with abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients.

Summary

Citations

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Cigarette Smoking and Serum Bilirubin Subtypes in Healthy Korean Men: The Korea Medical Institute Study
Jaeseong Jo, Heejin Kimm, Ji Eun Yun, Kyu Jang Lee, Sun Ha Jee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):105-112.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.105
  • 12,495 View
  • 75 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and its concentration decreases in smokers. However, studies about the association between cigarette smoking and bilirubin are scarce and most are limited to total bilirubin. Additionally, bilirubin is highly related to hemoglobin. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between bilirubin subtypes and cigarette smoking in healthy Korean men independently of hemoglobin.

Methods

This study included 48 040 Korean men aged 30 to 87 years who visited the Korea Medical Institute for routine health examinations from January to December, 2007. The association of smoking with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking into consideration differences in subjects and smoking characteristics.

Results

Current smokers had lower bilirubin concentrations than never-smokers and ex-smokers. Smoking amount and duration were inversely significantly associated with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin. In a multivariable adjusted model, compared to never-smokers, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of current smokers with the highest number of pack-years were 1.7 (1.6 to 1.9) for total, 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) for direct, and 1.7 (1.6 to 1.9) for indirect bilirubin. After further adjustment for hemoglobin, this association became stronger (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1.9 to 2.2] for total; 1.9 [1.8 to 2.0] for direct; 2.0 [1.9 to 2.2] for indirect bilirubin).

Conclusions

In this study, bilirubin subtypes are inversely associated with smoking status, smoking amount, and smoking duration in healthy Korean men independently of hemoglobin. Further studies are needed to investigate this association in healthy Korean women.

Summary

Citations

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Special Article
Public Health Challenges of Electronic Cigarettes in South Korea
Sungkyu Lee, Heejin Kimm, Ji Eun Yun, Sun Ha Jee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(6):235-241.   Published online November 14, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.6.235
  • 45,183 View
  • 177 Download
  • 44 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid.

This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful.

Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'ts
The Korean Prediction Model for Adolescents' Future Smoking Intentions.
Sungkyu Lee, Ji Eun Yun, Ja Kyoung Lee, Il Soon Kim, Sun Ha Jee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):283-291.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.283
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model for future smoking intention among Korean adolescents aged 13 to 15 in order to identify the high risk group exposed to future smoking. METHODS: The data was collected from a total of 5940 students who participated in a self-administrated questionnaire of a cross-sectional school-based survey, the 2004 Korea Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify the relevant determinants associated with intentions of adolescents' future smoking. Receiver Operation Characteristic (ROC) assessment was applied to evaluate the explanation level of the developed prediction model. RESULTS: 8.4% of male and 7.2% of female participants show their intentions of future smoking. Among non-smoking adolescents; who have past smoking experience [odds ratio (OR) 2.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92 - 3.88]; who have intentions of smoking when close friends offer a cigarette (OR 31.47; 95% CI = 21.50 - 46.05); and who have friends that are mostly smokers (OR 5.27; 95% CI = 2.85 - 9.74) are more likely to be smokers in the future. The prediction model developed from this study consists of five determinants; past smoking experience; parents smoking status; friends smoking status; ownership of a product with a cigarette brand logo; and intentions of smoking from close friends' cigarette offer. The area under the ROC curve was 0.8744 (95% CI=0.85 - 0.90) for current non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: For efficiency, school-based smoking prevention programs need to be designed to target the high risk group exposed to future smoking through the prediction model developed by the study, instead of implementing the programs for all the students.
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    Fariba Khayyati, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Hamid Allahverdipour, Mohammad AsghariJafarabadi, Kamiar Kouzekanani
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    Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Vaibhav Shah, Michael Ekholuenetale
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    Jun Hyun Hwang, Soon-Woo Park, Hajo Zeeb
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    Eun Sun So, Ji Young Yeo
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    Gyeongsil Lee, Joann Lee, Sungkyu Lee
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    김이경, 이향기, Sun Ha Jee, 이성규
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    Ali Khan Khuwaja, Saleem Khawaja, Komal Motwani, Adeel Akbar Khoja, Iqbal Syed Azam, Zafar Fatmi, Badar Sabir Ali, Muhammad Masood Kadir
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    Chang Ho Hong
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Differential Parental Transmission of Markers in BCL3 among Korean Cleft Case-parent Trios.
Beyoung Yun Park, Jae Woong Sull, Jung Yong Park, Sun Ha Jee, Terri H Beaty
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):1-4.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 700 live births. The B-Cell Leukemia/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) gene has been suggested as a candidate gene for CL/P based on association and linkage studies in some populations. This study tests for an association between markers in BCL3 and isolated, non-syndromic CL/P using a case-parent trio design, while considering parent-of-origin effects. METHODS: Forty case-parent trios were genotyped for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BCL3 gene. We performed a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on individual SNPs, and the FAMHAP package was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and to test for excess transmission of multi-SNP haplotypes. RESULTS: The odds ratio for transmission of the minor allele, OR (transmission), was significant for SNP rs8100239 (OR=3.50, p=0.004) and rs2965169 (OR=2.08, p=0.027) when parent-of-origin was not considered. Parent-specific TDT revealed that SNP rs8100239 showed excess maternal transmission. Analysis of haplotypes of rs2965169 and rs8100239 also suggested excess maternal transmission. CONCLUSIONS: BCL3 appears to influence risk of CL/P through a parent-of-origin effect with excess maternal transmission.
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Medical Expenditure of National Health Insurance Attributable to Smoking among the Korean Population.
Sang Yi Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Ji Eun Yun, Su Young Kim, Jakyung Lee, Jonathan M Samet, Il Soon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(3):227-232.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.3.227
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  • 46 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to determine the population-attributable risk (PAR) and estimate the total medical expenditure of the Korean National Health Insurance (KNHI) due to smoking. METHODS: We used data from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study of 1,178,138 Koreans aged 30 to 95. These data were available from 1992 to 2003 and covered a long-term follow-up period among the Korean population. RESULTS: The total medical expenditure of KNHI related to smoking increased by 27% from $324.9 million in 1999 to $413.7 million in 2003. By specific diseases, smokingattributable KNHI medical expenditure was the highest for lung cancer ($74.2 million), followed by stroke ($65.3 million), COPD ($50.1 million), CHD ($49 million) and stomach cancer ($30 million). A total of 1.3 million KNHI patients were suffering from smoking-related diseases in 2003. We predicted rises in total KNHI medical expenditure related to smoking to $675.1 million (63% increase compared with that of 2003) and in the total number of KNHI patients suffering from smoking-related diseases to about 2.6million (an approximate 100% increase compared with those in 2003) in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: We found a substantial economic burden related to the high smoking prevalence in South Korea.
Summary

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Original Articles
Factors Associated with Hypertension Control and Antihypertensive Medication among Hypertensive Patients in a Community.
Dong Han Lee, Youn Hee Choi, Kang Hee Lee, Dae Ryong Kang, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):289-297.
  • 4,638 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this study are to identify the factors associated with hypertension control and to determine the influencing factors associated with antihypertensive therapy. METHODS: The study was conducted on 107 subjects who participated in the 1999 and 2002 Gwacheon Study and who had had uncontrolled hypertension (systolic > or=140 or diastolic > or= 90mmHg) in 1999. We compared the characteristics of the controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive group and investigated the characteristics of those taking antihypertensive medication. Univariate associations between hypertension control and its characteristics and the association between antihypertension treatment and its characteristics were tested with x2-test. We also performed logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The participants who had their blood pressure checked within 6 months before their first measurement and those who had taken the antihypertensive medication showed significantly better hypertension control during the follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline antihypertensive therapy was the most important determinant factor of hypertension control during the follow-up. Socioeconomic level and life style did not affect hypertension control when controlled by the treatment variable in this study. The factors associated with antihypertensive therapy at follow-up were previous antihypertensive therapy, old age, and high educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Those who received antihypertensive therapy and those who had their blood pressure re-checked within 6 months both showed well controlled hypertension. The subjects with high educational level complied well with the antihypertensive regimen, but those in their forties did not.
Summary
Pesticides and Cancer Incidence: The Kangwha Cohort Study.
Jae Woong Sull, Sang Wook Yi, Tae Yong Sohn, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Heechul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(1):24-32.
  • 2,399 View
  • 45 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
Few studies have examined the relationship between the risk of cancer and exposure to pesticides in Korea or in other East Asian that have until recently used chlorophenoxy herbicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the exposure to pesticides and cancer incidence. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 13 years (1985-1998). The subjects included 2,687 male and 3,589 female Kangwha Island residents, Koreans aged fifty-five or more as of March 1985, who received a personal health interview and completed a health examination survey. A Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR). RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age of the study participants in 1985 was 66.4 for males and 67.1 for females. During the 13 years follow-up, a total of 300 incidents of cancer in males and 146 in females developed. In males, the total cancer incidence in the highest group was RR, 1.4 (95% CI=1.0-1.9), p for trend=0.041, for digestive organ cancer incidence in the highest group, RR, 1.5 (95% CI=1.0-2.3), p for trend=0.057, for stomach cancer incidence in the highest group, RR, 1.6 (95% CI=0.9-2.8), p for trend=0.094, for gallbladder cancer incidence in the highest group, RR, 9.1 (95% CI=1.1-77.0), p for trend=0.014 were elevated according to the higher frequency of pesticide use per year. In particular, the risk of gallbladder cancer was very high. Although not significant, the risk of liver cancer was higher than in the non-exposed group (in the highest group, RR, 2.0 (95% CI=0.7-5.9)). In females, although not significant, breast cancer incidence in the highest exposure group was higher than in the non-exposed group (in the highest group, RR, 4.7 (95% CI=0.8-27.9)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that Korean farmers who use pesticides, particularly males, have a significantly higher total cancer incidence, particularly from digestive organ cancers such as, stomach, gallbladder, and liver cancer. In particular, the risk of gallbladder cancer was very high.
Summary
Cohort Study on Age at Menopause and Mortality- Kangwha Cohort Study -.
Jae Seok Hong, Sang Wook Yi, Sun Ha Jee, Tae Yong Sohn, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):323-330.
  • 2,435 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between age at menopause and mortality in a population-based sample of women in Kangwha, Korea. METHODS: From the Kangwha Cohort, followed-up from 1985 to 1999, the data of the over 55 year old female group(n=3,596) was used in this study to examine the association between age at menopause and mortality. We calculated the all causes mortality risk ratio and the cancer mortality risk ratio by age at menopause grouping using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model with adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, education, chronic disease, self-rated health status, alcohol consumption and age at first birth. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the all causes mortality risk ratio was 1.24 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=1.01-1.53) and 1.05 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.92-1.20). Also, compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the cancer mortality risk ratio was 1.53 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=0.78-2.98) and 1.17 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.77-1.80).
Summary
Analysis of Socioeconomic Costs of Smoking in Korea.
Han Joong Kim, Tae Kyu Park, Sun Ha Jee, Hye Young Kang, Chung Mo Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):183-190.
  • 2,402 View
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the annual economic costs attributable to cigarette smoking in Korea. METHODS: The costs were classified as being direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs and others. We focused on those costs related that are incurred in the treatment of selected diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and cancers), which have been proven to be caused by smoking. In addition to the basic costs of treatment, the additional amount of costs occurred due to smoking was obtained by computing the population attributable risk (PAR%) caused by smoking. To compute the PAR%, relative risks of smoking to the number of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and the death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. Our major data source was the 'Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) cohort study,' which was composed of a total of 115,682 male and 67,932 female beneficiaries who had complete records of their smoking histories in the year of 1992. RESULTS: The annual costs that could be attributable to smoking were estimated to be in the range of 2,847,500 million Won to 3,959,100 million Won. The maximum estimate of 3,959,100 million Won includes 233,100 million Won for medical costs, 5,100 million Won for transportation costs, 27,600 million Won for care giver's economic costs, 69,100 million Won in productivity loss, 3,435,000 million Won lost because of premature death, 172,100 million Won in costs resulting from passive smoke inhalation and 17,100 million Won for costs that resulted from fires that were caused by careless smoking. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the magnitude of the economic burden of smoking to Korean society is substantial. Therefore, this study provides strong evidence that there is a strong need for a national policy of tobacco control in Korea.
Summary
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Kang Sook Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):157-165.
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OBJECTIVES
To identify the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders(CVD) in Koreans using a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of beneficiaries who had taken health examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons) in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. Four hundred and twenty five (425) cases were selected following the validation of diagnosis among 2,026 reported CVD (I60-I68) inpatients during the year from 1993 to 1997. Controls were matched (1:1) with age and gender of the cases among inpatients without CVD during the same period. The source of data in this study were the files of the 1990 health examinations and the 1992 health questionnaires, as well as an additional telephone survey undertaken from March to November 1999. RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for total CVD were hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unrespectively, the odds ratio of ex-smoker was significantly lower than that of those who had never smoked. The risk factors for ischemic CVD also were hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, only blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for hemorrhagic CVD. Hypercholesterolemia was not a risk factor for total CVD, ischemic CVD, and hemorrhagic CVD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most important risk factor for CVD (including subtype) in Koreans was hypertension.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
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OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary
Timing of Menarche and Physical Growth during Childhood and Adolescence: The Kangwha Study.
Chang Soo Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Duck Hi Kim, Hyun Chang Kim, Kang Hee Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):521-529.
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OBJECTIVES
To assess height, weight and body mass index from childhood to adolescence according to the age at menarche and hence to study the influence of childhood growth on the menarche age. METHODS: "The Kangwha Study" was a community-based prospective cohort study which included the entire population of 219 female first graders in Kangwha county in 1986. Among the 219 girls, 119 girls who had received complete follow up checks during the study period(1986~1997), were included in this study, except one for whom menarche age information was unavailable. The remaining 118 girls were divided into three groups according to the timing of menarche : early(<25 percentile), intermediate and late(> or =75 percentile) maturers. RESULTS: The average age at menarche was 12.7 years : early 11.3 years, intermediate 12.6 years and late 13.7 years. The early maturers were taller and heavier between 6~8 years. But, the mean weight and body mass index at the menarche age did not differ statistically among the three groups. The weight and body mass index of the early maturers were consistently higher than those of the late maturers over the entire period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Critical body weight and body mass index must be attained for menstruation to be attained and the age at menarche is largely determined by the childhood growth. In addition, it seems that childhood growth and age at menarche are associated with adolescent weight and body mass index.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health