Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
8 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Funded articles
Volume 49(5); September 2016
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Replication of Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) Gene-by-psychosocial Stress Interaction Effects on Central Adiposity in a Korean Population
Hyun-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):253-259.   Published online July 10, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.028
  • 10,050 View
  • 157 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Central obesity plays a major role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chronic stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of central obesity. Although several large-scale genome-wide association studies have reported susceptibility genes for central adiposity, the effects of interactions between genes and psychosocial stress on central adiposity have rarely been examined. A recent study focusing on Caucasians discovered the novel gene , which was associated with central obesity-related traits via interactions with stress levels. We aimed to evaluate EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction effects on central adiposity traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), in Korean adults.
Methods
A total of 1467 Korean adults were included in this study. We selected 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EBF1 gene and analyzed their interactions with stress on central adiposity using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic modeling.
Results
The four SNPs that had strong linkage disequilibrium relationships (rs10061900, rs10070743, rs4704967, and rs10056564) demonstrated significant interactions with the waist-hip ratio in the dominant model (pint<0.007). In addition, two other SNPs (rs6556377 and rs13180086) were associated with VAT by interactions with stress levels, especially in the recessive genetic model (pint<0.007). As stress levels increased, the mean values of central adiposity traits according to SNP genotypes exhibited gradual but significant changes (p<0.05).
Conclusions
These results suggest that the common genetic variants for EBF1 are associated with central adiposity through interactions with stress levels, emphasizing the importance of managing stress in the prevention of central obesity.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nipping Adipocyte Inflammation in the Bud
    Michael J. Griffin
    Immunometabolism.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Emerging Role of Zfp217 in Adipogenesis
    Hong Xiang, Zhu-Xia Zhong, Yong-Dong Peng, Si-Wen Jiang
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2017; 18(7): 1367.     CrossRef
The Association Between Oxidative Stress and Depressive Symptom Scores in Elderly Population: A Repeated Panel Study
Changwoo Han, Youn-Hee Lim, Yun-Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):260-274.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.029
  • 9,114 View
  • 212 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Previous epidemiological studies about oxidative stress and depression are limited by hospital-based case-control design, single-time measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and the small number of study participants. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between biomarker of oxidative stress and depressive symptom scores using repeatedly measured panel data from a community-dwelling elderly population.
Methods
From 2008 to 2010, a total of 478 elderly participants residing in Seoul, Korea, were evaluated three times. Participants underwent the Korean version of the Short Form Generic Depression Scale (SGDS-K) test for screening depression, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. We used a generalized estimating equation with a compound symmetry covariance structure to estimate the effects of oxidative stress on depressive symptom scores.
Results
A two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with a 33.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.59% to 47.42%) increase in total SGDS-K scores. In subgroup analyses by gender, a two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with increased SGDS-K scores in both men and women (men: 30.88%; 95% CI, 10.24% to 55.37%; women: 34.77%; 95% CI, 20.09% to 51.25%). In bivariate analysis after an SGDS-K score ≥8 was defined as depression, the third and the fourth urinary MDA quartiles showed a significantly increased odds ratio(OR) of depression compared to the lowest urinary MDA quartile (third quartile OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 1.77 to 24.00; fourth quartile OR, 7.11; 95% CI, 1.99 to 25.42).
Conclusions
Our study suggests a significant association between oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in the elderly population.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Curcumin Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Deficits in Ambient Dusty Particulate Matter-Exposure Rats: The Role of Oxidative Stress
    Sadegh Moradi Vastegani, Somayeh Hajipour, Alireza Sarkaki, Zahra Basir, Yaghoob Farbood, Kowsar Bavarsad, Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam
    Neurochemical Research.2023; 48(6): 1798.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Physical Health and Dietary Intake of the Low-Income Elderly with Impaired Mobility for the Design of a Health Meals-on-Wheels Intervention Program in Seoul
    Hyeja Chang, Junghyun Kim, Chaewon Park
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2023; 52(7): 740.     CrossRef
  • Can tailored home-delivered meal services alleviate self-rated frailty of the low-income older adults in Korea?
    Junghyun Kim, Hyeja Chang
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2023; 17(5): 1007.     CrossRef
  • Exploring urinary biomarkers to assess oxidative DNA damage resulting from BTEX exposure in street children
    Ata Rafiee, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Peter D. Sly, Hoda Amiri, Mohammad Hoseini
    Environmental Research.2022; 203: 111725.     CrossRef
  • Association of ambient air pollution with depressive and anxiety symptoms in pregnant women: A prospective cohort study
    Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Dal-Young Jung, Yee-Jin Shin, Kyung-Sook Lee, So-Yeon Lee, Kangmo Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Dong In Suh, Soo-Jong Hong, Hwan-Cheol Kim
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2021; 237: 113823.     CrossRef
  • Effects of cholecalciferol on behavior and production of reactive oxygen species in female mice subjected to corticosterone-induced model of depression
    Suene Vanessa da Silva Souza, Priscila Batista da Rosa, Vivian Binder Neis, Júlia Dubois Moreira, Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues, Morgana Moretti
    Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology.2020; 393(1): 111.     CrossRef
  • Air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms in elderly women with cognitive impairment
    Hicran Altuğ, Kateryna B. Fuks, Anke Hüls, Anne-Kathrin Mayer, Rachel Tham, Jean Krutmann, Tamara Schikowski
    Environment International.2020; 136: 105448.     CrossRef
  • Oxidative stress, antioxidant defense and depressive disorders: A systematic review of biochemical and molecular markers
    Maiza Lacerda Barbosa, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo de Meneses, Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Sharbel Weidner Maluf
    Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research.2020; 36: 65.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the concentrations of inflammatory and oxidative status biomediators (MIP-1 α, PMN elastase, MDA, and IL-12) in depressed patients with and without posttraumatic stress disorder
    Ewa A. Ogłodek
    Pharmacological Reports.2018; 70(1): 110.     CrossRef
  • Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Depression in Korean Older Adults
    Jinkyung Cho, Youngyun Jin, Hyunsik Kang
    Journal of Epidemiology.2018; 28(6): 292.     CrossRef
  • Elevated serum levels of malondialdehyde and cortisol are associated with major depressive disorder: A case-control study
    Md Rabiul Islam, Md Reazul Islam, Imtiaz Ahmed, Abdullah Al Moktadir, Zabun Nahar, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Shelina Fatema Binte Shahid, Sheikh Nazrul Islam, Md Saiful Islam, Abul Hasnat
    SAGE Open Medicine.2018; 6: 205031211877395.     CrossRef
  • Conditional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transactivator of Transcription Protein Expression Induces Depression-like Effects and Oxidative Stress
    Jay P. McLaughlin, Jason J. Paris, Dionyssios Mintzopoulos, Kristen A. Hymel, Jae K. Kim, Thomas J. Cirino, Timothy E. Gillis, Shainnel O. Eans, Gordana D. Vitaliano, Jessica M. Medina, Richard C. Krapf, Heather M. Stacy, Marc J. Kaufman
    Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.2017; 2(7): 599.     CrossRef
C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):275-287.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.025
  • 9,295 View
  • 201 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea.
Methods
A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors.
Results
The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions
Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Binary cutpoint and the combined effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on cardiovascular disease mortality: A community-based cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Ji Hoon Hong, Sangjun Lee, Seokyung An, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0270510.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum high-sensitivity C reactive protein with risk of mortality in an Asian population: the Health Examinees cohort
    Sang-Ah Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Hyerim Park, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(7): e052630.     CrossRef
  • Associations of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen with mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer among U.S. adults
    Junxiu Liu, Yanan Zhang, Carl J. Lavie, Fred K. Tabung, Jiting Xu, Qingwei Hu, Lixia He, Yunxiang Zhang
    Preventive Medicine.2020; 139: 106044.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the association between self-rated health and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in Koreans: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Se-Won Park, Seong-Sik Park, Eun-Jung Kim, Won-Suk Sung, In-Hyuk Ha, Boyoung Jung
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Reconstruction of Radiation Dose Received by Diagnostic Radiologic Technologists in Korea
Yeongchull Choi, Jaeyoung Kim, Jung Jeung Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Won Jin Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):288-300.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.064
  • 8,036 View
  • 148 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Diagnostic medical radiation workers in Korea have been officially monitored for their occupational radiation doses since 1996. The purpose of this study was to design models for reconstructing unknown individual radiation doses to which diagnostic radiation technologists were exposed before 1996.
Methods
Radiation dose reconstruction models were developed by using cross-sectional survey data and the personal badge doses of 8167 radiologic technologists. The models included calendar year and age as predictors, and the participants were grouped into six categories according to their sex and facility type. The annual doses between 1971 and 1995 for those who were employed before 1996 were estimated using these models.
Results
The calendar year and age were inversely related to the estimated radiation doses in the models of all six groups. The annual median estimated doses decreased from 9.45 mSv in 1971 to 1.26 mSv in 1995, and the associated dose variation also decreased with time. The estimated median badge doses from 1996 (1.22 mSv) to 2011 (0.30 mSv) were similar to the measured doses (1.68 mSv to 0.21 mSv) for the same years. Similar results were observed for all six groups.
Conclusions
The reconstruction models developed in this study may be useful for estimating historical occupational radiation doses received by medical radiologic technologists in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends in Occupational Radiation Doses for U.S. Radiologic Technologists Performing General Radiologic and Nuclear Medicine Procedures, 1980–2015
    Daphnée Villoing, David Borrego, Dale L. Preston, Bruce H. Alexander, André Rose, Mark Salasky, Martha S. Linet, Choonsik Lee, Cari M. Kitahara
    Radiology.2021; 300(3): 605.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of the historical radiation dose of Korean radiation workers, 1961–1983
    Dalnim Lee, Won Jin Lee, Young Woo Jin, Jiyeong Kim, Soojin Park, Sunhoo Park, Songwon Seo
    Journal of Radiological Protection.2021; 41(4): 1005.     CrossRef
  • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH RADIATION DOSES AMONG KOREAN RADIATION WORKERS
    Jiyeong Kim, Songwon Seo, Dal Nim Lee, Soojin Park, Ki-Jung Im, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry.2020; 189(1): 106.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid cancer risks among medical radiation workers in South Korea, 1996–2015
    Won Jin Lee, Dale L. Preston, Eun Shil Cha, Seulki Ko, Hyeyeun Lim
    Environmental Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • ESTIMATION OF ORGAN DOSES AMONG DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL RADIATION WORKERS IN SOUTH KOREA
    Yeongchull Choi, Eun Shil Cha, Ye Jin Bang, Seulki Ko, Mina Ha, Choonsik Lee, Won Jin Lee
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry.2018; 179(2): 142.     CrossRef
  • Projected lifetime cancer risks from occupational radiation exposure among diagnostic medical radiation workers in South Korea
    Won Jin Lee, Yeongchull Choi, Seulki Ko, Eun Shil Cha, Jaeyoung Kim, Young Min Kim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Songwon Seo, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha
    BMC Cancer.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study
    Songwon Seo, Wan Young Lim, Dal Nim Lee, Jung Un Kim, Eun Shil Cha, Ye Jin Bang, Won Jin Lee, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
    BMJ Open.2018; 8(3): e017359.     CrossRef
  • Occupational radiation exposure and its health effects on interventional medical workers: study protocol for a prospective cohort study
    Seulki Ko, Hwan Hoon Chung, Sung Bum Cho, Young Woo Jin, Kwang Pyo Kim, Mina Ha, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha, Won Jin Lee
    BMJ Open.2017; 7(12): e018333.     CrossRef
Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea
Gum Ryeong Park, Inseo Son, Seung-Sup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):301-307.   Published online August 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.041
  • 9,298 View
  • 172 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional study of 4141 biethnic adolescents using data from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Perceived ethnic discrimination was measured using the question “Have you ever been discriminated against or ignored because either of your parents is not a Korean?” with an assessment of depressive symptoms over the past 12 months. Logistic regression was applied to examine potential associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms.
Results
Among 4141 biethnic adolescents, 558 (13.5%) reported having experienced ethnic discrimination. The most common discriminatory perpetrators were friends (n=241, 5.8%), followed by strangers (n=67, 1.6%). Depressive symptoms were related to experience of ethnic discrimination (odds ratio [OR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.89 to 4.98) after adjusting for potential confounders. In an analysis focusing on the perpetrators of discrimination, depressive symptoms were found to be associated with perceived ethnic discrimination from friends (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.75 to 5.68), teachers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.16 to 9.51), family members and relatives (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.48), neighbors (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.38), and strangers (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.30 to 4.79). Furthermore, the OR for depressive symptoms among those exposed to 1, 2, or 3 or more discriminatory perpetrators were 3.61 (95% CI, 2.49 to 5.24), 3.61 (95% CI, 1.68 to 7.74), and 6.69 (95% CI, 2.94 to 15.22), respectively.
Conclusions
According to our findings, friends were the most common perpetrators of discrimination and the experience of ethnic discrimination was associated with depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults: A prospective population-based cohort study
    Yaping Wang, Jiaojiao Liao, Hongguang Chen, Liyuan Tao, Jue Liu
    Heliyon.2024; 10(1): e23843.     CrossRef
  • Ethnic discrimination, asking for fair treatment, and poor self-rated health: a gender stratified analysis of 13,443 Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea
    Hayoung Lee, Ji-Hwan Kim, Garin Lee, Hyelin Lee, Mita Huq, Delanjathan Devakumar, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The changes in biethnic acceptance across daily settings and biethnic adolescents' psychological well‐being during middle school transition
    Sung Hee Hong, Jiyeon Lee, Grace H. Chung
    Journal of Adolescence.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Historical Representations and Psychological Distress Among Africans in Europe: The Mediation Role of Perceived Discrimination
    Raymond Agyenim-Boateng, Francis Adams
    Community Mental Health Journal.2023; 59(7): 1422.     CrossRef
  • Perceived Discrimination as a Critical Factor Affecting Self-Esteem, Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Depression of Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Korea
    Hyemee Kim, Kwanghyun Han, Seojin Won
    Behavioral Sciences.2023; 13(4): 343.     CrossRef
  • Target Congruence as a Means of Understanding the Risk of Bullying Victimization among Multicultural Family Youth in South Korea
    Jaeyong Choi, Nathan Kruis, Julak Lee
    Crime & Delinquency.2022; 68(13-14): 2395.     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms Among Multicultural Adolescents in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Joung, Sung Suk Chung
    The Journal of School Nursing.2022; 38(2): 138.     CrossRef
  • Mother-Child Social Cognition Among Multicultural Families in South Korea
    Joohee Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Depression Mediates Association Between Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Elevated Blood Glucose Levels Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Australia
    P. I. Bilal, C. K. Y. Chan, S. M. Somerset
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2021; 23(2): 199.     CrossRef
  • Analyzing Gender Differences in Factors Affecting Depression among Multicultural Adolescents in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Eun Jee Lee, Sookyung Jeong
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3683.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination in Korea: a machine learning approach
    Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021099.     CrossRef
  • Factors affecting the self-rated health of immigrant women married to native men and raising children in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Bookyoung Kim, Kyung-Bok Son
    BMC Women's Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Ethnic Identity on the Relationship Between Mental Health and Perceived Discrimination Among Ethnic Return Migrants: The Case of Korean Chinese Return-Migrated to South Korea
    Jihyung Hong
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2019; 21(3): 522.     CrossRef
  • The Mental Health of Ethnic Minority Youths in South Korea and Its Related Environmental Factors: A Literature Review
    Yeeun Lee, Minji Lee, Subin Park
    Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2019; 30(3): 88.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study of Mental Health States Among Adolescents in Multicultural Versus Monocultural Families, Using the 13th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2017
    Hae Jeong Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Intae Han, Sung Hoon Kim
    Iranian Journal of Pediatrics.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Discrimination by whom? : Unraveling the effect of experiences of discrimination on depression of multi-ethnic children and adolescents in Korea
    Hyemee Kim, Seojin Won
    Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development.2019; 29(4): 307.     CrossRef
  • Taekwondo Training Improves Mood and Sociability in Children from Multicultural Families in South Korea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
    Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(4): 757.     CrossRef
  • Health risk behaviors and psychological problems among South Korean, North Korean, and other multicultural family adolescents (2011–2016)
    Subin Park, Minji Lee, Se Jin Park, Min Geu Lee
    Psychiatry Research.2018; 268: 373.     CrossRef
  • Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems
    Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(5): 541.     CrossRef
The Association Among Individual and Contextual Factors and Unmet Healthcare Needs in South Korea: A Multilevel Study Using National Data
Seung Eun Lee, Miyeon Yeon, Chul-Woung Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):308-322.   Published online September 7, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.035
  • 8,109 View
  • 208 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study is to investigate associations between contextual characteristics and unmet healthcare needs in South Korea after accounting for individual factors.
Methods
The present study used data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 228 902 adults residing within 253 municipal districts in South Korea. A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate how contextual characteristics, defined by variables that describe the regional deprivation, degree of urbanity, and healthcare supply, are associated with unmet needs after controlling for individual-level variables.
Results
Of the surveyed Korean adults, 12.1% reported experiencing unmet healthcare needs in the past. This figure varied with the 253 districts surveyed, ranging from 2.6% to 26.2%. A multilevel analysis found that the association between contextual characteristics and unmet needs varied according to the factors that caused the unmet needs. The degree of urbanity was associated with unmet need due to “financial burden” (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.66 for rural vs. metropolitan), but not unmet need due to “service not available when needed.” There were no significant associations between these unmet need measures and regional deprivation. Among individual-level variables, income level showed the highest association with unmet need due to “financial burden” (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 4.76 to 6.66), while employment status showed a strong association with unmet need due to “service not available when needed.”
Conclusions
Our finding suggests that different policy interventions should be considered for each at-risk population group to address the root cause of unmet healthcare needs.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between area deprivation index and concerns to COVID-19: A multi-level analysis of individual and area factors
    Doo Woong Lee, Jieun Jang, Jaeyong Shin
    SSM - Population Health.2024; 25: 101580.     CrossRef
  • Satisfaction with local healthcare services and medical need among hypertensive patients: a nationwide study
    Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors affecting unmet healthcare needs in female baby boomers: Andersen model application in Korea
    Min-Jeong Park, Mi-Young Chung, Verda Salman
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0286425.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Long Working Hours and Shift Work on Unmet Health Care Need Among Korean Workers
    Hye-Eun Lee, Jeongbae Rhie
    Safety and Health at Work.2022; 13(1): 17.     CrossRef
  • Effect of socioeconomic disparities on the risk of COVID-19 in 8 metropolitan cities in the Korea: a community-based study
    Myung-Jae Hwang, Shin Young Park, Tae-Ho Yoon, Jinhwa Jang, Seon-Young Lee, Myeongsu Yoo, Yoo-Yeon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Donghyok Kwon, Jong-Hun Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022107.     CrossRef
  • Unmet Healthcare Needs and Associated Factors Among Korean Enlisted Soldiers
    Eunkyoung Bae, Jeongok Park, Eunyoung Jung
    Military Medicine.2021; 186(1-2): e186.     CrossRef
  • Contextual Factors Associated with Pregnancy Termination among Young Women in Nigeria
    Bola Lukman Solanke
    Women's Reproductive Health.2021; 8(2): 137.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Unmet Healthcare Needs among Adults with Chronic Diseases
    Ji-Young Han, Hyeon-Sook Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2021; 32(2): 131.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Unmet Healthcare Needs among Older Korean Women
    Jung A. Choi, Oksoo Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(13): 6862.     CrossRef
  • Cost–related unmet need for healthcare services in Kenya
    Purity Njagi, Jelena Arsenijevic, Wim Groot
    BMC Health Services Research.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes of diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study of South Korea
    Dong-Woo Choi, Sang Ah Lee, Doo Woong Lee, Jae Hong Joo, Kyu-Tae Han, SeungJu Kim, Eun-Cheol Park
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2020; 8(1): e000729.     CrossRef
  • Neighborhood Deprivation and Unmet Health Care Needs: A Multilevel Analysis of Older Individuals in South Korea
    Seung Eun Lee, Miyeon Yeon, Chul-Woung Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon, Dongjin Kim, Jihee Choi
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2019; 10(5): 295.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in Factors Associated With Colorectal Cancer Screening: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Korea
    Youngmi Kang, Heesook Son
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2017; 29(6): 495.     CrossRef
  • Regional Disparity and Factors Influencing Unmet Medical Needs: A Study Based on the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015)
    Ji Hye Lim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2017; 8(5): 295.     CrossRef
Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India
Preeti PS, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Dhiraj Biswas, Aparajita Dasgupta
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):323-328.   Published online September 8, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.020
  • 8,515 View
  • 172 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative) is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal.
Methods
Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal.
Results
The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal.
Conclusions
This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • No Child’s Play: Under-five Child Feces Management in a Rural Area of Bengaluru Urban District, India
    Anissa Mary Thomas Thattil, Twinkle Agrawal, Abdul Kader Surti, Stallon Sebastian, Kiyana Mirza, George Jacob, Farah Naaz Fathima
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2024; 49(1): 138.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Positive Deviance Approach on Promotion of Safe Disposal of Child’s Feces in Rural Tamil Nadu: A Community-Based Quasi-Experimental Study
    S. Nancy, S Gayathri, K. Mujibur Rahman, P. K. Govindarajan
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2024; 49(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Exploring drivers of unsafe disposal of child stool in India using hierarchical regression model
    Margubur Rahaman, Avijit Roy, Pradip Chouhan, Md. Juel Rana, Pintu Paul
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(3): e0295788.     CrossRef
  • Decomposing rural-urban gap in unsafe disposal practice of child stool in India using nationwide sample survey data
    Avijit Roy, Margubur Rahaman, Pradip Chouhan
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associated factors of safe child feces disposal in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from recent demographic and health surveys of 34 sub-Saharan countries
    Getu Debalkie Demissie, Muluken Fekadie Zerihun, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies, Yigizie Yeshaw, Tadeg Jemere, Bisrat Misganaw, Amare Tariku, Asmamaw Atnafu, Biniyam Sahiledengle
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(2): e0281451.     CrossRef
  • Pattern of child faeces management and disposable diaper usage among under-fives in an Urban Slum of Bandung, Indonesia
    Lina Agestika, Neni Sintawardani, Umi Hamidah, Sikopo Nyambe, Taro Yamauchi
    Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.2022; 12(1): 32.     CrossRef
  • Hygienic Child Feces Disposal Practice and Its Associated Factors among Mothers/Caregivers of Under Five Children in West Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia
    Moges Addis, Walelegn Worku, Laekemariam Bogale, Alebachew Shimelash, Eniyew Tegegne
    Environmental Health Insights.2022; 16: 117863022211147.     CrossRef
  • Contextual and psychosocial factors influencing caregiver safe disposal of child feces and child latrine training in rural Odisha, India
    Gloria D. Sclar, Valerie Bauza, Alokananda Bisoyi, Thomas F. Clasen, Hans-Joachim Mosler, Alison Parker
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(9): e0274069.     CrossRef
  • Interventions to address unsafe child feces disposal practices in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review
    Lauren Sprouse, Anna Liles, Ryan Cronk, Valerie Bauza, James B. Tidwell, Musa Manga
    H2Open Journal.2022; 5(4): 583.     CrossRef
  • Are children’s stools in Ghana disposed of safely? Evidence from the 2014 Ghana demographic and health survey
    Abdul-Aziz Seidu
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Geographical variation and factors associated with unsafe child stool disposal in Ethiopia: A spatial and multilevel analysis
    Biniyam Sahiledengle, Zinash Teferu, Yohannes Tekalegn, Tadesse Awoke, Demisu Zenbaba, Kebebe Bekele, Abdi Tesemma, Fikadu Seyoum, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Harvie P. Portugaliza
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(4): e0250814.     CrossRef
  • Unhygienic stool-disposal practices among mothers of children under five in Cambodia: Evidence from a demographic and health survey
    Pisey Vong, Pannee Banchonhattakit, Samphors Sim, Chamroen Pall, Rebecca S. Dewey, Alessandra N. Bazzano
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(7): e0249006.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with safe child feces disposal in Ethiopia, India, and Zambia
    Rachel Beardsley, Ryan Cronk, Wren Tracy, Lisa Fleming, Maybin Ng'ambi, James B. Tidwell, Musa Manga
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2021; 237: 113832.     CrossRef
  • A multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors associated with the practice of safe disposal of children’s faeces in sub-Saharan Africa
    Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Kwaku Kissah-Korsah, Ebenezer Agbaglo, Louis Kobina Dadzie, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Eugene Budu, John Elvis Hagan, Srinivas Goli
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(8): e0254774.     CrossRef
  • Unsafe child feces disposal status in Ethiopia: what factors matter? Analysis of pooled data from four demographic and health surveys
    Biniyam Sahiledengle
    BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Individual and contextual factors associated with disposal of children’s stools in Papua New Guinea: evidence from the 2016–2018 demographic and health survey
    Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Ebenezer Agbaglo, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Louis Kobina Dadzie, Ishmael Bukari, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Sanni Yaya
    BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determinants of disposal of child faeces in latrines in urban slums of Odisha, India: a cross-sectional study
    Fiona Majorin, Corey L Nagel, Belen Torondel, Parimita Routray, Manaswini Rout, Thomas F Clasen
    Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.2019; 113(5): 263.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and associated factors of safe and improved infant and young children stool disposal in Ethiopia: evidence from demographic and health survey
    Biniyam Sahiledengle
    BMC Public Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History
Juhwan Noh, Jungwoo Sohn, Jaelim Cho, Seong-Kyung Cho, Yoon Jung Choi, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):329-341.   Published online September 8, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.038
  • 9,557 View
  • 242 Download
  • 29 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases.
Methods
Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR) increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season.
Results
A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3%) in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7%) than in patients with no such history.
Conclusions
Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Causal relationship between asthma outpatient visits and air pollution with instrumental variable approach
    Su Hwan Kim, Seong Pyo Kim, Jae‐In Song, Zio Kim, Jin Youp Kim, Hyung‐Jin Yoon
    Allergy.2023; 78(11): 3007.     CrossRef
  • Defining the Relationship between Daily Exposure to Particulate Matter and Hospital Visits by Psoriasis Patients
    Eun Hye Lee, Daesick Ryu, Nam-Soo Hong, Jun Young Kim, Kyung Duck Park, Weon Ju Lee, Seok-Jong Lee, Sang-Hyun Kim, Younghae Do, Yong Hyun Jang
    Annals of Dermatology.2022; 34(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • Review of Ground-Level Ozone Impact in Respiratory Health Deterioration for the Past Two Decades
    Angelo Roldão Soares, Carla Silva
    Atmosphere.2022; 13(3): 434.     CrossRef
  • Role of ambient air pollution in asthma spread among various population groups of Lahore City: a case study
    Rabia Aslam, Faiza Sharif, Mujtaba Baqar, Abdul-Sattar Nizami, Uzma Ashraf
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2022; 30(4): 8682.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Daily Ambient Air Pollution and Pulmonary Function, Asthma Symptom Occurrence, and Quick-Relief Inhaler Use among Asthma Patients
    Monika Ścibor, Bartosz Balcerzak, Andrzej Galbarczyk, Grazyna Jasienska
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(8): 4852.     CrossRef
  • Spatial autocorrelation may bias the risk estimation: An application of eigenvector spatial filtering on the risk of air pollutant on asthma
    Yujin Park, Su Hwan Kim, Seong Pyo Kim, Jiwon Ryu, Jinyeong Yi, Jin Youp Kim, Hyung-Jin Yoon
    Science of The Total Environment.2022; 843: 157053.     CrossRef
  • Associations between ambient air pollution and medical care visits for atopic dermatitis
    Jin-Ok Baek, Jaelim Cho, Joo-Young Roh
    Environmental Research.2021; 195: 110153.     CrossRef
  • Effects of ambient air pollution on childhood asthma exacerbation in the Philadelphia metropolitan Region, 2011–2014
    Wanyu Huang, Leah H. Schinasi, Chén C. Kenyon, Kari Moore, Steven Melly, Rebecca A. Hubbard, Yuzhe Zhao, Ana V. Diez Roux, Christopher B. Forrest, Mitchell Maltenfort, Anneclaire J. De Roos
    Environmental Research.2021; 197: 110955.     CrossRef
  • Glutathione S-transferases and their implications in the lung diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Early life susceptibility?
    Cheryl van de Wetering, Evan Elko, Marijn Berg, Caspar H.J. Schiffers, Vasili Stylianidis, Maarten van den Berge, Martijn C. Nawijn, Emiel F.M. Wouters, Yvonne M.W. Janssen-Heininger, Niki L. Reynaert
    Redox Biology.2021; 43: 101995.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Particulate Matter on Healthy Skin: A Comparative Study between High- and Low-Particulate Matter Periods
    Se Jin Oh, Dokyoung Yoon, Ji-Hye Park, Jong Hee Lee
    Annals of Dermatology.2021; 33(3): 263.     CrossRef
  • Association with Ambient Air Pollutants and School Absence Due to Sickness in Schoolchildren: A Case-Crossover Study in a Provincial Town of Japan
    Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Jun Kurai, Kazuhiro Kato, Hiroyuki Sano
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(12): 6631.     CrossRef
  • A traditional herbal formula, Deng-Shi-Qing-Mai-Tang, regulates TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to reduce inflammatory response in PM2.5-induced lung injury
    You Zhou, Jianbo Liu, Cheng Jiang, Jiaming Chen, Xilian Feng, Weiyan Chen, Jiechun Zhang, Hongzhen Dong, Wei Zhang
    Phytomedicine.2021; 91: 153665.     CrossRef
  • Long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of non-lung cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies
    H-B Kim, J-Y Shim, B Park, Y-J Lee
    Perspectives in Public Health.2020; 140(4): 222.     CrossRef
  • Predicting Asthma Attacks: Effects of Indoor PM Concentrations on Peak Expiratory Flow Rates of Asthmatic Children
    Dohyeong Kim, Sunghwan Cho, Lakshman Tamil, Dae Jin Song, Sungchul Seo
    IEEE Access.2020; 8: 8791.     CrossRef
  • Acute associations between PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and asthma exacerbations among patients with and without allergic comorbidities
    Natalie A. Rosenquist, William J. Metcalf, So Young Ryu, Aida Rutledge, Max J. Coppes, Joe J. Grzymski, Matthew J. Strickland, Lyndsey A. Darrow
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2020; 30(5): 795.     CrossRef
  • The short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory disease hospitalizations in 5 cities in Poland: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses
    Alessandro Slama, Andrzej Śliwczyński, Jolanta Woźnica-Pyzikiewicz, Maciej Zdrolik, Bartłomiej Wiśnicki, Jakub Kubajek, Olga Turżańska-Wieczorek, Marcin Studnicki, Waldemar Wierzba, Edward Franek
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2020; 27(19): 24582.     CrossRef
  • Association between air pollutants and outpatient and emergency hospital visits for childhood asthma in Shenyang city of China
    Qing Chang, Shu Liu, Zongjiao Chen, Biao Zu, Hehua Zhang
    International Journal of Biometeorology.2020; 64(9): 1539.     CrossRef
  • Effect of particulate matter exposure on patients with COPD and risk reduction through behavioural interventions: the protocol of a prospective panel study
    Shinhee Park, Seung Won Ra, Sung Yoon Kang, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Sei Won Lee
    BMJ Open.2020; 10(11): e039394.     CrossRef
  • The Respiratory Risks of Ambient/Outdoor Air Pollution
    Gary Adamkiewicz, Jahred Liddie, Jonathan M. Gaffin
    Clinics in Chest Medicine.2020; 41(4): 809.     CrossRef
  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA AMONG CHILDREN: A REVIEW
    N. M. Agarkov, A. V. Poshibailova, V. A. Ivanov
    Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology).2020; 27(5): 45.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Air Pollutants on the Prevalence of Common Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases in South Korea: A National Population-Based Study
    Mina Park, Ji Sung Lee, Moo Kyun Park
    Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology.2019; 12(3): 294.     CrossRef
  • Air Pollutants and Frailty in Older Adults: A Geriatrician’s Perspective
    Heayon Lee, Eunju Lee, Il-Young Jang
    Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research.2019; 23(4): 212.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the impact of air pollution on childhood asthma morbidity: how, when, and what to do
    Allison J. Burbank, David B. Peden
    Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology.2018; 18(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and schizophrenia severity
    Rika Eguchi, Daisuke Onozuka, Kouji Ikeda, Kenji Kuroda, Ichiro Ieiri, Akihito Hagihara
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.2018; 91(5): 613.     CrossRef
  • Metal(loid) bioaccessibility and inhalation risk assessment: A comparison between an urban and an industrial area
    A. Hernández-Pellón, W. Nischkauer, A. Limbeck, I. Fernández-Olmo
    Environmental Research.2018; 165: 140.     CrossRef
  • Air pollution influences the incidence of otitis media in children: A national population-based study
    Mina Park, Jiyeon Han, Myoung-jin Jang, Myung-Whan Suh, Jun Ho Lee, Seung Ha Oh, Moo Kyun Park, Alexander Larcombe
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(6): e0199296.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Air Pollutants on Outpatient Visits for Acute Respiratory Outcomes
    Ran Li, Ning Jiang, Qichen Liu, Jing Huang, Xinbiao Guo, Fan Liu, Zhancheng Gao
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(1): 47.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between emergency care utilization, ambient temperature, and the pollution standard index in Taiwan
    Ching-hui Tseng, Li-Chin Lu, Shao-Hwan Lan, Yen-Ping Hsieh, Shou-Jen Lan
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research.2017; 27(5): 344.     CrossRef
  • Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Human Skin Diseases Due to Particulate Matter
    Le Ngoc, Duckshin Park, Yongil Lee, Young-Chul Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(12): 1458.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health