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Epidemiological Model for Conventional Tobacco Control Measures and Tobacco Endgame Policies
Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):481-484.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.239
  • 905 View
  • 84 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Epidemiological models, also known as host-agent-vector-environment models, are utilized in public health to gain insights into disease occurrence and to formulate intervention strategies. In this paper, we propose an epidemiological model that incorporates both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. Our model suggests that conventional measures focus on relationships among agent-vector-host-environment components, whereas endgame policies inherently aim to change or eliminate those components at a fundamental level. We also found that the vector (tobacco industry) and environment (physical and social surroundings) components were insufficiently researched or controlled by both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. The use of an epidemiological model for tobacco control and the tobacco endgame is recommended to identify areas that require greater effort and to develop effective intervention measures.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 기존의 담배규제와 관련된 역학 모형을 확장하여 담배 수요를 줄이기 위한 조치인 MPOWER 정책과 담배 종결전의 주요 정책을 아우르는 개념적 모형을 제시하였다. 각 정책을 개념적 모형 내 배치한 결과, MPOWER 정책은 모형 내 구성요소 간의 연결을 끊는 것을 목표로 하는 반면, 종결전 정책은 모형 내 요소들을 영구적으로 변화시키거나 제거하려는 특성을 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 담배규제정책이 개체, 병원체, 벡터 및 환경 요소에 대한 균형 잡힌 포트폴리오를 갖추고 있는지 평가하기 위해 이 개념적 모형을 활용할 수 있다.
Key Message
We extended the conceptual epidemiological model for tobacco control by incorporating measures to reduce the demand for tobacco (MPOWER measures) and key endgame policies. The model suggests that MPOWER measures focus on disconnecting the relationships between model components, while endgame policies aim to permanently change or eliminate the components themselves. This model can be used to examine whether a country or jurisdiction's tobacco control policy maintains a balanced portfolio across agent, host, vector, and environmental factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Public support for tobacco endgame policies in South Korea: Findings from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Korea Survey
    Heewon Kang, Wonjeong Yoon, Hong Gwan Seo, Sungkyu Lee, Sujin Lim, Gil-yong Kim, Su Young Kim, Steve S Xu, Mi Yan, Anne C K Quah, Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine V Craig, Coral E Gartner, Geoffrey T Fong, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2024; : tc-2023-058454.     CrossRef
  • Decrease in household secondhand smoking among South Korean adolescents associated with smoke-free policies: grade-period-cohort and interrupted time series analyses
    Hana Kim, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024009.     CrossRef
Original Article
Gender Inequalities in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-based Study in Korea
Minku Kang, Sarah Yu, Seung-Ah Choe, Daseul Moon, Myung Ki, Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):413-421.   Published online August 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.170
  • 1,412 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study explored the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on psychosocial stress in prime working-age individuals in Korea, focusing on gender inequalities. We hypothesized that the impact of COVID-19 on mental health would differ by age and gender, with younger women potentially demonstrating heightened vulnerability relative to men.
Methods
The study involved data from the Korea Community Health Survey and included 319 592 adults aged 30 years to 49 years. We employed log-binomial regression analysis, controlling for variables including age, education, employment status, marital status, and the presence of children. The study period included 3 phases: the period prior to the COVID-19 outbreak (pre–COVID-19), the early pandemic, and the period following the introduction of vaccinations (post-vaccination).
Results
The findings indicated that women were at a heightened risk of psychosocial stress during the early pandemic (relative risk [RR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.05) and post-vaccination period (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.10) compared to men. This pattern was prominent in urban women aged 30-34 years (pre–COVID-19: RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10; early pandemic: RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.25; post-vaccination period, RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.31).
Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted unequal impacts on psychosocial stress among prime working-age individuals in Korea, with women, particularly those in urban areas, experiencing a heightened risk. The findings highlight the importance of addressing gender-specific needs and implementing appropriate interventions to mitigate the psychosocial consequences of the pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 대유행이 국내 경제활동인구의 정신건강에 미친 젠더화된 영향을 조사하였다. 연구대상자는 2017-2021년 지역사회건강조사 조사대상자 319,592명이다. 연구 결과, 대유행 이후 30-39세 연령대 여성의 스트레스 수준이 남성에 비하여 현저히 증가한 것으로 나타났으며, 사회적 거리두기를 엄격하게 시행하였던 도시 지역에서 이러한 경향이 두드러졌다. 이번 연구 결과는 대유행 대응 노력에서 취약 집단을 지원하기 위한 중재 정책의 필요성을 강조한다
Key Message
We investigate the gendered impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the working-age population in Korea, focusing on ages 30-49, utilizing data from the Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) from 2017 to 2021 including 319,592 participants. Findings reveal a notable increase in stress levels among women in the 30-39 age group after the pandemic compared to men, accentuating in urban areas with stringent social distancing measures. Our results underscore the necessity for intervention policies to support vulnerable groups in pandemic response efforts.
Brief Report
Effects of Forest Therapy on Psychological Improvement in Middle-aged Women in Korea
Bum-Jin Park, Won-Sop Shin, Chang-Seob Shin, Poung-Sik Yeon, Chung-Yeub Chung, Si-Hyung Lee, Dong-Jun Kim, Youn-Hee Kim, Chang-Eun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):492-497.   Published online September 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.086
  • 2,735 View
  • 129 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Women experience more stress in middle age than in other periods of their lives. Therefore, health management programs that enable middle-aged women to cope with and manage stress are needed. This study investigated the psychological effects of a meditation-focused forest therapy program among 53 middle-aged women living in urban areas in Korea.
Methods
Participants were divided into 2 groups: one group underwent the program for 3 days in a forest, followed by 3 days in an urban environment, and the other group underwent the program for 3 days in the urban environment, followed by 3 days in the forest. The psychological effects of the forest therapy program were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States-Brief (POMS-B). Differences in mood state before and after the program conducted in the forest (experimental group) and in the urban environment (control group) were evaluated using the paired-samples t-test.
Results
The program in the forest significantly reduced tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion among the domains of the POMS-B. The program in the urban area significantly reduced tension, but not depression, anger, fatigue, or confusion.
Conclusions
Meditation-focused forest therapy programs are expected to contribute to promoting psychological health and enhancing the quality of life of middle-aged women.
Summary
Korean summary
중년 여성이 건강을 관리할 수 있는 프로그램이 필요하다. 이 연구는 명상 중심의 산림치유 프로그램이 중년 여성의 심리적 건강 증진에 효과적인지 검증하기 위해 프로그램 시행 전후에 참가자의 기분상태(POMS-B)를 측정하여 비교하였다. 결과에 의하면 긴장, 우울, 분노, 피곤, 혼돈이 통계적으로 유의하게 감소하였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of Anti-Aging Standard Forest Healing Program With Multiple Visits to a Forest Facility on Cognition in Older Age Patients
    Jinseok Park, Sheng-Min Wang, Dong Woo Kang, Beom Lee, Hojin Choi
    Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders.2024; 23(1): 44.     CrossRef
  • Supporting Wellness, Resilience, and Community With Forest Therapy
    Susan A Abookire, Sujata G Ayala, Nancy A Shadick
    Global Advances in Integrative Medicine and Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of Forest Therapy Programs on Stress Reduction: A Systematic Review
    Yawei Zhang, Lu Feng, Wenjie Duan
    Forests.2023; 14(9): 1851.     CrossRef
Original Articles
The Role of CYP2B6*6 Gene Polymorphisms in 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol Levels as a Biomarker of Chlorpyrifos Toxicity Among Indonesian Farmers
Jen Fuk Liem, Dwi A. Suryandari, Safarina G. Malik, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Dewi S. Soemarko, Aria Kekalih, Imam Subekti, Franciscus D. Suyatna, Bertha Pangaribuan
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):280-288.   Published online May 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.641
  • 3,169 View
  • 139 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
One of the most widely used pesticides today is chlorpyrifos (CPF). Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6, the most prominent catalyst in CPF bioactivation, is highly polymorphic. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of CYP2B6*6, which contains both 516G>T and 785A>G polymorphisms, in CPF toxicity, as represented by the concentration of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), among vegetable farmers in Central Java, Indonesia, where CPF has been commonly used.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 vegetable farmers. Individual socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, as determinants of TCPy levels, were obtained using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and subsequently used to estimate the cumulative exposure level (CEL). TCPy levels were detected with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. CYP2B6*6 gene polymorphisms were analyzed using a TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay and Sanger sequencing. Linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between TCPy, as a biomarker of CPF exposure, and its determinants.
Results
The prevalence of CYP2B6*6 polymorphisms was 31% for *1/*1, 51% for *1/*6, and 18% for *6/*6. TCPy concentrations were higher among participants with CYP2B6*1/*1 than among those with *1/*6 or *6/*6 genotypes. CYP2B6*6 gene polymorphisms, smoking, CEL, body mass index, and spraying time were retained in the final linear regression model as determinants of TCPy.
Conclusions
The results suggest that CYP2B6*6 gene polymorphisms may play an important role in influencing susceptibility to CPF exposure. CYP2B6*6 gene polymorphisms together with CEL, smoking habits, body mass index, and spraying time were the determinants of urinary TCPy concentrations, as a biomarker of CPF toxicity.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Human CYP2C19 Substrate and Inhibitor Characterization of Organophosphate Pesticides
    Patricia A. Vignaux, Pratik Shriwas, Andre Revnew, Garima Agarwal, Thomas R. Lane, Craig A. McElroy, Sean Ekins
    Chemical Research in Toxicology.2023; 36(9): 1451.     CrossRef
  • The determinants of thyroid function among vegetable farmers with primary exposure to chlorpyrifos: A cross-sectional study in Central Java, Indonesia
    Jen Fuk Liem, Imam Subekti, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Dewi S. Soemarko, Aria Kekalih, Franciscus D. Suyatna, Dwi A. Suryandari, Safarina G. Malik, Bertha Pangaribuan
    Heliyon.2023; 9(6): e16435.     CrossRef
Hepatitis A Outbreak in a Facility for the Disabled, Gyeonggi Province, Korea: An Epidemiological Investigation
Yeonhwa Chang, Chanhee Kim, Nayoung Kim, Joon Jai Kim, Heeyoung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):370-375.   Published online September 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.349
  • 3,029 View
  • 102 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The number of cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections has sharply increased in Korea, especially among young adults. In this study, an HAV outbreak in a facility for disabled people was investigated, and we found epidemiological differences both between 2 different generations and between generally abled and disabled groups.
Methods
We analyzed the incubation period and attack rate of an HAV outbreak and investigated the prevalence of HAV antibodies among the staff and residents of a facility for the disabled. We performed a retrospective cohort study during the HAV outbreak, which lasted from February 8 to 25, 2019, including examinations of HAV antibody tests and post-exposure HAV vaccination for the staff or residents of the facility.
Results
There were 9 confirmed cases in 2 staff members and 7 residents. Among 53 people (30 staff and 23 residents), except for the 9 confirmed cases and 1 staff member with a known history of HAV infection, HAV seroprevalence was seen in 16.7% of the staff under 40 years of age and 95.2% of those over 40 years of age, while the corresponding rates in the residents were 0.0% and 58.8%, respectively.
Conclusions
This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 장애인 거주시설에서 발생한 A형간염 유행 사례를 다루고 있다. 그 결과 거주시설 소속의 장애인들은 종사자들보다 높은 발병률(attack rate)을 나타냈을 뿐만 아니라, 비슷한 연령의 일반 인구집단보다 낮은 항체유병률을 나타내는 것으로 확인되었다. 거주시설 소속의 장애인들과 같이 취약한 인구집단은 예방접종 이력을 확인하기 어려울 뿐만 아니라 병원체에 자연스럽게 노출 기회가 적을 수밖에 없기 때문에, 예방접종 정책 수립 시 우선 접종의 대상으로 고려될 필요가 있다.

Citations

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  • The Shifting Epidemiology of Hepatitis A in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region
    Nina G. Gloriani, Sheriah Laine M. de Paz-Silava, Robert D. Allison, Yoshihiro Takashima, Tigran Avagyan
    Vaccines.2024; 12(2): 204.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
Special Article
Introduction to Mediation Analysis and Examples of Its Application to Real-world Data
Sun Jae Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(3):166-172.   Published online May 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.069
  • 8,479 View
  • 402 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Traditional epidemiological assessments, which mainly focused on evaluating the statistical association between two major components-the exposure and outcome-have recently evolved to ascertain the in-between process, which can explain the underlying causal pathway. Mediation analysis has emerged as a compelling method to disentangle the complex nature of these pathways. The statistical method of mediation analysis has evolved from simple regression analysis to causal mediation analysis, and each amendment refined the underlying mathematical theory and required assumptions. This short guide will introduce the basic statistical framework and assumptions of both traditional and modern mediation analyses, providing examples conducted with real-world data.
Summary
Korean summary
본 리뷰에서는 전통적으로 쓰여왔던 회귀분석 기반 매개요인분석방법과 인과적 매개요인분석방법에 대하여 간략히 소개하며, 또한 예시를 들어 설명하고 있다. 매개요인 분석 전에는 필요한 가정들이 맞는 지를 확인하는 것이 중요하다. 또한 분석결과를 올바르게 해석하는 것 또한 요구된다. 이러한 방법은 그동안의 노출-결과만을 다루는 단순 역학연구을 뛰어넘어, 인구집단연구에서 매커니즘을 밝히는 도구로서 유용하게 쓰일 것이다.

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  • Residential greenspace and blood lipids in an essential hypertension population: Mediation through PM2.5 and chemical constituents
    Ruoyi Lei, Ling Zhang, Xin Liu, Ce Liu, Ya Xiao, Baode Xue, Zengwu Wang, Jihong Hu, Zhoupeng Ren, Bin Luo
    Environmental Research.2024; 240: 117418.     CrossRef
  • The mediation roles of intermuscular fat and inflammation in muscle mitochondrial associations with cognition and mobility
    Qu Tian, Philip R. Lee, Qi Yang, Anne Z. Moore, Bennett A. Landman, Susan M. Resnick, Luigi Ferrucci
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2024; 15(1): 138.     CrossRef
  • Mediators of the Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review
    Nicholas Grubic, Braeden Hill, Katherine S. Allan, Katerina Maximova, Hailey R. Banack, Marina del Rios, Amer M. Johri
    Canadian Journal of Cardiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Airway inflammation accelerates pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis
    Theodore G. Liou, Natalia Argel, Fadi Asfour, Perry S. Brown, Barbara A. Chatfield, David R. Cox, Cori L. Daines, Dixie Durham, Jessica A. Francis, Barbara Glover, My Helms, Theresa Heynekamp, John R. Hoidal, Judy L. Jensen, Christiana Kartsonaki, Ruth Ke
    iScience.2024; 27(3): 108835.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Improved Serum Fatty Acid Profiles and Cognitive Function During a Dietary Intervention Trial in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
    Solange M. Saxby, Carlyn Haas, Farnoosh Shemirani, Tyler J. Titcomb, Patrick Ten Eyck, Linda M. Rubenstein, Karin F. Hoth, Linda G. Snetselaar, Terry L. Wahls
    International Journal of MS Care.2024; 26(2): 61.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Covid-19-related anxiety on overeating and weight gain in a diverse college sample
    Stephanie Guzman, Robert D. Melara
    Journal of American College Health.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Mixed heavy metals exposure affects the renal function mediated by 8-OHG: A cross-sectional study in rural residents of China
    Xiaoyu Tian, Xiaobing Shan, Li Ma, Chenyang Zhang, Mei Wang, Jie Zheng, Ruoyi Lei, Li He, Jun Yan, Xun Li, Yanjun Bai, Keqin Hu, Sheng Li, Jingping Niu, Bin Luo
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    Meixia Wang, Hongfei Mi, Na Li, Qingfeng Shi, Wei Sun, Tingjuan He, Jiabing Lin, Wenting Jin, Xiaodong Gao, Bijie Hu, Chenghao Su, Jue Pan
    Frontiers in Immunology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Preferences of Young Polish Renters: Findings from the Mediation Analysis
    Janusz Sobieraj, Marek Bryx, Dominik Metelski
    Buildings.2023; 13(4): 920.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 and mood following the Swank and Wahls elimination dietary interventions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Secondary analysis of the WAVES trial
    Farnoosh Shemirani, Tyler J. Titcomb, Solange M. Saxby, Patrick Ten Eyck, Linda M. Rubenstein, Karin F. Hoth, Linda G. Snetselaar, Terry L. Wahls
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  • Mediation Analysis of Maternal Smoking, Gestational Age, and Birth Weight on the Texas–Mexico Border
    Chinodebem Ogbutor, Stephanie M. Mishaw, Zuber D. Mulla
    Southern Medical Journal.2023; 116(6): 478.     CrossRef
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    Jiajia Wang, Shen Shen, Bing Yan, Yunsheng He, Guoji Zhang, Chunguang Shan, Qintai Yang, Long Qin, Zhijian Duan, Luyun Jiang, Xin Wang, Xin Wei, Chengshuo Wang, Rui Chen, Luo Zhang
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    Maria Jose Talayero, C. Rebecca Robbins, Emily R. Smith, Carlos Santos-Burgoa, Naveen Puttaswamy
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    David Adzrago, Faustine Williams
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    Desalegn Markos Shifti, Catherine Chojenta, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Deborah Loxton
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    Yao Wu, Kristina M. Espinosa, Scott D. Barnett, Anushree Kapse, Jessica Lynn Quistorff, Catherine Lopez, Nickie Andescavage, Subechhya Pradhan, Yuan-Chiao Lu, Kushal Kapse, Diedtra Henderson, Gilbert Vezina, David Wessel, Adré J. du Plessis, Catherine Lim
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Original Articles
Public Sector Workers’ Mental Health in Argentina: Comparative Psychometrics of the Perceived Stress Scale
Agustín Ramiro Miranda, Ana Veronica Scotta, Ana Lucía Méndez, Silvana Valeria Serra, Elio Andrés Soria
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):429-438.   Published online October 5, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.229
  • 5,146 View
  • 178 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Given that Argentinian public-sector workers are highly exposed to stressful conditions, and that the psychometric properties of the widely used Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) should be evaluated in different settings, this work aimed to compare the psychometric properties of the Latin American Spanish PSS-10 and PSS-4 and to identify the optimal scale for stress assessment.
Methods
A sample of 535 participants was randomly divided into 2 groups to evaluate dimensionality by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The reliability of both scales was also evaluated. Convergent validity was estimated using the Executive Complaints Questionnaire, the average variance extracted, and the composite reliability. Discriminant validity was based on the correlation with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the phi-square correlation between the components.
Results
The factor analyses supported bidimensionality of the PSS-10 (stress and coping), which showed a better fit than the PSS-4. Moreover, the reliability of the PSS-10 was higher, whereas the PSS-4 did not achieve adequate values of internal consistency. The PSS-10 was also correlated significantly with all validation scales, and presented proper internal convergent and divergent validity.
Conclusions
The PSS-10 is a reliable and structurally valid instrument to measure perceived stress and coping in a Latin American Spanish-speaking population with high work demands, and the findings of this study expand our knowledge on the geographical and sociocultural applicability of the PSS.
Summary

Citations

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  • Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in silica-exposed workers from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds
    Fiona Hore-Lacy, StellaMay Gwini, Deborah C. Glass, Christina Dimitriadis, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Ryan F. Hoy, Malcolm R. Sim, Karen Walker-Bone, Jane Fisher
    BMC Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Norfadhillaton Zahari, Maniam Kaliannan
    Review of Public Personnel Administration.2023; 43(3): 557.     CrossRef
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    Batul A. Yawer, Julie Liss, Visar Berisha
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  • Insomnia is associated with worry, cognitive avoidance and low academic engagement in Argentinian university students during the COVID-19 social isolation
    Ana Veronica Scotta, Mariela Valentina Cortez, Agustín Ramiro Miranda
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  • COVID-19-related stress in postpartum women from Argentina during the second wave in 2021: Identification of impairing and protective factors
    Agustín R. Miranda, Mariela V. Cortez, Ana V. Scotta, Elio A. Soria
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Effect of Burnout on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Firefighters in Korea: Data From the Firefighter Research on Enhancement of Safety & Health (FRESH)
Woojin Kim, Munjoo Bae, Sei-Jin Chang, Jin-Ha Yoon, Da Yee Jeong, Dae-Sung Hyun, Hye-Yoon Ryu, Ki-Soo Park, Mi-Ji Kim, Changsoo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):345-354.   Published online October 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.116
  • 8,830 View
  • 233 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
It is well-known that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among firefighters contributes to their job-related stress. However, the relationship between burnout and PTSD in firefighters has rarely been studied. This study therefore explored the association between burnout and its related factors, such as trauma and violence, and PTSD symptoms among firefighters in Korea.
Methods
A total of 535 firefighters participated in the Firefighter Research on Enhancement of Safety & Health study at 3 university hospitals from 2016 to 2017. The 535 participants received a baseline health examination, including questionnaires assessing their mental health. A Web-based survey was also conducted to collect data on job-related stress, history of exposure to violence, burnout, and trauma experience. The associations among burnout, its related factors, and PTSD symptoms were investigated using structural equation modeling.
Results
Job demands (β=0.411, p<0.001) and effort-reward balance (β=-0.290, p<0.001) were significantly related to burnout. Burnout (β=0.237, p<0.001) and violence (β=0.123, p=0.014) were significantly related to PTSD risk. Trauma (β=0.131, p=0.001) was significantly related to burnout; however, trauma was not directly associated with PTSD scores (β=0.085, p=0.081).
Conclusions
Our results show that burnout and psychological, sexual, and physical violence at the hands of clients directly affected participants’ PTSD symptoms. Burnout mediated the relationship between trauma experience and PTSD.
Summary
Korean summary
535명의 현직소방관을 대상으로 소방공무원에서 업무관련스트레스, 폭력노출, 외상노출, 소진(번아웃), 외상후 스트레스 장애(PTSD) 증상 설문을 시행하였고, 구조방정식 통해 업무스트레스에 의한 소진이 PTSD에 주는 영향과 다른 요인간의 연관성을 분석하였다. 그 결과, 업무 환경에서의 높은 직무요구수준과 낮은 노력-보상 균형은 소진을 증가시키며, 업무스트레스에 의한 소진과 근무 중 겪게 되는 폭력노출 경험은 PTSD 점수와 양의 연관관계를 보였다. 반면, 업무 도중 외상사건 경험은 PTSD 점수와 직접적으로 유의한 연관관계를 보이지 않았으나, 소진을 통한 간접적으로 영향을 주는 것을 확인하였다.

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Perspective
Introduction of Phylodynamics for Controlling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Korea
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):326-328.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.150
  • 4,582 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As over 1000 new cases of HIV/AIDS occur in Korea annually, preventive health programs against HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. Since phylodynamic studies have been suggested as a way to understand how infectious diseases are transmitted and evolve, phylodynamic inferences can be a useful tool for HIV/AIDS research. In particular, phylodynamic models are helpful for dating the origins of an epidemic and estimating its basic reproduction number. Thus, the introduction of phylodynamics would be a highly valuable step towards controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 HIV/AIDS 신환자가 지속적으로 발생하고 있는 상황에서, 다른 나라에서는 HIV 감염관리에 계통역동학을 적용하고 있다. 이는 감염원과 감염경로를 알아내고, 기본재생산지수를 산출하도록 해주기 때문이다. 따라서 국내 HIV/AIDS 관리를 위해 계통역동학 적용을 적극 제안한다.”
Special Article
Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits
Sun Goo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):80-96.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.002
  • 8,503 View
  • 144 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation.
Summary

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  • Attribution of Cancer Origins to Endogenous, Exogenous, and Preventable Mutational Processes
    Vincent L. Cannataro, Jeffrey D. Mandell, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Melissa Wilson
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Brief Report
Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Salmonellosis in Gyeongju, Korea
Seok-Ju Yoo, Hyun-Sul Lim, Kwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):177-181.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.177
  • 9,609 View
  • 104 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

A salmonellosis outbreak occurred within a community of Gyeongju residents who ingested catered food from a wedding in June 2009. We aimed to epidemiologically investigate the probable vehicle of the infection.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 34 local residents who ingested the wedding food.

Results

Among the 34 residents, 31 (91.2%) reported symptoms of infection after eating the food. Among all of the wedding foods, pan-fried foods were highly associated with the diarrheal attack rate. On bacteriological examination, Salmonella species were detected in the pan-fried foods among the leftover foods and in 17 of the 31 stool specimens from the cases. There were five different types of pan-fried foods, but the onset of symptoms was independent of the ingredients used. We found that the pan-fried food was prepared at a food store in Seoul and that eggs were a common ingredient.

Conclusions

The major cause of the salmonellosis in this population was presumed to be the pan-fried food prepared with contaminated eggs. These food items might have been partially undercooked because of their irregular shape, which allowed the Salmonella species to survive and multiply before ingestion.

Summary

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Original Articles
Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Adults: Evidence From the 2001 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jihye Kim, Shreela V. Sharma, Sung Kyun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):94-103.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.94
  • 12,137 View
  • 101 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study examined relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity and body mass index (BMI) as well as the effects of health-related behavioral and psychological factors on the relationships.

Methods

A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on Korean adults aged 20 to 79 years using data from the 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of obesity and mean differences in BMI, respectively, across SES levels after controlling for health-related behavioral and psychological factors.

Results

We observed significant gender-specific relationships of SES with obesity and BMI after adjusting for all covariates. In men, income, but not education, showed a slightly positive association with BMI (p<0.05 in 2001 and 2005). In women, education, but not income, was inversely associated with both obesity and BMI (p<0.0001 in all datasets). These relationships were attenuated with adjusting for health-related behavioral factors, not for psychological factors.

Conclusions

Results confirmed gender-specific disparities in the associations of SES with obesity and BMI among adult Korean population. Focusing on intervention for health-related behaviors may be effective to reduce social inequalities in obesity.

Summary

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The Relationship Between Psychosocial Stress and Allergic Disease Among Children and Adolescents in Gwangyang Bay, Korea
Mee-Ri Lee, Bu-Soon Son, Yoo-Ri Park, Hye-Mi Kim, Jong-Youn Moon, Yong-Jin Lee, Yong-Bae Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(6):374-380.   Published online November 29, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.6.374
  • 9,590 View
  • 74 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Stress is considered a causal factor in many diseases, allergic disease being one of them. The prevalence of allergic disease is increasing in Korea, but the relationship between allergic symptoms and stress is not empirically well known. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between allergy-related symptoms and stress in children and adolescents.

Methods

We investigated 698 children and adolescents living in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and the Psychosocial Well-being Index, these subjects were surveyed on allergy-related symptoms and psychosocial stressors in their lives, respectively. We used a multivariate logistic analysis for odds ratios for the complaint rate of allergic symptoms, after adjusting for age, gender, household income, body mass index, and residence.

Results

After adjustments, lifetime rhinitis (odds ratio [OR], 1.024), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR, 1.090), diagnosis of itchy eczema (OR, 1.040), treatment of itchy eczema (OR, 1.049), 12-month allergic conjunctivitis (OR, 1.026), diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis (OR, 1.031), and treatment of allergic conjunctivitis (OR, 1.034) were found to be significantly associated with stress.

Conclusions

Our results support the notion that there is a relationship between stress and allergic symptoms in children and adolescents. Further research into any causal relationship between stress and allergies, as well as preventative public health plans for decreasing stress in children and adolescents are needed.

Summary

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Changes in Air Temperature and Its Relation to Ambulance Transports Due to Heat Stroke in All 47 Prefectures of Japan
Shoko Murakami, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Noriko Sakano
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(5):309-315.   Published online September 28, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.309
  • 8,398 View
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  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Changes in air temperature and its relation to ambulance transports due to heat stroke in all 47 prefectures, in Japan were evaluated.

Methods

Data on air temperature were obtained from the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Data on ambulance transports due to heat stroke was directly obtained from the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Japan. We also used the number of deaths due to heat stroke from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, and population data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Chronological changes in parameters of air temperature were analyzed. In addition, the relation between air temperature and ambulance transports due to heat stroke in August 2010 was also evaluated by using an ecological study.

Results

Positive and significant changes in the parameters of air temperature that is, the mean air temperature, mean of the highest air temperature, and mean of the lowest air temperature were noted in all 47 prefectures. In addition, changes in air temperature were accelerated when adjusted for observation years. Ambulance transports due to heat stroke was significantly correlated with air temperature in the ecological study. The highest air temperature was significantly linked to ambulance transports due to heat stroke, especially in elderly subjects.

Conclusions

Global warming was demonstrated in all 47 prefectures in Japan. In addition, the higher air temperature was closely associated with higher ambulance transports due to heat stroke in Japan.

Summary

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English Abstract
The Effect of Exposure Factors on the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Residents Near Abandoned Metal Mines.
Sanghoo Kim, Yong Min Cho, Seung Hyun Choi, Hae Joon Kim, Jaewook Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):41-47.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.41
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study assessed the factors that have an influence on the residents exposed to heavy metals, and we utilized the findings to establish the proper management of abandoned metal mines in the future. METHODS: For a total of 258 residents who lived close to abandoned mines in Gangwon-province and Gyeonggi-province, the exposure factors and biomarkers in their blood and urine were comparatively analyzed via multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The blood levels of lead and mercury and the cadmium levels in urine were found to be higher in the study group than that in the average Korean. For the blood levels of heavy metals according to each exposure factor, all of them were found to be significantly higher in both of the group residing for a longer period of time and the group living closer to the source of pollutants. Multiple regression analysis disclosed that all the heavy metals, except lead, in their blood were significantly reduced in proportion to the increased distance of inhabitancy from the mines. Their other biomarkers were within the normal ranges. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the distance between the residential village and the mines was a factor that affects the blood level of heavy metals in the villagers. This finding could be an important factor when developing a management model for the areas that surround abandoned metal mines. (ED note: I much like this important study.)
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health