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Volume 51(6); November 2018
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Original Articles
Short-term Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Diabetic Coma in Seoul, Korea
Hyunmee Kim, Woojin Kim, Jee eun Choi, Changsoo Kim, Jungwoo Sohn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):265-274.   Published online October 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.153
  • 6,063 View
  • 233 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
A positive association between air pollution and both the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in some epidemiologic and animal studies, but little research has evaluated the relationship between air pollution and diabetic coma. Diabetic coma is an acute complication of DM caused by diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, which is characterized by extreme hyperglycemia accompanied by coma. We conducted a time-series study with a generalized additive model using a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the association between ambient air pollution (particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and emergency department (ED) visits for DM with coma in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2009.
Methods
The ED data and medical records from the 3 years previous to each diabetic coma event were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service to examine the relationship with air pollutants.
Results
Overall, the adjusted relative risks (RRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increment of NO2 was statistically significant at lag 1 (RR, 1.125; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.039 to 1.219) in a single-lag model and both lag 0-1 (RR, 1.120; 95% CI, 1.028 to 1.219) and lag 0-3 (RR, 1.092; 95% CI, 1.005 to 1.186) in a cumulative-lag model. In a subgroup analysis, significant positive RRs were found for females for per-IQR increments of NO2 at cumulative lag 0-3 (RR, 1.149; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.291).
Conclusions
The results of our study suggest that ambient air pollution, specifically NO2, is associated with ED visits for diabetic coma.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 대기오염물질의 단기적인 영향을 확인하기 위하여 당뇨병성 혼수로 인한 응급실 내원을 시계열적으로 분석하였다. 분석 결과 이산화질소 상승이 노출 1일 후의 응급실 방문을 1.25% 상승시켰다(RR, 1.125; 95% CI 1.039-1.219). 또한, 노출 3일 후까지 누적 결과도 유의한 상관관계를 보였다(RR 1.092; 95% CI, 1.005-1.186).

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Criteria air pollutants and diabetes mortality classified by different subtypes and complications: A nationwide, case-crossover study
    Peng Yin, Huihuan Luo, Ya Gao, Wei Liu, Su Shi, Xinyue Li, Xia Meng, Haidong Kan, Maigeng Zhou, Guanglin Li, Renjie Chen
    Journal of Hazardous Materials.2023; 460: 132412.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of different hybrid modeling methods to estimate intraurban NO2 concentrations
    Inbo Oh, Mi-Kyoung Hwang, Jin-Hee Bang, Wonho Yang, Soontae Kim, Kiyoung Lee, SungChul Seo, Jiho Lee, Yangho Kim
    Atmospheric Environment.2021; 244: 117907.     CrossRef
  • Short-term effect of NO2 on outpatient visits for dermatologic diseases in Xinxiang, China: a time-series study
    Ling Chao, Mengxue Lu, Zhen An, Juan Li, Yuchun Li, Qian Zhao, Yinbiao Wang, Yue Liu, Weidong Wu, Jie Song
    Environmental Geochemistry and Health.2021; 43(9): 1.     CrossRef
  • Assessing short-term effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory diseases in Guwahati, India with the application of the generalized additive model
    Abhishek Dutta, Wanida Jinsart
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.2021; 27(7): 1786.     CrossRef
  • Does ozone inhalation cause adverse metabolic effects in humans? A systematic review
    Judy S. LaKind, Carol J. Burns, Lynn H. Pottenger, Daniel Q. Naiman, Julie E. Goodman, Satori A. Marchitti
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology.2021; 51(6): 467.     CrossRef
  • Joint effect of heatwaves and air quality on emergency department attendances for vulnerable population in Perth, Western Australia, 2006 to 2015
    Dimpalben Patel, Le Jian, Jianguo Xiao, Janis Jansz, Grace Yun, Andrew Robertson
    Environmental Research.2019; 174: 80.     CrossRef
Trends in the Prevalence of Childhood Asthma in Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea: The Seoul Atopy ∙ Asthma-friendly School Project
Yong Min Cho, Chea-Bong Kim, Kyung Nam Yeon, Eun Sun Lee, KyooSang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):275-280.   Published online October 8, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.090
  • 7,504 View
  • 158 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The project Seoul Atopy ∙ Asthma-friendly School investigated the current status of childhood asthma to enable formulation of a preventative policy. We evaluated the current prevalence of childhood asthma in Seoul and its trends and related factors.
Methods
The project was conducted annually from 2011 to 2016 and involved around 35 000 children aged 1-13 years. Based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood guidelines, the survey involved parents. The associations of the particulate matter (PM10) concentration, and the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded in the 25 districts of Seoul, with the prevalence of asthma were assessed.
Results
The age-standardized asthma prevalence in 2011 and 2016 was 6.74 and 4.02%, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime asthma treatment and treatment during the last 12 months tended to decrease from 2011 to 2016. Asthma treatment was significantly correlated with the number of days on which the daily air quality guidance level was exceeded, but not with the PM10 concentration.
Conclusions
This study reports the prevalence of asthma among children in Seoul and confirmed the relationship between childhood asthma and known risk factors in a large-scale survey.
Summary
Korean summary
서울시 아토피 천식 안심학교 사업을 통하여 2011년부터 2016년까지 약 25만명의 아동들을 대상으로 천식 유병률을 파악하고 관련 요인을 분석하였다. 천식의 연령표준화 유병률은 2011년 6.745에서 2016년 4.02%로 감소 추세를 보였다. 미세먼지(PM10)의 농도가 기준을 초과한 일수는 천식으로 인한 병원 치료 건 수와 상관성을 보였다.

Citations

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  • Association of exposure to indoor molds and dampness with allergic diseases at water-damaged dwellings in Korea
    Seokwon Lee, Seung-Hun Ryu, Woo Jun Sul, Seunghyun Kim, Dohyeong Kim, SungChul Seo
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends (2007–2019) of major atopic diseases throughout the life span in a large Mexican population
    Martín Becerril-Ángeles, Mario H. Vargas, Ismael Seth Medina-Reyes, Ramón Alberto Rascón-Pacheco
    World Allergy Organization Journal.2023; 16(1): 100732.     CrossRef
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    Jeoungmi Kim, Bomgyeol Kim, Do Hee Kim, Yejin Kim, Vasuki Rajaguru
    Healthcare.2023; 11(4): 492.     CrossRef
  • Global, regional, and national burden of allergic disorders and their risk factors in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Youn Ho Shin, Jimin Hwang, Rosie Kwon, Seung Won Lee, Min Seo Kim, Jae Il Shin, Dong Keon Yon
    Allergy.2023; 78(8): 2232.     CrossRef
  • Changing Trends in School Absenteeism and Identification of Associated Factors in Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis
    Dong Wan Kang, Sung Hoon Kim, Yechan Kyung, Hae Jeong Lee
    Children.2023; 10(12): 1918.     CrossRef
  • Forecasting the Effects of Real-Time Indoor PM2.5 on Peak Expiratory Flow Rates (PEFR) of Asthmatic Children in Korea: A Deep Learning Approach
    Jiyoung Woo, Ji-Hyun Lee, Yeonjin Kim, Guillaume Rudasingwa, Dae Hyun Lim, Sungroul Kim
    IEEE Access.2022; 10: 19391.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of Asthma, Atopic Dermatitis, and Allergic Rhinitis in Korean Adults before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic Using Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hyo Geun Choi, So Young Kim, Yeon-Hee Joo, Hyun-Jin Cho, Sang-Wook Kim, Yung Jin Jeon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(21): 14274.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with electronic cigarette use among adolescents asthma in the Republic of Korea
    Chang Hoon Han, Jae Ho Chung
    Journal of Asthma.2021; 58(11): 1451.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of changing trend in depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents with asthma and identification of associated factors: 11-year national data analysis in 788,411 participants
    Yechan Kyung, Young Joo Han, Ju Suk Lee, Jun Hwa Lee, Seon Hui Jo, Sung Hoon Kim
    Journal of Asthma.2021; 58(7): 921.     CrossRef
  • The role of the environment in shaping the trends of childhood asthma – An Asian perspective
    Agnes S. Y. Leung, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Jing Li, Punchama Pacharn, Takumi Takizawa, Eun Lee, Yuhan Xing, Ting‐Fan Leung, Soo‐Jong Hong, Gary W. K. Wong, Ömer Kalaycı
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology.2021; 32(6): 1152.     CrossRef
  • Association of ambient air pollution with depressive and anxiety symptoms in pregnant women: A prospective cohort study
    Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Dal-Young Jung, Yee-Jin Shin, Kyung-Sook Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Dong In Suh, Soo-Jong Hong, Hwan-Cheol Kim
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2021; 237: 113823.     CrossRef
  • Association between ambient air pollution and perceived stress in pregnant women
    Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Dal-Young Jung, Yee-Jin Shin, Kyung-Sook Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Dong In Suh, Soo-Jong Hong, Hwan-Cheol Kim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ten-Year trends and prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis among the Korean population, 2008–2017
    Jihyun Ha, Seung Won Lee, Dong Keon Yon
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2020; 63(7): 278.     CrossRef
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    Kyung Suk Lee
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2020; 63(7): 263.     CrossRef
The Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Cholecystectomy or Appendectomy: A Population-based Cohort Study in Korea
Joonki Lee, Sunho Choe, Ji Won Park, Seung-Yong Jeong, Aesun Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):281-288.   Published online October 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.105
  • 8,196 View
  • 224 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We investigated the association between cholecystectomy or appendectomy and the subsequent risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Korean population.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted with the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort of Korea; this sample was followed up from January 1, 2002, until the date of CRC incidence, loss to follow-up, or December 31, 2015. The exposure status of cholecystectomy and appendectomy was treated as a time-varying covariate. The calculated risk of CRC was stratified by follow-up period, and the association between these surgical procedures and CRC was investigated by a Cox regression model applying appropriate lag periods.
Results
A total of 707 663 individuals were identified for analysis. The study population was followed up for an average of 13.66 years, and 4324 CRC cases were identified. The hazard ratio (HR) of CRC was elevated in the first year after cholecystectomy (HR, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.89) and in the first year and 2-3 years after appendectomy (HR, 4.22; 95% CI, 2.87 to 6.20; HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.03, respectively). The HRs of CRC after applying 1 year of lag after cholecystectomy and 3 years of lag after appendectomy were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.57 to 1.13) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.51 to 1.16), respectively.
Conclusions
The risk of CRC increased in the first year after cholecystectomy and appendectomy, implying the possibility of bias. When appropriate lag periods after surgery were applied, no association was found between cholecystectomy or appendectomy and CRC.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 담낭절제술, 충수돌기절제술 후 대장암의 발생위험에 관한 연구로 국민건강보험공단 표본코호트자료를 사용한 후향적코호트 연구이다. 총 707 663명을 대상으로 연구를 진행하였으며, 담낭절제술을 시행한 환자들은 수술 후 1년 이내에서 대장암의 위험도가 유의하게 증가하였으나 이후 관련성을 보이지 않았고, 충수돌기절제술을 시행한 환자들은 수술 후 1년, 2~3년에서 유의하게 위험도가 증가하였으나, 이후에는 관련성을 보이지 않았다. 이 결과는 역인과관계의 가능성을 시사하며 이것을 고려하였을 때, 담낭절제술과 충수돌기절제술은 대장암의 발생위험과의 연관성을 보이지 않았다.

Citations

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Measuring and Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity in Western Iran
Farid Najafi, Yahya Pasdar, Behrooz Hamzeh, Satar Rezaei, Mehdi Moradi Nazar, Moslem Soofi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):289-297.   Published online October 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.062
  • 6,682 View
  • 179 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity is a considerable and growing public health concern worldwide. The present study aimed to quantify socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in western Iran.
Methods
A total of 10 086 participants, aged 35-65 years, from the Ravansar Non-communicable Disease Cohort Study (2014-2016) were included in the study to examine socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We defined obesity as a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 . The concentration index and concentration curve were used to illustrate and measure wealth-related inequality in obesity. Additionally, we decomposed the concentration index to identify factors that explained wealth-related inequality in obesity.
Results
Overall, the prevalence of obesity in the total sample was 26.7%. The concentration index of obesity was 0.04; indicating that obesity was more concentrated among the rich (p<0.001). Decomposition analysis indicated that wealth, place of residence, and marital status were the main contributors to the observed inequality in obesity.
Conclusions
Socioeconomic-related inequalities in obesity among adults warrant more attention. Policies should be designed to reduce both the prevalence of obesity and inequalities in obesity by focusing on those with higher socioeconomic status, urban residents, and married individuals.
Summary

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    Gustavo Cediel, Eliana Perez, Diego Gaitán, Olga L Sarmiento, Laura Gonzalez
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Blood Pressure and the Risk of Death From Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-based Cohort Study of Korean Adults
Jeoungbin Choi, Jieun Jang, Yoonsuk An, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):298-309.   Published online November 14, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.212
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and the risk of death from specific causes other than cardiovascular diseases.
Methods
We calculated the risk of specific death by SBP and DBP categories for 506 508 health examinees in 2002-2003 using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
Compared to normal levels (SBP <120 or DBP <90 mmHg), stage I systolic and diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159, DBP 85- 89 mmHg, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of death from diabetes mellitus, alcoholic liver disease, and renal failure (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.22; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46; HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.64 to 3.21; HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.20; HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.81; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.73, respectively), but a decreased risk of death from intestinal pneumonia (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.98; HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.91). Only stage II systolic hypertension (SBP ≥160 mmHg) was associated with an increased risk of death from pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, and intestinal ischemia (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.98; HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.15; HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.24 to 11.40, respectively), and stage I and II diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159 and ≥160 mmHg) were associated with an increased risk of death from intestinal ischemia (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.38; HR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.62 to 11.88, respectively).
Conclusions
An increase in blood pressure levels may alter the risk of death from certain causes other than cardiovascular diseases, a well-known outcome of hypertension, although the mechanism of these associations is not well documented.
Summary
Korean summary
2002년 및 2003년 한국 국민건강보험공단 건강검진 수검자 코호트(NHIS-HEALS) 중 506,508명을 대상으로 2013년 말일까지의 통계청 사망자료 기반 심뇌혈관질환을 제외한 기타 사망원인으로의 사망위험을 콕스회귀모형으로 분석한 결과에서 1단계 수축기 고혈압 군과 1단계 이완기 고혈압 군에서 당뇨, 알코올성 간질환, 콩팥부전 사망의 위험도가 통계적으로 유의하게 증가함을 보인 반면, 간질성 폐렴의 사망위험은 유의하게 감소함을 보였다. 2단계 수축기 고혈압 군에서는 폐렴, 간경화 및 허혈성 장질환의 사망위험이 증가하는 것을 보였다. 혈압의 증가가 기존에 알려진 심뇌혈관 질환 이외의 사망위험도에도 연관된 것으로 보이며, 고혈압의 질병부담 연구 및 보건정책 수립시 이 같은 점에 대한 고려가 필요하다.

Citations

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    Ju-Yeun Lee, Ji Hoon Hong, Sangjun Lee, Seokyung An, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0270510.     CrossRef
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Trends in Inequality in Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Income According to Recent Anti-smoking Policies in Korea: Use of Three National Surveys
Youngs Chang, Sanghyun Cho, Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):310-319.   Published online October 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.225
  • 7,727 View
  • 151 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study examined trends in inequality in cigarette smoking prevalence by income according to recent anti-smoking policies in Korea.
Methods
The data used in this study were drawn from three nationally representative surveys, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Korea Community Health Survey, and the Social Survey of Statistics Korea. We calculated the age-standardized smoking prevalence, the slope index of inequality, and the relative index of inequality by income level as a socioeconomic position indicator.
Results
Smoking prevalence among men decreased during the study period, but the downward trend became especially pronounced in 2015, when the tobacco price was substantially increased. Inequalities in cigarette smoking by income were evident in both genders over the study period in all three national surveys examined. Absolute inequality tended to decrease between 2014 and 2015 among men. Absolute and relative inequality by income decreased between 2008 and 2016 in women aged 30-59, except between 2014 and 2015.
Conclusions
The recent anti-smoking policies in Korea resulted in a downward trend in smoking prevalence among men, but not in relative inequality, throughout the study period. Absolute inequality decreased over the study period among men aged 30-59. A more aggressive tax policy is warranted to further reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in young adults in Korea.
Summary

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    Sung Yeol Son, Seo Young Kang, Hong-Jun Cho
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Brief Report
Pilot Study of a Brief WeChat Intervention in China to Increase Students’ Willingness to Assist a Flushing Student to Reduce Alcohol Use
Fan Zhang, Lok-Wa Yuen, Lanyan Ding, Ian M. Newman, Duane F. Shell
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):320-325.   Published online November 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.127
  • 5,419 View
  • 105 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This pilot study tested the effectiveness of a brief alcohol-related intervention delivered by the social media app WeChat to teach about ethanol-induced facial flushing and increase the willingness of students who see another student flushing to suggest that he or she should reduce or stop drinking. In the context of Chinese drinking culture, it is sometimes socially difficult to refuse a drink, even when experiencing physical discomfort, such as flushing.
Methods
Classrooms of students in a medical university in China were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Students in the intervention group were invited to view 3 alcohol education lessons on WeChat during a 2-week period. A pretest and posttest before and after the 2-week period assessed changes in students’ willingness to intervene if they saw someone flush while drinking. Data were collected about students’ alcohol use and their ratings of the lessons.
Results
Mixed-design analysis of variance yielded a significant time-by-treatment interaction effect on the variable of willingness to suggest that a flushing person stop or slow down their drinking, and the change was significant between the intervention and control groups. One-way analysis of covariance yielded a significant treatment effect at the posttest, after controlling for the pretest score. Students rated the lessons above the midpoint of the scale for being informative, interesting, and useful.
Conclusions
The pilot study showed that a brief alcohol-related intervention delivered by WeChat could produce a measurable positive change in the willingness of university students to suggest that a student who flushes should stop drinking. This pilot study also suggested improvements for future lessons and evaluation design.
Summary

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  • Social media in undergraduate medical education: A systematic review
    Jonathan Guckian, Mrudula Utukuri, Aqua Asif, Oliver Burton, Joshua Adeyoju, Adam Oumeziane, Timothy Chu, Eliot L. Rees
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Perspective
Introduction of Phylodynamics for Controlling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Korea
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):326-328.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.150
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As over 1000 new cases of HIV/AIDS occur in Korea annually, preventive health programs against HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. Since phylodynamic studies have been suggested as a way to understand how infectious diseases are transmitted and evolve, phylodynamic inferences can be a useful tool for HIV/AIDS research. In particular, phylodynamic models are helpful for dating the origins of an epidemic and estimating its basic reproduction number. Thus, the introduction of phylodynamics would be a highly valuable step towards controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 HIV/AIDS 신환자가 지속적으로 발생하고 있는 상황에서, 다른 나라에서는 HIV 감염관리에 계통역동학을 적용하고 있다. 이는 감염원과 감염경로를 알아내고, 기본재생산지수를 산출하도록 해주기 때문이다. 따라서 국내 HIV/AIDS 관리를 위해 계통역동학 적용을 적극 제안한다.”

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health