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9 "Socioeconomic status"
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Associations of Socioeconomic Status With Depression and Quality of Life in Patients With Hypertension: An Analysis of Data From the 2019 Community Health Survey in Korea
Hye Ri Kim, Mia Son
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):444-454.   Published online August 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.214
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
We aimed to identify the factors related to depression and quality of life in patients with hypertension by using multilevel regression analysis.
Methods
In 2019, 229 043 participants in the Korean Community Health Survey were selected as the study group. Individual factors were identified using data from the 2019 Community Health Survey. Regional factors were identified using data from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Multilevel regression analysis was conducted to find individual and local factors affecting depression and quality of life in patients with hypertension and to determine any associated interactions.
Results
As individual factors in patients with hypertension, women, those with lower education-levels, recipients of basic livelihood benefits, and those with poor dietary conditions showed stronger associations with depression and quality of life. As regional factors and individual-level variables in patients with hypertension, lower gross regional personal income, fewer doctors at medical institutions, and lower rates of participation in volunteer activities presented stronger associations with depression and quality of life. In addition, the associations of depression with gross regional personal income, the number of doctors at medical institutions, and dietary conditions were significantly stronger in patients with hypertension than in patients without hypertension. The associations of gender and employment status with quality of life were also significantly greater.
Conclusions
Policy interventions are needed to adjust health behaviors, prevent depression, and improve quality of life for patients with hypertension, especially for those with the risk factors identified in this study.
Summary
Korean summary
2019년 지역사회건강조사, 대한민국 통계청 자료를 통해, 다수준 회귀분석을 이용하여 고혈압 환자의 우울 및 삶의 질과 관련된 요인을 파악한 결과, 비고혈압 집단 대비 고혈압 환자의 지역총소득, 의료기관 종사 의사수, 식생활 형편이 우울과 연관성이 유의미하게 컸고, 성별, 직업수준이 삶의 질과 연관성이 유의미하게 컸다.
The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Lifestyle Health Determinants Among Older Adults Living in the Mediterranean Region: The Multinational MEDIS Study (2005-2015)
Alexandra Foscolou, Stefanos Tyrovolas, George Soulis, Anargiros Mariolis, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Foteini Anastasiou, Christos Lionis, Akis Zeimbekis, Josep-Antoni Tur, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Dimitra Tyrovola, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Labros Sidossis, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(1):1-9.   Published online December 19, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.101
  • 12,076 View
  • 335 Download
  • 32 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
By the end of the 2000s, the economic situation in many European countries started to deteriorate, generating financial uncertainty, social insecurity and worse health status. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the recent financial crisis has affected the lifestyle health determinants and behaviours of older adults living in the Mediterranean islands.
Methods
From 2005 to 2015, a population-based, multi-stage convenience sampling method was used to voluntarily enrol 2749 older adults (50% men) from 20 Mediterranean islands and the rural area of the Mani peninsula. Lifestyle status was evaluated as the cumulative score of four components (range, 0 to 6), that is, smoking habits, diet quality (MedDietScore), depression status (Geriatric Depression Scale) and physical activity.
Results
Older Mediterranean people enrolled in the study from 2009 onwards showed social isolation and increased smoking, were more prone to depressive symptoms, and adopted less healthy dietary habits, as compared to their counterparts participating earlier in the study (p<0.05), irrespective of age, gender, several clinical characteristics, or socioeconomic status of the participants (an almost 50% adjusted increase in the lifestyle score from before 2009 to after 2009, p<0.001).
Conclusions
A shift towards less healthy behaviours was noticeable after the economic crisis had commenced. Public health interventions should focus on older adults, particularly of lower socioeconomic levels, in order to effectively reduce the burden of cardiometabolic disease at the population level.
Summary

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Socioeconomic Disparities in Osteoporosis Prevalence: Different Results in the Overall Korean Adult Population and Single-person Households
Jungmee Kim, Joongyub Lee, Ju-Young Shin, Byung-Joo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(2):84-93.   Published online March 6, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.047
  • 10,559 View
  • 104 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The present study was conducted in order to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and osteoporosis prevalence in Korea and to assess whether different associations are found in single-person households.
Methods
A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2008 to 2011. The study subjects were people aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density. Multivariate logistic models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (pORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Gender differences in the likelihood of osteoporosis were analyzed based on household income, education level, and residential area.
Results
There were 8221 osteoporosis patients aged ≥ 50 years, of whom 927 lived in single-person households. There was a gender-specific association between osteoporosis prevalence and all three SES factors that we analyzed: income, education, and residential area. After adjusting for age, SES, and health behaviors, including body mass index (BMI), low household income was only significantly associated with osteoporosis in men, whereas education level had an inverse relationship with osteoporosis only in women (p= 0.01, p<0.001, respectively). However, after controlling for age and BMI, rural residency was only associated with osteoporosis in women living in single-person households (pOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.43).
Conclusions
The Korean adult population showed a gender-specific relationship between SES and osteoporosis prevalence, with a different pattern found in single-person households.
Summary

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Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Adults: Evidence From the 2001 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jihye Kim, Shreela V. Sharma, Sung Kyun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):94-103.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.94
  • 12,252 View
  • 101 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study examined relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity and body mass index (BMI) as well as the effects of health-related behavioral and psychological factors on the relationships.

Methods

A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years using data from the 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of obesity and mean differences in BMI, respectively, across SES levels after controlling for health-related behavioral and psychological factors.

Results

We observed significant gender-specific relationships of SES with obesity and BMI after adjusting for all covariates. In men, income, but not education, showed a slightly positive association with BMI (p<0.05 in 2001 and 2005). In women, education, but not income, was inversely associated with both obesity and BMI (p<0.0001 in all datasets). These relationships were attenuated with adjusting for health-related behavioral factors, not for psychological factors.

Conclusions

Results confirmed gender-specific disparities in the associations of SES with obesity and BMI among adult Korean population. Focusing on intervention for health-related behaviors may be effective to reduce social inequalities in obesity.

Summary

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Suicide Rate Differences by Sex, Age, and Urbanicity, and Related Regional Factors in Korea
Kyu-Seok Cheong, Min-Hyeok Choi, Byung-Mann Cho, Tae-Ho Yoon, Chang-Hun Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, In-Kyung Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):70-77.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.70
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2012;45(3):209
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Identify the characteristics related to the suicide rates in rural and urban areas of Korea and discover the factors that influence the suicide rate of the rural and urban areas.

Methods

Using the data on causes of death from 2006 to 2008, the suicide rates were calculated and compared after age-standardization based on gender, age group and urbanicity. And, in order to understand the factors that influence suicide rate, total 10 local characteristics in four domains - public service, social integration, residential environment, and economic status - were selected for multiple regression analysis.

Results

The suicide rates were higher in men than women, in rural areas than urban, and in older people than the younger. Generally, although there were variations according to age group and urbanicity, suicide rates were significantly related to residential environment and regional economic status but not related to regional welfare spending and social integration. In addition, the population over the age of 65 years, only regional economic status has significantly influence on their suicide rates.

Conclusions

The influence of characteristics of regions on suicide rate is various by age-group, gender, and urbanicity. Therefore, in order to lower suicide rate and reduce the gap between regions, various approaches must be adopted by taking into account the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions.

Summary

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English Abstract
Association Between Socioeconomic Status and All-Cause Mortality After Breast Cancer Surgery: Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.
Mi Jin Park, Woojin Chung, Sunmi Lee, Jong Hyock Park, Hoo Sun Chang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):330-340.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.330
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study aims to evaluate and explain the socioeconomic inequalities of all-cause mortality after breast cancer surgery in South Korea. METHODS: This population based study included all 8868 females who underwent radical mastectomy for breast cancer between January 2002 and June 2003. Follow-up for mortality continued from January 2002 to June 2006. The patients were divided into 4 socioeconomic classes according to their socioeconomic status as defined by the National Health Insurance contribution rate. The relationship between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality after breast cancer surgery was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model with adjusting for age, the Charlson's index score, emergency hospitalization, the type of hospital and the hospital ownership. RESULTS: Those in the lowest socioeconomic status group had a significantly higher hazard ratio of 2.09 (95% CI =1.50 - 2.91) compared with those in the highest socioeconomic group after controlling for all the identifiable confounding variables. For all-cause mortality after radical mastectomy, all the other income groups showed significantly higher 3-year mortality rates than did the highest income group. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients should be considered as an independent prognostic factor that affects all-cause mortality after radical mastectomy, and this is possibly due to a delayed diagnosis, limited access or minimal treatment leading to higher mortality. This study may provide tangible support to intensify surveillance and treatment for breast cancer among low socioeconomic class women.
Summary

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Original Article
Relationship between Adolescent Obesity and Socioeconomic Status of Parents: In Seoul, Yangpyong, and Yanbian Area.
Moran Ki, Bo Youl Choi, Mi Kyoung Kim, Jin Nu Fang, Chun Ying Xu, Dong Hyon Ahn, Yun Ju Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):9-16.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Few studies have attempted to explain the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in Korea. Especially the studies on same race with different SES at same time are good for SES influence estimation. The present study highlights the influence of SES of parents on adolescent obesity. The subjects are the same race, but live in different areas, with different SES, Seoul and Yangpung in Korea, and Yanbian in China. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Mar-Jun 1996. We carried out anthropometry, 24 hour-recall diet survey, self-reported questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity. For SES indicators, we used income and education of parents. RESULTS: The relationship between SES of parents, defined as educational status, and obesity in boys in Korea and China is direct, but not significant. The relationship is inverse and non-significant among Korean girls. However, for the Korean girls in severe obesity, the relationship is significant. For the Korean-Chinese girls, there is an inverse relationship between the education level and obesity but a direct relationship between the income level of parents and obesity. For the Korean adolescent, there are a direct association between the SES of parents and the nutrients factors such as energy, protein, and fat intake. The energy expenditure of adolescent has no relationship with SES of parents. CONCLUSION: Among boys, the higher the SES, the greater the risk of obese. Among girls in Korea and Korean-Chinese, on the other hand, the lower the educational status of parents, the greater the risk of obese.
Summary
English Abstracts
Relationship between the Exposure to Ozone in Seoul and the Childhood Asthma-related Hospital Admissions according to the Socioeconomic Status.
Ji Young Son, Ho Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Sun Young Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):81-86.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A number of studies have reported associations between the ambient air pollution concentrations and various health outcomes. Especially, ozone is well known for primary risk factor of asthma attacks. The results of a recent study indicate that the size of the effect on health outcomes due to air pollution varied according to several conditions, including age, gender, race and the socioeconomic status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the associations of ozone with the childhood asthma hospitalizations as stratified by the socioeconomic status (SES) at the community level in Seoul, Korea, 2002. METHODS: SES at aggregated levels was measured on the basis of average regional health-insurance rate per citizen in the area. We applied the generalized additive model to analyze the effect of ozone on asthma after controlling for the potential confounding variables that were capable of influencing the results. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the number of children who were hospitalized for asthma increased as the SES of the residence area decreased. The estimated relative risks of hospitalization for asthma, as stratified by the SES of the community level, were 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.25) in districts with the highest SES levels, 1.24 (95% CI=1.08-1.43) within the moderate SES levels, and 1.32 (95% CI=1.11-1.58) in the districts with the lowest SES levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis showed that exposure to air pollution did not equally affect the health status of individuals. This suggests that not only the biological-sensitivity markers, but also the SES of the subjects should be considered as potentially confounding factors.
Summary
The Relations of Socioeconomic Status to Health Status, Health Behaviors in the Elderly.
Sok Goo Lee, So Youn Jeon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):154-162.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To analyze the relationships of socioeconomic status (SES) to health status and health behaviors in the elderly. METHODS: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 4, 587 persons, older than 65 years, living in a community. We measured the sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health status (subjective health status, acute disease, admission experience, dental state, chronic disease etc.), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mini-mental state examination-Korean (MMSEK). Binary and multinominal logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze factors affecting on the socioeconomic status of the elderly. RESULTS: With regard to the SES and health status, those with a low SES had poorer subjective health states and lower satisfaction about their physical health. Also, acute disease experiences, admission rates and tooth deciduation rates were higher in those of low SES. In the view of physical and cognitive functions, the ADL, IADL and MMSE-K scores were also lower in those of low SES. However, with regard to health behaviors, lower smoking and alcohol drinking rates were found in the low SES group, and a similar trend was shown with regular physical exercise, eating breakfast, and regular physical health check-up. From these findings, we surmise that those with low SES have a poorer health condition and less money to spend on health, therefore, they can not smoke or drink alcohol, exercise and or have a physical health check-up. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that socioeconomic status plays an important role in health behaviors and status of the elderly. Low socioeconomic status bring about unhealthy behavior and poor health status in the elderly. Therefore, more specific target oriented (esp. low SES persons) health promotion activities for the elderly are very important to improve not only their health status, but their health inequity also.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health