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13 "Influenza"
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Original Articles
Alleviation of PM2.5-associated Risk of Daily Influenza Hospitalization by COVID-19 Lockdown Measures: A Time-series Study in Northeastern Thailand
Benjawan Roudreo, Sitthichok Puangthongthub
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):108-119.   Published online January 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.349
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  • 149 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Abrupt changes in air pollution levels associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak present a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of air pollution on influenza risk, at a time when emission sources were less active and personal hygiene practices were more rigorous.
Methods
This time-series study examined the relationship between influenza cases (n=22 874) and air pollutant concentrations from 2018 to 2021, comparing the timeframes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in and around Thailand’s Khon Kaen province. Poisson generalized additive modeling was employed to estimate the relative risk of hospitalization for influenza associated with air pollutant levels.
Results
Before the COVID-19 outbreak, both the average daily number of influenza hospitalizations and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) concentration exceeded those later observed during the pandemic (p<0.001). In single-pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 before COVID-19 was significantly associated with increased influenza risk upon exposure to cumulative-day lags, specifically lags 0-5 and 0-6 (p<0.01). After adjustment for co-pollutants, PM2.5 demonstrated the strongest effects at lags 0 and 4, with elevated risk found across all cumulative-day lags (0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5, and 0-6) and significantly greater risk in the winter and summer at lag 0-5 (p<0.01). However, the PM2.5 level was not significantly associated with influenza risk during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Conclusions
Lockdown measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic could mitigate the risk of PM2.5-induced influenza. Effective regulatory actions in the context of COVID-19 may decrease PM2.5 emissions and improve hygiene practices, thereby reducing influenza hospitalizations.
Summary
Key Message
In the present research, both single- and multi-pollutant models indicated that the level of PM2.5 was significantly related to the daily number of influenza cases in Khon Kaen, Thailand, prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Additionally, a significant risk difference was observed between the pre-outbreak and the pandemic periods due to the reduction in air pollutant concentrations because of lockdown measures to control the spread of COVID-19. These findings could be useful for developing environmental policies and strategies accordingly to mitigate respiratory health issues.
Estimating Influenza-associated Mortality in Korea: The 2009-2016 Seasons
Kwan Hong, Sangho Sohn, Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(5):308-315.   Published online August 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.156
  • 21,262 View
  • 323 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Estimating influenza-associated mortality is important since seasonal influenza affects persons of all ages, causing severe illness or death. This study aimed to estimate influenza-associated mortality, considering both periodic changes and age-specific mortality by influenza subtypes.
Methods
Using the Microdata Integrated Service from Statistics Korea, we collected weekly mortality data including cause of death. Laboratory surveillance data of respiratory viruses from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After adjusting for the annual age-specific population size, we used a negative binomial regression model by age group and influenza subtype.
Results
Overall, 1 859 890 deaths were observed and the average rate of influenza virus positivity was 14.7% (standard deviation [SD], 5.8), with the following subtype distribution: A(H1N1), 5.0% (SD, 5.8); A(H3N2), 4.4% (SD, 3.4); and B, 5.3% (SD, 3.7). As a result, among individuals under 65 years old, 6774 (0.51%) all-cause deaths, 2521 (3.05%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 1048 (18.23%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Among those 65 years of age or older, 30 414 (2.27%) all-cause deaths, 16 411 (3.42%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 4906 (6.87%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the major contributor to influenza-associated all-cause and respiratory or circulatory deaths in both age groups. However, influenza A(H1N1) virus–associated influenza or pneumonia deaths were more common in those under 65 years old.
Conclusions
Influenza-associated mortality was substantial during this period, especially in the elderly. By subtype, influenza A(H3N2) virus made the largest contribution to influenza-associated mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
계절 인플루엔자는 심각한 호흡기 합병증으로 진행할 수 있어 질병 부담의 추산이 중요한 질병이다. 현재까지는 연령별, 인플루엔자 연관 사망을 정확하게 추산하기 어려웠으나, 본 연구에서는 이를 추산하기 위해 고안된 다양한 방법 중 음이항 회귀 분석을 이용하여 2009년부터 2016년간 인플루엔자 아형별 연관 사망을 추산하였다. 그 결과, 전체 사망자 중 65세 미만에서 약 6,774명, 65세 이상에서 약 30,414명의 연간 인플루엔자 사망이 추산되었고, 이는 특히 인플루엔자 아형 중 전체 연령에서 A(H3N2) 연관 사망이 가장 많은 비율을 차지했다.

Citations

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    晓璐 马
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    Sookyung Lim, Xiaoling Li, Olga Syrkina, Marion Fournier
    Infectious Diseases and Therapy.2022; 11(5): 2035.     CrossRef
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    Hyun Jung Kim
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2020; 37(4): 286.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Knowledge and Perceptions of Influenza Vaccinations Among College Students in Vietnam and the United States
Akiko Kamimura, Ha N. Trinh, Shannon Weaver, Alla Chernenko, Maziar M. Nourian, Nushean Assasnik, Hanh Nguyen
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):268-273.   Published online May 25, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.061
  • 10,557 View
  • 228 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Influenza is a significant worldwide public health issue. Knowledge and perceptions regarding the flu vaccination are associated with whether individuals obtain the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine how such perceptions were related to knowledge and self-efficacy regarding influenza and the flu vaccination in Vietnam and the US. Methods: College students (n=932) in Vietnam (n=495) and the US (n=437) completed a self-administered survey regarding knowledge and perceptions of influenza vaccinations in September and October 2016. Results: Vietnamese participants reported significantly lower levels of awareness about flu risk, higher levels of negative attitudes toward flu vaccination, lower levels of knowledge about the flu and vaccination, and lower levels of self-efficacy than US participants. Higher levels of flu and flu vaccination knowledge and self-efficacy regarding general responsible health practices were associated with lower levels of negative perceptions of flu risk and attitudes toward vaccination. At the same time, self-efficacy regarding responsible health practices was associated with higher levels of awareness of flu risk and lower levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Self-efficacy regarding exercise was associated with lower levels of perceptions of flu risk and higher levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Conclusions: Vietnam could benefit from influenza education based on this comparison with the US. In both countries, knowledge and self-efficacy were found to be important factors influencing perceptions of influenza risk and vaccination.
Summary

Citations

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Special Article
How to Improve Influenza Vaccination Rates in the U.S.
Byung-Kwang Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(4):141-148.   Published online July 29, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.4.141
  • 13,636 View
  • 127 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza occur during autumn and winter in temperate regions and have imposed substantial public health and economic burdens. At the global level, these epidemics cause about 3-5 million severe cases of illness and about 0.25-0.5 million deaths each year. Although annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease and its severe outcomes, influenza vaccination coverage rates have been at suboptimal levels in many countries. For instance, the coverage rates among the elderly in 20 developed nations in 2008 ranged from 21% to 78% (median 65%). In the U.S., influenza vaccination levels among elderly population appeared to reach a "plateau" of about 70% after the late 1990s, and levels among child populations have remained at less than 50%. In addition, disparities in the coverage rates across subpopulations within a country present another important public health issue. New approaches are needed for countries striving both to improve their overall coverage rates and to eliminate disparities.

This review article aims to describe a broad conceptual framework of vaccination, and to illustrate four potential determinants of influenza vaccination based on empirical analyses of U.S. nationally representative populations. These determinants include the ongoing influenza epidemic level, mass media reporting on influenza-related topics, reimbursement rate for providers to administer influenza vaccination, and vaccine supply. It additionally proposes specific policy implications, derived from these empirical analyses, to improve the influenza vaccination coverage rate and associated disparities in the U.S., which could be generalizable to other countries.

Summary

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Brief Communication
An Outbreak of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in the English Language Institute.
Joon Hyung Kim, Han Sung Lee, Hye Kyung Park, Jin Seok Kim, Sang Won Lee, Seong Sun Kim, Jong Koo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(3):274-278.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.3.274
  • 4,458 View
  • 36 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This report describes the results of an investigation on an outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1) in an English language Institute in Seoul, Korea in May 2009. METHODS: In this outbreak, novel influenza A (H1N1) was confirmed in 22 of 91 trainees, trainers and staff members. The trainees and 2 staff members were isolated in an assigned facility and the rest were isolated in their homes after we discovered the first patient with novel influenza A (H1N1). After the isolation, the people in the assigned facility were educated to use N95 respirators and they received oseltamivir for prophylaxis. RESULTS: The initial findings in this study suggest that the symptoms were mild and similar to those of seasonal influenza. The classmates and roommates of the infected patients were more likely to get infected with novel influenza A (H1N1) than the trainees who were not classmates or roommates of the patients (OR: 3.19, 95% CI=0.91 - 11.11 for classmates and OR: 40.0, 95% CI=7.4-215.7 for roommates). CONCLUSIONS: The public health response seems successful in terms of preventing the spread of this virus into the local community.
Summary

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Review
National Level Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009.
Dong Han Lee, Sang Sook Shin, Byung Yool Jun, Jong Koo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):99-104.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.99
  • 5,985 View
  • 123 Download
  • 29 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the emergence of a novel influenza on April 24, 2009, and they declared pandemic on June 11. In Korea, the proportion of influenza-like illness and the consumption of antiviral agents peaked in early November. The government established the Central Headquarters for Influenza Control and operated the emergency response system. In the quarantine stations, we checked the body temperature and collected quarantine questionnaires from all the arrivals from infected countries. We also isolated the confirmed cases in the national isolation hospitals. However, as the community outbreaks were reported, we changed strategy from containment to mitigation. We changed the antiviral agent prescription guideline so that doctors could prescribe antiviral agents to all patients with acute febrile respiratory illness, without a laboratory diagnosis. Also the 470 designated hospitals were activated to enhance the efficacy of treatment. We vaccinated about 12 million people and manage the adverse event following the immunization management system. In 2010, we will establish additional national isolation wards and support hospitals to establish fever clinics and isolation intensive care unit (ICU) beds. We will also make a computer program for managing the national isolation hospitals and designated hospitals. We will establish isolation rooms and expand the laboratory in quarantine stations and we will construct a bio-safety level 3 laboratory in each province. In addition, we plan to construct a bio-safety level 4 laboratory at a new Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) facilities in Ossong.
Summary

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    Infection and Chemotherapy.2011; 43(1): 36.     CrossRef
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    Hyun Su Kim, Ho Chun Choi, Belong Cho, Joon Yong Lee, Min Jeong Kwon, Abdisalan Mohamed Noor
    PLoS ONE.2011; 6(8): e23444.     CrossRef
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    Jang-Hee Cho, Jun-Young Do, Sung-Ho Kim, Jong-Yeon Kim, Jung-Ju Seo, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Chan-Duck Kim, Sun-Young Jung, Kyu-Hyang Cho, Jong-Won Park, Duk-Hyun Lee, Kyung Eun Song, Yong-Lim Kim
    Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.2011; 31(3): 347.     CrossRef
  • Trend in Age Distribution of Visitors to Flu-Clinics during the Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009)
    Baek-Nam Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Chi-Sook Moon, Yeon-Sook Kim, Eu Suk Kim, In-Gyu Bae, Joon-Sup Yeom, Chang-Seop Lee, Ji-An Hur
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Original Article
Mathematical Modeling of the Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus and Evaluation of the Epidemic Response Strategies in the Republic of Korea.
Mina Suh, Jeehyun Lee, Hye Jin Chi, Young Keun Kim, Dae Yong Kang, Nam Wook Hur, Kyung Hwa Ha, Dong Han Lee, Chang Soo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):109-116.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.109
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  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The pandemic of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has required decision-makers to act in the face of the substantial uncertainties. In this study, we evaluated the potential impact of the pandemic response strategies in the Republic of Korea using a mathematical model. METHODS: We developed a deterministic model of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a structured population using the demographic data from the Korean population and the epidemiological feature of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. To estimate the parameter values for the deterministic model, we used the available data from the previous studies on pandemic influenza. The pandemic response strategies of the Republic of Korea for novel influenza A (H1N1) virus such as school closure, mass vaccination (70% of population in 30 days), and a policy for anti-viral drug (treatment or prophylaxis) were applied to the deterministic model. RESULTS: The effect of two-week school closure on the attack rate was low regardless of the timing of the intervention. The earlier vaccination showed the effect of greater delays in reaching the peak of outbreaks. When it was no vaccination, vaccination at initiation of outbreak, vaccination 90 days after the initiation of outbreak and vaccination at the epidemic peak point, the total number of clinical cases for 400 days were 20.8 million, 4.4 million, 4.7 million and 12.6 million, respectively. The pandemic response strategies of the Republic of Korea delayed the peak of outbreaks (about 40 days) and decreased the number of cumulative clinical cases (8 million). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid vaccination was the most important factor to control the spread of pandemic influenza, and the response strategies of the Republic of Korea were shown to delay the spread of pandemic influenza in this deterministic model.
Summary

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Review
The Evaluation of Policies on 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Korea.
Won Suk Choi, Woo Joo Kim, Hee Jin Cheong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):105-108.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.105
  • 5,239 View
  • 91 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the policies on 2009 influenza pandemic in Korea at the end of first wave. METHODS: The main policies and the estimation of these were described according to the progress of 2009 influenza pandemic. RESULTS: The public health measures for containment were estimated to be successful in the early stage. The preparedness of antiviral agents and vaccines before the pandemic, risk-communication on pandemic influenza and policies of government including vaccines, and the education of health care worker and support of health care institutions was not enough to respond to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The additional evaluation should be performed at the end of the pandemic in various aspects including health and socioeconomic effects.
Summary

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    Jun Kil Choi, Sang Won Lee, Bo Youl Choi
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English Abstract
The Current Trend of Avian Influenza Viruses in Bioinformatics Research.
Insung Ahn, Hyeon S Son
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):185-190.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.185
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Since the first human infection from avian influenza was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, many Asian countries have confirmed outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses. In addition to Asian countries, the EU authorities also held an urgent meeting in February 2006 at which it was agreed that Europe could also become the next target for H5N1 avian influenza in the near future. In this paper, we provide the general and applicable information on the avian influenza in the bioinformatics field to assist future studies in preventive medicine. METHODS: We introduced some up-to-date analytical tools in bioinformatics research, and discussed the current trends of avian influenza outbreaks. Among the bioinformatics methods, we focused our interests on two topics: attern analysis using the secondary database of avian influenza, and structural analysis using the molecular dynamics simulations in vaccine design. RESULTS: Use of the public genome databases available in the bioinformatics field enabled intensive analysis of the genetic patterns. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulations have also undergone remarkable development on the basis of the high performance supercomputing infrastructure these days. CONCLUSIONS: The bioinformatics techniques we introduced in this study may be useful in preventive medicine, especially in vaccine and drug discovery.
Summary

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  • Identification of novel conserved functional motifs across most Influenza A viral strains
    Mahmoud ElHefnawi, Osama AlAidi, Nafisa Mohamed, Mona Kamar, Iman El-Azab, Suher Zada, Rania Siam
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Original Article
Effectiveness of Telephone and Postcard Reminders for the Influenza Vaccination: A Study in the Elderly Who Have Visited a Family Practice Center in a Tertiary Care Hospital.
Yun Mi Song, Joo Seop Oh, Seung Heon Han, Chul hoon Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):109-116.
  • 2,218 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Routine vaccination against influenza is recommended for all people aged 65 years or more. Without active encouragement to receive the vaccine, the rate of compliance is generally low. A study was undertaken to assess and compare the effectiveness of two reminder systems in improving the influenza vaccination rate. METHODS: A total of 2,017 patients aged 65 or over in a tertiary care hospital family practice center were randomly assigned to a control, a telephone reminder, or a postcard reminder group before the influenza season in 1998. The outcome measure, receipt of vaccination, was determined by telephone interview. Demographic and clinical characteristics were checked through the medical chart review. RESULTS: Among the 1,312 patients who actually received reminders and interviewed, the vaccination rate was 46.7% in the control group, 56.3% in the postcard reminder group, and 63.3% in the telephone reminder group. Vaccination compliance was significantly higher in people reminded by telephone (Odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-2.64) and postcard (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18-2.02) compared to that in the control group. Of the characteristics investigated, number of high risk co-morbidity was positively associated with vaccination compliance while current smoking was negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that telephone and postcard reminders can significantly improve compliance with influenza vaccination in this group of Korean elderly. However, additional strategies need to be developed to encourage vaccination among noncompliant.
Summary
English Abstracts
The Preparedness Plan for Influenza Pandemic.
Duk Hyoung Lee, Ki dong Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):386-390.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Influenza A viruses periodically cause worldwide epidemics, or pandemics, with high rates of illness and death. A pandemic can occur at any time, with the potential to cause serious illness, death and social and economic disruption throughout the world. Historic evidence suggests that pandemics occurred three to four times per century. In the last century there were three influenza pandemics. The circumstances still exist for a new influenza virus with pandemic potential to emerge and spread. The unpredictability of the timing of the next pandemic is underlined by the occurrence of several large outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza since the early 1980s. In 1999, the World Health Organization published the Influenza pandemic plan. The role of WHO and guidelines for national and regional planning. And in 2005, WHO revised the global influenza preparedness plan for new national measures before and during pandemics. This document outlines briefly the Korean Centers for Disease Control's plan for responding to an influenza pandemic. According to the new pandemic phases of WHO, we set up the 4 national levels of preparedness and made guidelines for preventing and control the epidemics in each phase. And also we described the future plans to antiviral stockpiles and pandemic vaccine development.
Summary
Modelling the Impact of Pandemic Influenza.
Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):379-385.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The impact of the next influenza pandemic is difficult to predict. It is dependent on how virulent the virus is, how rapidly it spreads from population to population, and the effectiveness of prevention and response efforts. Despite the uncertainty about the magnitude of the next pandemic, estimates of the health and economic impact remain important to aid public health policy decisions and guide pandemic planning for health and emergency sectors. Planning ahead in preparation for an influenza pandemic, with its potentially very high morbidity and mortality rates, is essential for hospital administrators and public health officials. The estimation of pandemic impact is based on the previous pandemics- we had experienced at least 3 pandemics in 20th century. But the epidemiological characteristics - ie, start season, the impact of 1st wave, pathogenicity and virulence of the viruses and the primary victims of population were quite different from one another. I reviewed methodology for estimation and modelling of pandemic impact and described some nations's results using them in their national preparedness plans. And then I showed the estimates of pandemic influenza impact in Korea with FluSurge and FluAid. And, I described the results of pandemic modelling with parameters of 1918 pandemic for the shake of education and training of the first-line responder health officials to the epidemics. In preparing influenza pandemics, the simulation and modelling are the keys to reduce the uncertainty of the future and to make proper policies to manage and control the pandemics.
Summary
Overview of Pandemic Influenza.
Woo Joo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):373-378.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Influenza virus has a unique characteristics of annual epidemics of acute respiratory disease with attack rate of 10%-30% of the population. It is also the classical emerging infectious disease causing global pandemics when new antigenic shift occur. This antigenic shift is the key to its ability to evoke periodic pandemics, and it has caused at least 3 pandemics in 20th century. I reviewed these 3 pandemics in their natural courses and the epidemiology of the recent emerging influenza A viruses, especially the H5 and H7 subtypes. I described the epidemics of these viruses in human population and why we should be prepared to these viruses.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health