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C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):275-287.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.025
  • 9,183 View
  • 201 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea.
Methods
A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors.
Results
The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions
Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women.
Summary

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  • Binary cutpoint and the combined effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on cardiovascular disease mortality: A community-based cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Ji Hoon Hong, Sangjun Lee, Seokyung An, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0270510.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum high-sensitivity C reactive protein with risk of mortality in an Asian population: the Health Examinees cohort
    Sang-Ah Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Hyerim Park, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(7): e052630.     CrossRef
  • Associations of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen with mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer among U.S. adults
    Junxiu Liu, Yanan Zhang, Carl J. Lavie, Fred K. Tabung, Jiting Xu, Qingwei Hu, Lixia He, Yunxiang Zhang
    Preventive Medicine.2020; 139: 106044.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the association between self-rated health and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in Koreans: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Se-Won Park, Seong-Sik Park, Eun-Jung Kim, Won-Suk Sung, In-Hyuk Ha, Boyoung Jung
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey
So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Seong Woo Choi, Mi Ah Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):113-123.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.113
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  • 120 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors.

Methods

We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics.

Results

The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health.

Conclusions

Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults.

Summary

Citations

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    Bohee So, Ki Han Kwon
    Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment.2024; 34(4): 584.     CrossRef
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    Epidemiology and Health.2024; : e2024014.     CrossRef
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    Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw, Digsu N. Koye, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kedir Y. Ahmed, Yibeltal Assefa, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Henok Getachew Tegegn, Azeb Gebresilassie Tesema, Berihun Megabiaw Zeleke, Yohannes Adama Melaku
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    Hosung Shin, Eunsuk Ahn, Eun Joo Choi
    European Journal of Oral Sciences.2020; 128(2): 145.     CrossRef
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    Dong Hoon Lee, Jin Young Nam, Sohyeon Kwon, NaNa Keum, Jong-Tae Lee, Min-Jeong Shin, Hannah Oh
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    R. Erni Yetti, Muhammad Syafar, Andi Zulkifli, Rahayu Indriasari, Burhanuddin Bahar, Suriah ., Agus Bintara Birawida, Bagoes Widjanarko, Zadrak Tombeg, Saskiyanto Manggabara, Anto J. Hadi
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  • Time trends in healthy lifestyle among adults in Germany: Results from three national health interview and examination surveys between 1990 and 2011
    Jonas D. Finger, Markus A. Busch, Christin Heidemann, Cornelia Lange, Gert B. M. Mensink, Anja Schienkiewitz, David Meyre
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(9): e0222218.     CrossRef
  • Impact of marital status on outcomes following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
    Moo Hyun Kim, Kwang Min Lee, Soo Jin Kim, So Yeon Kim, Jong Seong Park, Young Rak Cho, Kyungil Park, Tae Ho Park, Young Dae Kim, Victor Serebruany
    Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine.2018; 19(3): 237.     CrossRef
  • Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Principles Among College Students: A Case Study
    Pavla Kubová, Helena Smolová, Hana Urbancová
    Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis.2018; 66(2): 521.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in walking (for leisure, transport and in total) across adult life: a systematic review
    Tessa M. Pollard, Janelle M. Wagnild
    BMC Public Health.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Common Variants in eNOS Gene with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis
    Yang Xiang, Yi Dong, Xuan Li, Xin Tang
    Journal of Ophthalmology.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Disparities in Osteoporosis Prevalence: Different Results in the Overall Korean Adult Population and Single-person Households
    Jungmee Kim, Joongyub Lee, Ju-Young Shin, Byung-Joo Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2015; 48(2): 84.     CrossRef
  • The association between income inequality and all-cause mortality across urban communities in Korea
    Jong Park, So-Yeon Ryu, Mi-ah Han, Seong-Woo Choi
    BMC Public Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012
    Sunmin Park, Jaeouk Ahn, Byung-Kook Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(9): 1279.     CrossRef
  • Men, masculinity, and pain
    Edmund Keogh
    Pain.2015; 156(12): 2408.     CrossRef
Drinking Patterns Among Korean Adults: Results of the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey
So Yeon Ryu, Catherine M. Crespi, Annette E. Maxwell
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):183-191.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.183
  • 10,136 View
  • 107 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

In Korea, the proportion of deaths due to alcohol is estimated at 8.9%, far exceeding the global estimate of 3.8%. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the factors associated with low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk drinking patterns in Korean adults and to identify target populations for prevention and control of alcohol-related diseases and deaths.

Methods

We analyzed data from 230 715 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between socio-demographic and health-related factors and patterns of alcohol use.

Results

A substantially larger proportion of men than women engaged in high risk (21.2% vs. 3.4%) and moderate-risk alcohol use (15.5% vs. 8.2%). In both sexes, moderate- and high-risk uses were associated with younger age, higher income, being currently employed, smoking, being overweight/obese, and good self-rated health.

Conclusions

Given the large proportion of the population that is engaging in moderate- and high-risk drinking and given the social norms that support this behavior, public health policies and campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption targeting the entire population are indicated.

Summary

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English Abstracts
Associated Factors of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Some Korean Rural Adults.
Hye Eun Yun, Mi Ah Han, Ki Soon Kim, Jong Park, Myeng Guen Kang, So Yeon Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):309-318.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.309
  • 4,177 View
  • 40 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its related characteristics among healthy adults in some Korean rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the data from 1352 adults who were over the age 40 and under the age 70 and who were free of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases and other diseases and who participated in a survey conducted as part of the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study. IFG was defined as a serum fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of IFG was 20.4% in men, 15.5% in women and 12.7% overall. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for IFG were male gender, having a family history of DM, the quartiles of gamma glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein and the waist circumference. The homeostatis model assessment for insulin resistance was very strongly associated with IFG. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components was higher in the subjects with IFG then in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG). CONCLUSIONS: The result of study could supply evidence to find the high risk population and to determine a strategy for treating IFG. Further research is needed to explain the causal relationship and mechanisms of IFG.
Summary

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  • Classification of Type 2 Diabetes Incidence Risk and the Health Behavior of the 30–50-Year-Old Korean Adults: Latent Class Analysis
    Roma Seol, Jin-Ho Chun
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(24): 16600.     CrossRef
Association of Blood Pressure Levels with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques.
Young Hoon Lee, Sun Seog Kweon, Jin Su Choi, Jung Ae Rhee, Sung Woo Choi, So Yeon Ryu, Min Ho Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):298-304.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.298
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  • 63 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of blood pressure levels with the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaques. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2,635 subjects, aged 50 years and over, who participated in the Community Health Survey (a population-based, cross-sectional study) in Dong-gu, Gwangju city between 2007 and 2008. Participants were categorized into three groups according to blood pressure levels; normotensives (<120/80 mmHg), prehypertensives (120-139/80-89 mmHg), and hypertensives (> or =140/90 mmHg). Prehypertensives were further categorized as low prehypertensives (120-129/80-84 mmHg) and high prehypertensives (130-139/85-89 mmHg). Carotid intima-media thickness and plaques were evaluated with a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square test, ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Prehypertensives had significantly greater maximal CCA-IMT values than normotensives, with a multivariate adjusted odds ratio of 1.78 (95% CI=1.36-2.32) for abnormal CCA-IMT (maximal CCA-IMT > or =1.0 mm), and 1.45 (95% CI=1.19-1.77) for carotid plaques. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio of low prehypertensives was 1.64 (95% CI=1.21-2.21) for abnormal CCA-IMT, and 1.30 (95% CI=1.04-1.63) for carotid plaques compared with normotensives. Subject with hypertension had higher frequency of abnormal CCA-IMT (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% CI=1.49-3.18), and carotid plaques (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% CI=1.46-2.67) compared with normotensives after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there is a significant increase in the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with prehypertension (even in low prehypertensives) compared with normotensive subjects. Further studies are required to confirm the benefits and role of carotid ultrasonography in persons with prehypertension.
Summary

Citations

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  • Association Between Serum Uric Acid and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Different Fasting Blood Glucose Patterns: A Case-Control Study
    Yuanyuan Gao, Baofeng Xu, Yanyan Yang, Mei Zhang, Tian Yu, Qiujuan Zhang, Jianwei Sun, Rui Liu
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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The Association Between Circulating Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Rural Adults.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Jong Park, Myeng Guen Kang, Mi Ah Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):413-418.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.413
  • 5,697 View
  • 69 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammatory markers. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 1578 Koreans aged 40-69 years residing in a rural area. We investigated associations between MetS and circulating high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cells (WBC) and adiponectin. MetS was defined using the criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III). RESULTS: Increased WBC counts and hs-CRP levels and decreased adiponectin levels were observed in subjects with MetS. WBC, hs-CRP and adiponectin levels linearly deteriorated with an increase in the number of MetS components (all ptrend <0.005). Finally, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of MetS by increase/decrease in 3 inflammatory markers were calculated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. In terms of changes in inflammation markers, in men, the adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.15 (1.01-1.31) for WBC, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for hs-CRP, and 0.19 (0.08-0.45) for adiponectin, whereas corresponding adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in women were 1.27 (1.15-1.40), 0.98 (0.67-1.42), 0.09 (0.04-0.18), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum adiponectin levels and WBC counts were found to be strongly associated with MetS in both sexes. However, hs-CRP lost its significance after adjusting for BMI and other inflammatory markers in women. This study shows that inflammatory response is associated with MetS in the Korean population. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm the contribution made by inflammatory markers to the development of MetS.
Summary

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English Abstracts
Health-related Quality of Life Assessment by the EuroQol-5D in Some Rural Adults.
Mi Ah Han, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Myung Geun Kang, Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(3):173-180.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.3.173
  • 5,771 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study were to examine the health-related quality of life(HRQoL) and to identify its related factors for a group of rural adults. METHODS: The study subjects were 1,901 adults who were aged 40-70 years and who were living in Naju City, Jeollanamdo. The sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behavior, health status and global self-rated health were collected for statistical analysis. The healthrelated quality of life was measured by the Euroqol EQ-5D instrument. The differences on the EQ-5D index between the groups were assessed with t-test, ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the mean value of the EQ-5D index was 0.884+/-0.140 and this score was significantly different according to the socioeconomic characteristics, the healthrelated behavior, the health status and the global self-rated health. According to the results from the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the HRQoL was significantly reduced for females, older subjects, and other subjects with no spouse and the subjects with osteoporosis, obesity, mental distress or poorer global self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: The HRQoL for rural adults was related to the socioeconomic characteristics, the health status and the global self-rated health. A better understanding of the factors related to the HRQoL would help to improve the rural adults' quality of life.
Summary

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Serum Ferritin and Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Some Korean Rural Residents.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Jong Park, Myeng Guen Kang, Mi Ah Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(2):115-120.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.2.115
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum ferritin and the metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,444 adults over age 40 and under age 70 that lived in a rural area and participated in a survey conducted as part of the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study (KRGCS). The MS was defined as the presence of at least three of the followings: elevated blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, or abdominal obesity. After adjustment for age, alcohol intake, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of the MS by sex were calculated for quartiles of serum ferritin using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The MS was more common in those persons with the highest levels of serum ferritin, compared to persons with the lowest levels, in men (37.1% vs. 22.4%, p=0.006) and women (58.8% vs. 34.8, p<0.001). In both sexes, the greater the number of MS components presents, the greater the serum ferritin levels. After adjustment for age, alcohol intake, and menopausal status, the OR for metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile of ferritin with the first quartile, was 2.21 (95% confidence interval ; CI=1.26-3.87; p-trend=0.024) in men and 2.10 (95% CI=1.40-3.17; p-trend=0.001) in women. However, after further adjustment for BMI, hs-CRP, and ALT, the ORs were statistically attenuated in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Moderately elevated serum ferritin levels were not independently associated with the prevalence of the MS after adjusting for other risk factors. Further studies are needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between serum ferritin levels and the MS.
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Quality of Life and its Associated Factors among Some Elderly Residents Using a Hall for the Aged in a Community.
Jin Young Lim, Jong Park, Myeong Geun Kang, So Yeon Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):337-344.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.337
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to investigate the level of quality of life (QOL) and to identify its related factors among the elderly using a hall for the aged. METHODS: The study subjects were 350 elderly people living in Nam Gu, Gwangju City. They were interviewed by questionnaire to collect information on social-demographic characteristics, health behaviors, health-related characteristics and QOL. We used statistical analysis methods such as T-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis to find which factors affected QOL. RESULTS: The characteristics relating to physical functions were as follows: presence of spouse, education, alcohol drinking, teeth condition, arthritis, frequency of visiting the hall for the aged, and depression. Age, arthritis and depression were significantly related to role limitation due to physical problems. General health was related to gender, age, and depression, and vitality was related to education, frequency of visiting the hall, and depression. Role limitation due to emotional problems was related to age and depression, and mental health was related to age, hypertension, arthritis and depression. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed QOL of the elderly was significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors, and physical or emotional conditions. To improve QOL of the elderly, we need to develop programs to promote health and to manage chronic diseases of the elderly.
Summary

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  • Health Related Quality of Life Assessment by the EQ-5D of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery Workers
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  • Health-related Quality of Life Assessment by the EuroQol-5D in Some Rural Adults
    Mi Ah Han, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Myung Geun Kang, Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2008; 41(3): 173.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Smoking Status and Smoking Cessation Activity among Physicians in a Community.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Myung Gun Kang, Hyung Cheol Park, Jin Sun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):271-278.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study were to assess the smoking status, knowledge and attitude related to smoking and smoking cessation activity of the physicians in a community, and to identify their predictors of smoking cessation activity. METHOD: All physicians employed by various health facilities in a community were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Of the physicians surveyed, 523 (69.6%) returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS: The smoking rate of physicians was 29.3% (34.2% in males, 3.6% in females) and the knowledge and attitude scores to smoking were 22.5+/-2.4 and 65.4+/-6.9, respectively. The self-efficacy score was 3.4+/-1.0 and the smoking cessation activity score was 65.4+/-6.9. The smoking cessation activity was statistically significant with working place, specialty, knowledge and attitude to smoking and self-efficacy. In stepwise multiple regression, smoking cessation activity was predicted by doctors' working place, specialty, attitudes related to smoking issues, and self-efficacy of counseling knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: Physicians need to participate routinely and actively in smoking cessation activity. For doctors to effectively counsel and intervene in patients regarding smoking cessation, it is essential to integrate education on smoking cessation intervention into curricula in formal education and to offer continuing education including smoking cessation intervention.
Summary
Relationship of Serum Uric Acid to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Male Workers.
So Yeon Ryu, Jong Gab Oh, Chul Gab Lee, Ki Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(3):214-220.
  • 2,223 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the relationship of serum uric acid to cardiovascular risk factors in Korean male workers. METHODS: We screened 522 male workers at an electrical manufacturing company by a periodic health examination and a questionnaire survey in 2000. We collected data relating to age, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum lipid, fasting blood glucose and serum uric acid. The data were analyzed using a variety of methods, including ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multivariate regression analyses, to examine the association between uric acid and cardiovascular risk factors with a cross-sectional study design. RESULTS: The concentration of serum uric acid showed positive associations with BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol; it was also significantly correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Life-style characteristics, such as smoking and alcohol drinking showed no significant association. From the multivariate regression analyses, BMI, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels were found to be independent positive predictors of uric acid; while age, blood pressure and smoking status give no independent contribution explaining the variability of serum uric acid levels. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that serum uric acid level have a significant association with cardiovascular risk factors, such as BMI, total cholesterol and blood glucose in some Korean male workers.
Summary
Accuracy of the Registered Cause of Death in a County and its Related Factors.
Eun Kyung Chung, Hee Young Shin, Jun Ho Shin, Hae Sung Nam, So Yeon Ryu, Jeong Soo Im, Jung Ae Rhee
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):153-159.
  • 2,242 View
  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the accuracy of the registered cause of death in a county and its related factors. METHODS: The data used in this study was based on 504 cases, in a county of Chonnam province, registered between January and December 1998. Study subjects consisted of 388 of the 504 cases, and their causes of death were established by an interview survey of the next of kin or neighbor and medical record surveys. We compared the registered cause of death with the confirmed cause of death, determined by surveys and medical records, and evaluated the factors associated with the accuracy of the registered cause of death. RESULTS: 62.6% of the deaths were concordant with 19 Chapters classification of cause of death. external causes of mortality, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, neoplasms and diseases of the circulatory system showed the good agreement between the registered cause of death and the confirmed cause of death. The factors relating to the accuracy of the registered cause of death were the doctors' diagnosis for the cause of death (adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.67, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.21-5.89) and the grade of the public officials in charge of the death registry (adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.30, 95% CI= 0.12-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of the registered cause of death was not high. It could be improved by using the doctors' diagnosis for death and improving the job specification for public officials who deal with death registration.
Summary
Association of Blood Pressure with the Social Support of Some Rural Residents.
So Yeon Ryu, Chul Gab Lee, Jong Park, Ki Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):437-443.
  • 2,266 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to assess the association between the social support and blood pressure(BP) in a rural community. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, comprising a health examination including BP, height and weight and a questionnaire-based interview which investigated social support, demographic factors, smoking, drinking, and etc. was performed between February 10th and March 5th, 1998. The survey included 318 persons who were over than 30-year-old in the rural community of Kwangju, Republic of Korea. We excluded persons who taking antihypertensive medications or who provided incomplete information; we subsequently analyzed the data from 284 persons. In order to test the hypothesis of an association between BP and social support controlling confounders such as age, educational level, working time, body mass index, smoking and drinking, the data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The subjects were composed of 109(38.4%) males and 175(61.6%) females with mean ages of 62.0 years and 61.1 years, respectively. The hypertension prevalence was 41.3% among males and 45.1% among females. In the correlation analysis, higher total social support scores correlated significantly with lower systolic BP in both males and females. The hypertension prevalence increased significantly with the decreasing of the social support in males. In multiple regression analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed a negative association with social support in both males and females, although this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Larger and broader studies are required in the future in order to identify the association between the social support and BP.
Summary
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Kang Sook Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):157-165.
  • 2,188 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders(CVD) in Koreans using a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of beneficiaries who had taken health examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons) in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. Four hundred and twenty five (425) cases were selected following the validation of diagnosis among 2,026 reported CVD (I60-I68) inpatients during the year from 1993 to 1997. Controls were matched (1:1) with age and gender of the cases among inpatients without CVD during the same period. The source of data in this study were the files of the 1990 health examinations and the 1992 health questionnaires, as well as an additional telephone survey undertaken from March to November 1999. RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for total CVD were hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unrespectively, the odds ratio of ex-smoker was significantly lower than that of those who had never smoked. The risk factors for ischemic CVD also were hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, only blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for hemorrhagic CVD. Hypercholesterolemia was not a risk factor for total CVD, ischemic CVD, and hemorrhagic CVD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most important risk factor for CVD (including subtype) in Koreans was hypertension.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
  • 2,816 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health