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Determinants of Depression in Indonesian Youth: Findings From a Community-based Survey
Indri Yunita Suryaputri, Rofingatul Mubasyiroh, Sri Idaiani, Lely Indrawati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(1):88-97.   Published online December 28, 2021
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  • 218 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study investigated the determinants of depression in adolescents and young adults.
The present study analyzed data from the 2018 Indonesia Basic Health Survey (Riset Kesehatan Dasar; RISKESDAS). The study subjects were adolescents (15-17 years old) and young adults (18-24 years old). In total, 64 179 subjects were included. Univariable, bivariable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine associations between youths’ characteristics, risky behavior, chronic disease, parents’ health, and youths’ depression.
The prevalence of depression was 5.1% in adolescents and 5.6% in young adults. The risk factors for depression in adolescents were being women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.89 to 4.30; p<0.001), an ex-smoker (aOR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.25; p<0.001), or a current smoker (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.97 to 3.44; p<0.001); consuming alcohol (aOR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.01; p=0.001), having a chronic disease (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.41 to 4.96; p=0.002); maternal depression (aOR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.97 to 3.09; p<0.001); and paternal depression (aOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.98 to 3.50; p<0.001). In young adults, the risk factors were being women (aOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.75; p<0.001) or an ex-smoker (aOR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.67; p<0.001), consuming alcohol (aOR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.89 to 3.09; p<0.001), maternal depression (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.54 to 3.84; p<0.001), and paternal depression (aOR, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.17 to 3.63; p<0.001).
Being women, smoking, drinking alcohol, having a chronic disease, and having a parent with depression were crucial factors associated with youth depression. Mental health screening, prevention, and treatment should involve collaboration among primary healthcare, schools, universities, professionals, and families.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mental health issues and quality of life amongst school-based adolescents in Indonesia
    Andry Juliansen, Rivaldo Steven Heriyanto, Michelle Patricia Muljono, Charista Lydia Budiputri, Yulita Delfia Sari Sagala, Gilbert Sterling Octavius
    Journal of Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health.2024; 2: 100062.     CrossRef
  • Barriers and facilitators to access mental health services among people with mental disorders in Indonesia: A qualitative study
    Lafi Munira, Pranee Liamputtong, Pramon Viwattanakulvanid
    Belitung Nursing Journal.2023; 9(2): 110.     CrossRef
Factors Related to Smoking Status Among Young Adults: An Analysis of Younger and Older Young Adults in Korea
Yeji Lee, Kang-Sook Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(2):92-100.   Published online January 22, 2019
  • 6,815 View
  • 266 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Young adulthood represents a critical developmental period during which the use of tobacco may begin or cease. Furthermore, differences in smoking behaviors between younger (aged 18-24 years) and older (aged 25-34 years) young adults may exist. This study aimed to characterize patterns related to current smoking in younger and older young adults.
This study used data acquired from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2013 to 2014. A total of 2069 subjects were categorized as younger (712 subjects) and older (1357 subjects) young adults. The chi-square test was used to assess the relationships between smoking status and socio-demographic, health-related, and smoking-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the factors affecting current smoking in these age groups.
The current smoking prevalence was 18.3% among the younger young adults and 26.0% among the older young adults. Sex, education level, occupation, perceived health status, alcohol consumption, and electronic cigarette use were related to current smoking in both age groups. Secondhand smoke exposure at home and stress levels showed significant relationships with smoking in younger and older young adults, respectively.
Strong correlations were found between the observed variables and smoking behaviors among young adults. Determining the factors affecting smoking and designing interventions based on these factors are essential for smoking cessation in young adults.
Korean summary
본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 제 6기 2013-2014년도 자료를 이용하였으며, 대상자 중 청년(18-34세)인 총 2,069명의 자료를 활용하여 전기 청년(18-24세)과 후기 청년(25-34세)인 두 연령 집단(18-24세, 25-34세)으로 나누어서 각 집단의 현재 흡연에 미치는 요인을 분석하고자 하였다. 본 연구 결과, 두 연령 집단 모두에서 성별, 대학교육 여부, 직업, 자가보고 건강수준, 음주, 그리고 평생 전자담배 사용은 현재 흡연과 유의한 관련이 있게 나타났으며, 가정실내 간접흡연 노출은 전기 청년에서만, 스트레스 정도는 후기 청년에서만 유의한 관련이 있었다. 본 연구는 전기 청년과 후기 청년에서 사회경제적 요인, 건강관련 요인, 흡연 관련 요인이 중요한 예측인자로 나타난 것을 알 수 있었으며 이에 따른 맞춤형 금연 프로그램의 적용이 필요할 것으로 시사한다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Smoking effects on labor income: new evidence for Brazil
    Leandro Pinheiro Vieira, Rafael Mesquita Pereira
    EconomiA.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • National prevalence of smoking among adolescents at tobacco tax increase and COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, 2005–2022
    Seohyun Hong, Selin Woo, Seokjun Kim, Jaeyu Park, Myeongcheol Lee, Sunyoung Kim, Ai Koyanagi, Lee Smith, Min Seo Kim, Guillermo F. López Sánchez, Elena Dragioti, Masoud Rahmati, Guillaume Fond, Laurent Boyer, Jiyeon Oh, Hojae Lee, Dong Keon Yon
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Who Are the Young Adults in Portugal? Daily Usage of Social Media and Mobile Phones, in a No-Kids and No-Independent Housing Context—Results from a Representative Online Survey
    Eduardo Antunes, Inês Amaral, Rita Basílio Simões, Ana Marta M. Flores
    Youth.2023; 3(4): 1101.     CrossRef
  • The Influence of Lifestyle on High-Density Lipoprotein Concentration among Mexican Emerging Adults
    Karla Paulina Luna-Castillo, Andres López-Quintero, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Iris Monserrat Llamas-Covarrubias, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval
    Nutrients.2023; 15(21): 4568.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with smoking intensity among adult smokers: findings from the longitudinal cohort of the Tehran lipid and glucose study
    Marjan Abbasi-Dokht-Rafsanjani, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Fereidoun Azizi, Davood Khalili
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Smoking-related behaviour changes among Korean men after the 2015 tobacco price increase: assessing the implications for the tobacco endgame using a reconstructed retrospective cohort study
    Seulgi Kim, Sung-il Cho
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(1): e051712.     CrossRef
  • Electronic Cigarette Use and Other Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Thai Undergraduate Students
    Phantara Chulasai, Surarong Chinwong, Purida Vientong, John J. Hall, Dujrudee Chinwong
    Healthcare.2022; 10(2): 240.     CrossRef
  • Association between smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking amount by age
    Jin-Won Noh, Min-Hee Kim, Yejin Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki-Bong Yoo
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Developmental trajectories of tobacco use and risk factors from adolescence to emerging young adulthood: a population-based panel study
    Seong Yeon Kim, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Cessation Intervention for Young People
    Avni Gakkhar , Ashok Mehendale, Shivansh Mehendale
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effects of College Students' Dual Use of Electronic Cigarette and Conventional Cigarette on Depression
    Hee Jin Kim, Bokim Lee, Min Kyung Song, Jinhwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2021; 32(2): 186.     CrossRef
  • A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking in the Brazilian Youth Population
    Emerson Silveira Brito, Marina Bessel, Thayane Dornelles, Flávia Moreno, Gerson Pereira, Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Tobacco use and E-cigarette regulation: Perspectives of University Students in the Asia-Pacific
    Heather Wipfli, Mahfuzur Rahman Bhuiyan, Xuezheng Qin, Yuliya Gainullina, Erlinda Palaganas, Masamine Jimba, Junko Saito, Karin Ernstrom, Rema Raman, Mellissa Withers
    Addictive Behaviors.2020; 107: 106420.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory of smoking and early bladder cancer risk among Korean young adult men
    Yongho Jee, Keum Ji Jung, Joung Hwan Back, Sun Mi Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
    Cancer Causes & Control.2020; 31(10): 943.     CrossRef
  • Symptom clusters in childhood cancer survivors in Korea: A latent class analysis
    Hye Chong Hong, Young Man Kim, Ari Min
    European Journal of Cancer Care.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Abstinence from Smoking: A Retrospective Study of Male College Students Enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Service
    Yeji Lee, Kang-Sook Lee, Haena Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(18): 3363.     CrossRef
  • Experience and Current Use of Heated Tobacco Products in Korean Military Personnel
    Eunjoo Kwon, Eun-Hee Nah, Seon Cho, Jieun Chu, Suyoung Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2019; 19(4): 221.     CrossRef
Influence of Asthma on the Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Use Behaviors From Adolescence to Adulthood Using Latent Growth Curve Models
Jisuk Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(2):111-117.   Published online March 24, 2015
  • 8,828 View
  • 76 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
While epidemiologic research indicates that the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors including cigarette smoking among young people with asthma is substantial, the longitudinal patterns of cigarette smoking in this vulnerable population have received little attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors from adolescence to adulthood between young people with and without asthma.
Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) during the years 1994 to 1995 (Wave I, adolescence), 2001 to 2002 (Wave III, young adulthood), and 2007 to 2008 (Wave IV, adulthood) were analyzed (n=12 244). Latent growth curve models were used to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood according to asthma status.
Regardless of asthma status, the trajectory means of cigarette use behaviors were found to increase, and then slightly decrease from adolescence to adulthood. In total participants, there were no statistically significant differences in initial levels and changes in cigarette use behaviors according to asthma status. However, in select sex and race subgroups (i.e., females and non-whites), former asthmatics showed greater escalation in cigarette use behaviors than did non-asthmatics or current asthmatics.
This study indicated that the changing patterns of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood among young people with asthma are comparable to or even more drastic than those among young people without asthma.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Depressive Symptom Trajectories Across Adolescence and Adulthood Among Individuals With Asthma
    Nicole M Ruppe, Ashley H Clawson, Rachel L Ankney, Ginger Welch, Larry L Mullins, John M Chaney
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology.2023; 48(6): 572.     CrossRef
  • Understanding the challenges faced by adolescents and young adults with allergic conditions: A systematic review
    Marta Vazquez‐Ortiz, Elizabeth Angier, Katharina Blumchen, Pasquale Comberiati, Bettina Duca, Audrey DunnGalvin, Claudia Gore, Valérie Hox, Britt Jensen, Helena Pite, Alexandra F. Santos, Silvia Sanchez, Cherry Alviani, Teresa Garriga‐Baraut, Rebecca Knib
    Allergy.2020; 75(8): 1850.     CrossRef
  • Medical Comorbidity and Complications
    Scott E. Hadland, Leslie Renee Walker
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America.2016; 25(3): 533.     CrossRef
Differences in Cigarette Use Behaviors by Age at the Time of Diagnosis With Diabetes From Young Adulthood to Adulthood: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
Jisuk Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(5):249-260.   Published online September 30, 2013
  • 8,261 View
  • 66 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Previous observations propose that risk-taking behaviors such as cigarette smoking are prevailing among young people with chronic conditions including diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cigarette smoking is more prevalent among diabetics than non-diabetics and whether it differs by age at the time of diagnosis with diabetes from young adulthood (YAH) to adulthood (AH).


We used US panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health Study) during the years 2001 to 2002 (Wave III, YAH) and 2007 to 2008 (Wave IV, AH). Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cigarette use behaviors according to age at the time of diagnosis with diabetes, after adjusting for demographic and selected behavioral factors.


Of 12 175 study participants, 2.6% reported having been diagnosed with diabetes up to AH. Early-onset diabetics (age at diagnosis <13 years) were more likely than non-diabetics to report frequent cigarette smoking (smoking on ≥20 days during the previous 30 days) in YAH (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.27 to 8.79). On the other hand, late-onset diabetics (age at diagnosis ≥13 years) were more likely than non-diabetics to report heavy cigarette smoking (smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day during the previous 30 days) in AH (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.30).


The current study indicated that diabetics are more likely than non-diabetics to smoke cigarettes frequently and heavily in YAH and AH. Effective smoking prevention and cessation programs uniquely focused on diabetics need to be designed and implemented.



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    Diabetes Care.2023; 46(Supplement): S68.     CrossRef
  • 5. Facilitating Behavior Change and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes:Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022

    Diabetes Care.2022; 45(Supplement): S60.     CrossRef
  • 5. Facilitating Behavior Change and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes:Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2021

    Diabetes Care.2021; 44(Supplement): S53.     CrossRef
  • 5. Facilitating Behavior Change and Well-being to Improve Health Outcomes:Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020

    Diabetes Care.2020; 43(Supplement): S48.     CrossRef
  • 5. Lifestyle Management:Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2019

    Diabetes Care.2019; 42(Supplement): S46.     CrossRef
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Impact of Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Young Adults: The Kangwha Study.
Hoo Sun Chang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Nam Wook Hur, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):411-417.
  • 4,596 View
  • 30 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although risk factors for coronary artery disease are also associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), there is little information available on the asymptomatic, young adult population. We examined the association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and the common carotid IMT in 280 young Korean adults. METHODS: The data used for this study was obtained from 280 subjects (130 men and 150 women) aged 25 years who participated in the Kangwha Study follow-up examination in 2005. We measured cardiovascular risk factors, including anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, carotid ultrasonography, and reviewed questionnaires on health behaviors. Risk factors were defined as values above the sex-specific 75th percentile of systolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, fasting blood glucose and smoking status. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT+/-standard deviation observed was 0.683+/-0.079 mm in men and 0.678+/-0.067 mm in women (p=0.567) and the evidence of plaque was not observed in any individuals. Mean carotid IMT increased with an increasing number of risk factors(p for trend <0.001) and carotid IMT values were 0.665 mm, 0.674 mm, 0.686 mm, 0.702 mm, and 0.748 mm for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 to 5 risk factors, respectively. The odds ratio for having the top quartile carotid IMT in men with 3 or more risk factors versus 0-2 risk factors was 5.09 (95% CI, 2.05-12.64). CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate the need for prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and more focus on those with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.


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  • Association Between Risk Factors in Childhood and Sex Differences in Prevalence of Carotid Artery Plaques and Intima‐Media Thickness in Mid‐Adulthood in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study
    Mohammad Shah, Marie‐Jeanne Buscot, Jing Tian, Hoang T. Phan, Brooklyn J. Fraser, Thomas H. Marwick, Terence Dwyer, Alison Venn, Seana Gall
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Fibrinogen and Carotid Atherosclerosis According to Smoking Status in a Korean Male Population
    Hye Min Cho, Dae Ryong Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Il Suh
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2015; 56(4): 921.     CrossRef
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  • Association between Depressive Symptoms and Bone Stiffness Index in Young Adults: The Kangwha Study
    Sun Min Oh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyoung Min Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh, Chih-Hsin Tang
    PLoS ONE.2013; 8(7): e69929.     CrossRef
  • The importance of intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements in monitoring of atherosclerosis progress after myocardial infarction
    A Lisowska, M Knapp, S Bolińska, P Lisowski, A Krajewska, B Sobkowicz, WJ Musiał
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  • Association between Blood Pressure and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
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Original Article
Factors Related to Self-Perceived Health of Young Adults.
Kee Ho Park, Woohyun Cho, Il Suh, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):415-425.
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  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine which factors are related to young adults perception of their health. Two research questions were asked. Which aspects of health does self-perceived health as a index of general health reflect? Why do two individuals with the same level of general health have different health perceptions? METHODS: The sampling frame comprised college or graduate school students, aged 20 to 29, who were members of A, one of the 4 biggest internet communication services. The questionnaires were sent to study samples(n= 1,000) and answered by E-mail. Response rate was 37.0%. RESULTS: Firstly, physical health ranked highest and self-perceived health ranked lowest. Secondly, health, anxiety, depression, and self-perceived health showed significant differences between the sexes, with women showing a higher health status in these categories except for self-perceived health. Thirdly, the two factors significantly related to self-perceived health were physical health and self-esteem, as determined by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The factors significantly related to self-perceived health were physical health and self-esteem. Further studies of the health characteristics of young adults are needed.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health