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Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(2):100-126.   Published online February 9, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.069
  • 13,079 View
  • 317 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity.
Methods
Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence.
Results
Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men.
Conclusions
This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.
Summary

Citations

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  • Determinants of unhealthy living by gender, age group, and chronic health conditions across districts in South Korea using the 2010-2017 Community Health Surveys
    Thi Tra Bui, Thi Huyen Trang Nguyen, Jinhee Lee, Sun Young Kim, Jin-Kyoung Oh
    Epidemiology and Health.2024; : e2024014.     CrossRef
  • Use of geographically weighted regression models to inform retail endgame strategies in South Korea: application to cigarette and ENDS prevalence
    Heewon Kang, Eunsil Cheon, Jaeyoung Ha, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2023; : tc-2023-058117.     CrossRef
  • Shift to a Younger Age and Regional Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Korea: Using Healthcare Administrative Data
    Seo-Hee Kim, Yujin Park, Seong Pyo Kim, Sung Hee Lee, Seak Hee Oh, Suk-Kyun Yang, Hyung-Jin Yoon, Kyung Mo Kim
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2022; 67(11): 5079.     CrossRef
  • The Gaps in Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALE) by Income and Region in Korea: A National Representative Bigdata Analysis
    Young-Eun Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock, Hyesook Park, Ki-Beom Kim, Dun-Sol Go, Seok-Jun Yoon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3473.     CrossRef
  • Differential changes in quitting smoking by daily cigarette consumption and intention to quit after the introduction of a tobacco tax increase and pictorial cigarette pack warnings in Korea, 2013–2017
    Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2020; 213: 108085.     CrossRef
  • Life Expectancy in Areas around Subway Stations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area in Korea, 2008–2017
    Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Income differences in screening, incidence, postoperative complications, and mortality of thyroid cancer in South Korea: a national population-based time trend study
    Hee-Yeon Kang, Ikhan Kim, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
    BMC Cancer.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
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    Agnus M. Kim, Sungchan Kang, Jong Heon Park, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
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    Agnus M. Kim, Jong Heon Park, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
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    Agnus M. Kim, Jong Heon Park, Sungchan Kang, Tae Ho Yoon, Yoon Kim
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    Youngs Chang, Hee-Yeon Kang, Dohee Lim, Hong-Jun Cho, Young-Ho Khang
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A publicly well-accepted measure versus an academically desirable measure of health inequality: cross-sectional comparison of the difference between income quintiles with the slope index of inequality
    Young-Ho Khang, Dohee Lim, Jinwook Bahk, Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Youngs Chang, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(6): e028687.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Overweight and Income Gaps in 245 Districts of Korea: Comparison Using the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey, 2009–2014
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee-Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon-Ae Shin, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of District-level Smoking Prevalence and Their Income Gaps from Two National Databases: the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey in Korea, 2009–2014
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee-Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon-Ae Shin, Young-Ho Khang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Significance of the Circle of Willis in Patients with Symptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion
    Byoung Joo Park, Kang Min Kim, Woong Jae Lee, In Kook Chun, Inkyeong Kim, Seung Jin Lee, Seongheon Kim
    World Neurosurgery.2018; 115: e585.     CrossRef
  • Sensitivity analysis on the ecological bias for Seoul tuberculosis data
    Eunjung Song, Soeun Kim, Seungsik Hwang, Woojoo Lee
    Environmental and Ecological Statistics.2018; 25(3): 341.     CrossRef
  • The Disease Burden of Lung Cancer Attributable to Residential Radon Exposure in Korean Homes
    Jong-Hun Kim, Mina Ha
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Tobacco company strategies for maintaining cigarette advertisements and displays in retail chain stores: In-depth interviews with Korean convenience store owners
    Ji-eun Hwang, Yu-mi Oh, Yu-seon Yang, Seon-young Lee, Joung-eun Lee, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Income gaps in self-rated poor health and its association with life expectancy in 245 districts of Korea
    Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017011.     CrossRef
The Association Among Individual and Contextual Factors and Unmet Healthcare Needs in South Korea: A Multilevel Study Using National Data
Seung Eun Lee, Miyeon Yeon, Chul-Woung Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):308-322.   Published online September 7, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.035
  • 8,023 View
  • 206 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study is to investigate associations between contextual characteristics and unmet healthcare needs in South Korea after accounting for individual factors.
Methods
The present study used data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 228 902 adults residing within 253 municipal districts in South Korea. A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate how contextual characteristics, defined by variables that describe the regional deprivation, degree of urbanity, and healthcare supply, are associated with unmet needs after controlling for individual-level variables.
Results
Of the surveyed Korean adults, 12.1% reported experiencing unmet healthcare needs in the past. This figure varied with the 253 districts surveyed, ranging from 2.6% to 26.2%. A multilevel analysis found that the association between contextual characteristics and unmet needs varied according to the factors that caused the unmet needs. The degree of urbanity was associated with unmet need due to “financial burden” (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.66 for rural vs. metropolitan), but not unmet need due to “service not available when needed.” There were no significant associations between these unmet need measures and regional deprivation. Among individual-level variables, income level showed the highest association with unmet need due to “financial burden” (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 4.76 to 6.66), while employment status showed a strong association with unmet need due to “service not available when needed.”
Conclusions
Our finding suggests that different policy interventions should be considered for each at-risk population group to address the root cause of unmet healthcare needs.
Summary

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  • Effect of socioeconomic disparities on the risk of COVID-19 in 8 metropolitan cities in the Korea: a community-based study
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    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022107.     CrossRef
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    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2020; 8(1): e000729.     CrossRef
  • Neighborhood Deprivation and Unmet Health Care Needs: A Multilevel Analysis of Older Individuals in South Korea
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    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2019; 10(5): 295.     CrossRef
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Influence of the Nursing Practice Environment on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Sang-Yi Lee, Chul-Woung Kim, Jeong-Hee Kang, Tae-Ho Yoon, Cheoul Sin Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(5):258-265.   Published online September 12, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.002
  • 11,942 View
  • 186 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To examine whether the nursing practice environment at the hospital-level affects the job satisfaction and turnover intention of hospital nurses. Methods: Among the 11 731 nurses who participated in the Korea Health and Medical Workers’ Union’s educational program, 5654 responded to our survey. Data from 3096 nurses working in 185 general inpatient wards at 60 hospitals were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression modeling. Results: Having a standardized nursing process (odds ratio [OR], 4.21; p<0.001), adequate nurse staffing (OR, 4.21; p<0.01), and good doctor-nurse relationship (OR, 4.15; p<0.01), which are hospital-level variables based on the Korean General Inpatients Unit Nursing Work Index (KGU-NWI), were significantly related to nurses’ job satisfaction. However, no hospital-level variable from the KGU-NWI was significantly related to nurses’ turnover intention. Conclusions: Favorable nursing practice environments are associated with job satisfaction among nurses. In particular, having a standardized nursing process, adequate nurse staffing, and good doctor-nurse relationship were found to positively influence nurses’ job satisfaction. However, the nursing practice environment was not related to nurses’ turnover intention.
Summary

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The Incidence of Stroke by Socioeconomic Status, Age, Sex, and Stroke Subtype: A Nationwide Study in Korea
Su Ra Seo, Su Young Kim, Sang-Yi Lee, Tae-Ho Yoon, Hyung-Geun Park, Seung Eun Lee, Chul-Woung Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):104-112.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.104
  • 12,158 View
  • 169 Download
  • 29 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To date, studies have not comprehensively demonstrated the relationship between stroke incidence and socioeconomic status. This study investigated stroke incidence by household income level in conjunction with age, sex, and stroke subtype in Korea.

Methods

Contributions by the head of household were used as the basis for income levels. Household income levels for 21 766 036 people were classified into 6 groups. The stroke incidences were calculated by household income level, both overall within income categories and further by age group, sex, and stroke subtype. To present the inequalities among the six ranked groups in a single value, the slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality were calculated.

Results

In 2005, 57 690 people were first-time stroke patients. The incidences of total stroke for males and females increased as the income level decreased. The incidences of stroke increased as the income level decreased in those 74 years old and under, whereas there was no difference by income levels in those 75 and over. Intracerebral hemorrhage for the males represented the highest inequality among stroke subtypes. Incidences of subarachnoid hemorrhage did not differ by income levels.

Conclusions

The incidence of stroke increases as the income level decreases, but it differs according to sex, age, and stroke subtype. The difference in the relative incidence is large for male intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas the difference in the absolute incidence is large for male ischemic stroke.

Summary

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Corrigendum
Corrigendum: Suicide Rate Differences by Sex, Age, and Urbanicity, and Related Regional Factors in Korea
Kyu-Seok Cheong, Min-Hyeok Choi, Byung-Mann Cho, Tae-Ho Yoon, Chang-Hun Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, In-Kyung Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):209-209.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.209
Corrects: J Prev Med Public Health 2012;45(2):70
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Summary
Original Articles
Suicide Rate Differences by Sex, Age, and Urbanicity, and Related Regional Factors in Korea
Kyu-Seok Cheong, Min-Hyeok Choi, Byung-Mann Cho, Tae-Ho Yoon, Chang-Hun Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, In-Kyung Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):70-77.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.70
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2012;45(3):209
  • 15,751 View
  • 175 Download
  • 50 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Identify the characteristics related to the suicide rates in rural and urban areas of Korea and discover the factors that influence the suicide rate of the rural and urban areas.

Methods

Using the data on causes of death from 2006 to 2008, the suicide rates were calculated and compared after age-standardization based on gender, age group and urbanicity. And, in order to understand the factors that influence suicide rate, total 10 local characteristics in four domains - public service, social integration, residential environment, and economic status - were selected for multiple regression analysis.

Results

The suicide rates were higher in men than women, in rural areas than urban, and in older people than the younger. Generally, although there were variations according to age group and urbanicity, suicide rates were significantly related to residential environment and regional economic status but not related to regional welfare spending and social integration. In addition, the population over the age of 65 years, only regional economic status has significantly influence on their suicide rates.

Conclusions

The influence of characteristics of regions on suicide rate is various by age-group, gender, and urbanicity. Therefore, in order to lower suicide rate and reduce the gap between regions, various approaches must be adopted by taking into account the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions.

Summary

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Deprivation and Mortality at the Town Level in Busan, Korea: An Ecological Study
Min-Hyeok Choi, Kyu-Seok Cheong, Byung-Mann Cho, In-Kyung Hwang, Chang-Hun Kim, Myoung-Hee Kim, Seung-Sik Hwang, Jeong-Hun Lim, Tae-Ho Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(6):242-248.   Published online November 14, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.6.242
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Busan is reported to have the highest mortality rate among 16 provinces in Korea, as well as considerable health inequality across its districts. This study sought to examine overall and cause-specific mortality and deprivation at the town level in Busan, thereby identifying towns and causes of deaths to be targeted for improving overall health and alleviating health inequality.

Methods

Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and four specific leading causes of death were calculated at the town level in Busan for the years 2005 through 2008. To construct a deprivation index, principal components and factor analysis were adopted, using 10% sample data from the 2005 census. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping techniques were applied to compare spatial distributions between the deprivation index and SMRs. We fitted the Gaussian conditional autoregressive model (CAR) to estimate the relative risks of mortality by deprivation level, controlling for both the heterogeneity effect and spatial autocorrelation.

Results

The SMRs of towns in Busan averaged 100.3, ranging from 70.7 to 139.8. In old inner cities and towns reclaimed for replaced households, the deprivation index and SMRs were relatively high. CAR modeling showed that gaps in SMRs for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and physical injury were particularly high.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that more deprived towns are likely to have higher mortality, in particular from cardiovascular disease and physical injury. To improve overall health status and address health inequality, such deprived towns should be targeted.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health