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Brief Report
Life Expectancy and Inequalities Therein by Income From 2016 to 2018 Across the 253 Electoral Constituencies of the National Assembly of the Korea
Jinwook Bahk, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(2):143-148.   Published online March 5, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.050
  • 3,769 View
  • 143 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We calculated life expectancy and inequalities therein by income for the period of 2016-2018 across the 253 electoral constituencies of the 20th National Assembly election in Korea.
Methods
We obtained population and death data between 2016 and 2018 from the National Health Information Database and constructed abridged life tables using standard life table procedures according to gender and income quintiles for the electoral constituencies of the 20th National Assembly election held in 2016.
Results
Life expectancy across the 253 constituencies ranged from 80.51 years to 87.05 years, corresponding to a gap of 6.54 years. The life expectancy difference by income across the 253 constituencies ranged from 2.94 years to 10.67 years. In each province, the difference in life expectancy by income across electoral constituencies was generally greater than the inter-constituency differences. Constituencies in capital and metropolitan areas showed a higher life expectancy and a lower life expectancy difference by income than constituencies in rural areas.
Conclusions
Pro-rich inequalities in life expectancy by income existed in every electoral constituency in Korea. Both intra-constituency and inter-constituency socioeconomic inequalities in health should be highlighted in future policy-making in the National Assembly.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 2016년 치뤄진 제20대 국회의원 선거구 253개에서 2016-2018년의 기대수명을 산출하고, 소득 상위 20%와 소득 하위 20% 간 기대수명 격차를 제시하였다. 연구 결과, 253개 모든 선거구에서 소득 상위 20%가 소득 하위 20%보다 기대수명이 높게 나타났으며, 선거구 내의 소득에 따른 기대수명 격차가 선거구들 간의 기대수명 차이보다 더 큰 경향을 보였다. 기대수명의 선거구 간 격차를 줄이고, 선거구 내의 소득 계층 간 기대수명 격차를 해소하기 위한 입법적 조치를 마련하는 데에 이 연구의 결과가 근거자료로 유용하게 사용되기를 기대한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Spatio-temporal Analysis of District-level Life Expectancy from 2004 to 2017 in Korea
    Hwa-Kyung Lim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cancer-free Life Expectancy in Small Administrative Areas in South Korea and Its Associations with Regional Health Insurance Premiums
    Eunjeong Noh, Hee-Yeon Kang, Jinwook Bahk, Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Income-Related Mortality Inequalities and Its Social Factors among Middle-Aged and Older Adults at the District Level in Aging Seoul: An Ecological Study Using Administrative Big Data
    Minhye Kim, Suzin You, Jong-sung You, Seung-Yun Kim, Jong Heon Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 19(1): 383.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Trends in Inequality in Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Income According to Recent Anti-smoking Policies in Korea: Use of Three National Surveys
Youngs Chang, Sanghyun Cho, Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):310-319.   Published online October 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.225
  • 7,663 View
  • 151 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study examined trends in inequality in cigarette smoking prevalence by income according to recent anti-smoking policies in Korea.
Methods
The data used in this study were drawn from three nationally representative surveys, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Korea Community Health Survey, and the Social Survey of Statistics Korea. We calculated the age-standardized smoking prevalence, the slope index of inequality, and the relative index of inequality by income level as a socioeconomic position indicator.
Results
Smoking prevalence among men decreased during the study period, but the downward trend became especially pronounced in 2015, when the tobacco price was substantially increased. Inequalities in cigarette smoking by income were evident in both genders over the study period in all three national surveys examined. Absolute inequality tended to decrease between 2014 and 2015 among men. Absolute and relative inequality by income decreased between 2008 and 2016 in women aged 30-59, except between 2014 and 2015.
Conclusions
The recent anti-smoking policies in Korea resulted in a downward trend in smoking prevalence among men, but not in relative inequality, throughout the study period. Absolute inequality decreased over the study period among men aged 30-59. A more aggressive tax policy is warranted to further reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in young adults in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Area Specific Gap in Current Male Smoking and Factors Associated with a Secondary Data Analysis Based on a Socio-Ecological Model
    Soo Kyung Jeong, Gye Ae Kim, Min Kyung Lim, Youn Hee Kim, Cho Hee Choi, Sang Mi Lee, Hun Jae Lee
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2022; 13(1): 20.     CrossRef
  • Current Use of Heated Tobacco Products and Its Association with Socioeconomic Factors in Korean Adults: A Study Using Community Health Survey 2019
    Sung Yeol Son, Seo Young Kang, Hong-Jun Cho
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2022; 13(4): 140.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Alcohol Consumption for Korean Adults from 1998 to 2018: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey
    Sang Young Kim, Hyun Ja Kim
    Nutrients.2021; 13(2): 609.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco price increases in Korea and their impact on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and subsequent socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: a modelling study
    Hwa-Kyung Lim, Young-Ho Khang
    Tobacco Control.2021; 30(2): 160.     CrossRef
  • Age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy gap between Medical Aid recipients and National Health Insurance beneficiaries in Korea, 2008–2017
    Jinwook Bahk, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young-Ho Khang, Fernando A. Wilson
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(11): e0241755.     CrossRef
  • A Multi-Disciplinary Study Into the Drivers of Smoking Cessation in South Korea
    James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
    SSRN Electronic Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Investigating the Drivers of Smoking Cessation: A Role of Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems?
    Sam Hampsher, James E. Prieger
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term trends in smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequalities in Korea, 1992–2016
    Youngs Chang, Hee-Yeon Kang, Dohee Lim, Hong-Jun Cho, Young-Ho Khang
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Inequalities in e-Cigarette Use in Korea: Comparison with Inequalities in Conventional Cigarette Use Using Two National Surveys
    Youngs Chang, Sanghyun Cho, Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(22): 4458.     CrossRef
Associations Between Preschool Education Experiences and Adulthood Self-rated Health
Jeehye Lee, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):228-239.   Published online May 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.110
  • 7,148 View
  • 206 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to examine the association between preschool education experiences and adulthood self-rated health using representative data from a national population-based survey. Methods: Data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study in 2006 and 2012 were used. A total of 2391 men and women 21-41 years of age were analyzed. Log-binomial regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between preschool education experience and self-rated health in adulthood. Parental socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators were considered as confounders of the association between preschool education experience and adulthood subjective health, while current SEP indicators were analyzed as mediators. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results: Compared with men without any experience of preschool education, those with both kindergarten and other preschool education experiences showed a lower prevalence of self-rated poor health (PR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.89). In women, however, such an association was not evident. The relationship of preschool education experiences with self-rated poor health in adulthood among men was confounded by parental SEP indicators and was also mediated by current SEP indicators. After adjustment for parental and current SEP indicators, the magnitude of the associations between preschool education experiences and adulthood subjective health was attenuated in men. Conclusions: Preschool education experience was associated with adulthood self-rated health in men. However, this association was explained by parental and current SEP indicators. Further investigations employing a larger sample size and objective health outcomes are warranted in the future.
Summary

Citations

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  • Self-rated health and its determinants in patients with hypertension in Isfahan in 2019
    Asieh Mansouri, Alireza Khosravi Farsani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Fatemeh Nouri, Mahnaz Jozan, Ghazaal Alavi Tabatabaei, Rezvan Salehidoost, Hamed Rafiee
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(2):100-126.   Published online February 9, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.069
  • 13,096 View
  • 317 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity.
Methods
Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence.
Results
Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men.
Conclusions
This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.
Summary

Citations

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  • Determinants of unhealthy living by gender, age group, and chronic health conditions across districts in South Korea using the 2010-2017 Community Health Surveys
    Thi Tra Bui, Thi Huyen Trang Nguyen, Jinhee Lee, Sun Young Kim, Jin-Kyoung Oh
    Epidemiology and Health.2024; : e2024014.     CrossRef
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    Heewon Kang, Eunsil Cheon, Jaeyoung Ha, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2023; : tc-2023-058117.     CrossRef
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    Seo-Hee Kim, Yujin Park, Seong Pyo Kim, Sung Hee Lee, Seak Hee Oh, Suk-Kyun Yang, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Kyung Mo Kim
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2022; 67(11): 5079.     CrossRef
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    Young-Eun Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock, Hyesook Park, Ki-Beom Kim, Dun-Sol Go, Seok-Jun Yoon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3473.     CrossRef
  • Differential changes in quitting smoking by daily cigarette consumption and intention to quit after the introduction of a tobacco tax increase and pictorial cigarette pack warnings in Korea, 2013–2017
    Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2020; 213: 108085.     CrossRef
  • Life Expectancy in Areas around Subway Stations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area in Korea, 2008–2017
    Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Income differences in screening, incidence, postoperative complications, and mortality of thyroid cancer in South Korea: a national population-based time trend study
    Hee-Yeon Kang, Ikhan Kim, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
    BMC Cancer.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Multi-Disciplinary Study Into the Drivers of Smoking Cessation in South Korea
    James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
    SSRN Electronic Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Investigating the Drivers of Smoking Cessation: A Role of Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems?
    Sam Hampsher, James E. Prieger
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Convenience store visitors recall cigarette advertisements even if they do not purchase cigarettes
    Ji-eun Hwang, Sung-il Cho, Yu-seon Yang, Joung-eun Lee, Seon-young Lee, Yu-mi Oh
    Journal of Public Health.2019; 41(4): 732.     CrossRef
  • A spatial analysis of geographic variation and factors associated with hospitalization for bacterial pneumonia in Korea
    Agnus M. Kim, Sungchan Kang, Jong Heon Park, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as an indicator of access to primary care and excess of bed supply
    Agnus M. Kim, Jong Heon Park, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
    BMC Health Services Research.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An ecological study of geographic variation and factors associated with cesarean section rates in South Korea
    Agnus M. Kim, Jong Heon Park, Sungchan Kang, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term trends in smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequalities in Korea, 1992–2016
    Youngs Chang, Hee-Yeon Kang, Dohee Lim, Hong-Jun Cho, Young-Ho Khang
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A publicly well-accepted measure versus an academically desirable measure of health inequality: cross-sectional comparison of the difference between income quintiles with the slope index of inequality
    Young-Ho Khang, Dohee Lim, Jinwook Bahk, Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Youngs Chang, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(6): e028687.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Overweight and Income Gaps in 245 Districts of Korea: Comparison Using the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey, 2009–2014
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee-Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon-Ae Shin, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of District-level Smoking Prevalence and Their Income Gaps from Two National Databases: the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey in Korea, 2009–2014
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee-Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon-Ae Shin, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Significance of the Circle of Willis in Patients with Symptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion
    Byoung Joo Park, Kang Min Kim, Woong Jae Lee, In Kook Chun, Inkyeong Kim, Seung Jin Lee, Seongheon Kim
    World Neurosurgery.2018; 115: e585.     CrossRef
  • Sensitivity analysis on the ecological bias for Seoul tuberculosis data
    Eunjung Song, Soeun Kim, Seungsik Hwang, Woojoo Lee
    Environmental and Ecological Statistics.2018; 25(3): 341.     CrossRef
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    Jong-Hun Kim, Mina Ha
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ji-eun Hwang, Yu-mi Oh, Yu-seon Yang, Seon-young Lee, Joung-eun Lee, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Income gaps in self-rated poor health and its association with life expectancy in 245 districts of Korea
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017011.     CrossRef
Erratum
Erratum: Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases and National Strategies to Control Them in Korea
Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(5):292-292.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.292
Corrects: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(4):155
  • 7,054 View
  • 55 Download
PDF
Summary
Special Article
Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases and National Strategies to Control Them in Korea
Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):155-164.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.155
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(5):292
  • 20,952 View
  • 145 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Several Korean studies have shown that these risk factors play an important role in creating socioeconomic inequalities in NCD mortality and total mortality. Current international discussions on NCD policies in the United Nations and the World Health Organization would provide better opportunities for developing aggressive population-wide policy measures in Korea. Considering the paucity of population-wide policies to control major NCD risk factors in Korea, rigorous population approaches such as taxation and regulation of unhealthy commodities as well as public education and mass campaigns should be further developed in Korea.

Summary

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Original Articles
Trends in Gender-based Health Inequality in a Transitional Society: A Historical Analysis of South Korea
Heeran Chun, Sung-Il Cho, Young-Ho Khang, Minah Kang, Il-Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):113-121.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.113
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study examined the trends in gender disparity in the self-rated health of people aged 25 to 64 in South Korea, a rapidly changing society, with specific attention to socio-structural inequality.

Methods

Representative sample data were obtained from six successive, nationwide Social Statistics Surveys of the Korean National Statistical Office performed during 1992 to 2010.

Results

The results showed a convergent trend in poor self-rated health between genders since 1992, with a sharper decline in gender disparity observed in younger adults (aged 25 to 44) than in older adults (aged 45 to 64). The diminishing gender gap seemed to be attributable to an increase in women's educational attainment levels and to their higher status in the labor market.

Conclusions

The study indicated the importance of equitable social opportunities for both genders for understanding the historical trends in the gender gap in the self-reported health data from South Korea.

Summary

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Changes in Contribution of Causes of Death to Socioeconomic Mortality Inequalities in Korean Adults
Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Young-Ho Khang, Hong-Jun Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(6):249-259.   Published online November 14, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.6.249
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to analyze long-term trends in the contribution of each cause of death to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among Korean adults.

Methods

Data were collected from death certificates between 1990 and 2004 and from censuses in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Age-standardized death rates by gender were produced according to education as the socioeconomic position indicator, and the slope index of inequality was calculated to evaluate the contribution of each cause of death to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality.

Results

Among adults aged 25-44, accidental injuries with transport accidents, suicide, liver disease and cerebrovascular disease made relatively large contributions to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality, while, among adults aged 45-64, liver disease, cerebrovascular disease, transport accidents, liver cancer, and lung cancer did so. Ischemic heart disease, a very important contributor to socioeconomic mortality inequality in North America and Western Europe, showed a very low contribution (less than 3%) in both genders of Koreans.

Conclusions

Considering the contributions of different causes of death to absolute mortality inequalities, establishing effective strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality is warranted.

Summary

Citations

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health