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Original Article
Changes in the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Disaggregated Analysis by Region and Hospital Type in Korea
EunKyo Kang, Won Mo Jang, Min Sun Shin, Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):180-189.   Published online March 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.479
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  • 85 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global shortage of medical resources; therefore, we investigated whether COVID-19 impacted the quality of non-COVID-19 hospital care in Korea by comparing hospital standardized mortality rates (HSMRs) before and during the pandemic.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study analyzed Korean National Health Insurance discharge claim data obtained from January to June in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Patients’ in-hospital deaths were classified according to the most responsible diagnosis categories. The HSMR is calculated as the ratio of expected deaths to actual deaths. The time trend in the overall HSMR was analyzed by region and hospital type.
Results
The final analysis included 2 252 824 patients. In 2020, the HSMR increased nationwide (HSMR, 99.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.7 to 101.0) in comparison to 2019 (HSMR, 97.3; 95% CI, 95.8 to 98.8). In the COVID-19 pandemic zone, the HSMR increased significantly in 2020 (HSMR, 112.7; 95% CI, 107.0 to 118.7) compared to 2019 (HSMR, 101.7; 95% CI, 96.9 to 106.6). The HSMR in all general hospitals increased significantly in 2020 (HSMR, 106.4; 95% CI, 104.3 to 108.5) compared to 2019 (HSMR, 100.3; 95% CI, 98.4 to 102.2). Hospitals participating in the COVID-19 response had a lower HSMR (HSMR, 95.6; 95% CI, 93.9 to 97.4) than hospitals not participating in the COVID-19 response (HSMR, 124.3; 95% CI, 119.3 to 129.4).
Conclusions
This study suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively impacted the quality of care in hospitals, especially general hospitals with relatively few beds. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to prevent excessive workloads in hospitals and to properly employ and coordinate the workforce.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 대유행 지역은 비감염 지역과 달리 2019년에 비해 2020년에 HSMR이 크게 증가했고, 상대적으로 병상 수가 적은 종합병원에서 HSMR이 증가했다. 코로나19 대응에 참여하는 병원은 병원 규모와 관계없이 HSMR이 낮은 경향을 보였다. 감염병 유행 시 병원의 과도한 업무량이 부여되지 않게하고 인력을 적절하게 고용하여 조정하는 것이 필요하다.
COVID-19: Special Article
COVID-19 International Collaborative Research by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Using Its Nationwide Real-world Data: Database, Outcomes, and Implications
Yeunsook Rho, Do Yeon Cho, Yejin Son, Yu Jin Lee, Ji Woo Kim, Hye Jin Lee, Seng Chan You, Rae Woong Park, Jin Yong Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):8-16.   Published online January 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.616
  • 4,599 View
  • 199 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This article aims to introduce the inception and operation of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project, the world’s first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) open data project for research, along with its dataset and research method, and to discuss relevant considerations for collaborative research using nationwide real-world data (RWD). COVID-19 has spread across the world since early 2020, becoming a serious global health threat to life, safety, and social and economic activities. However, insufficient RWD from patients was available to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with COVID-19, or to provide necessary information to the government for policy-making. Countries that saw a rapid surge of infections had to focus on leveraging medical professionals to treat patients, and the circumstances made it even more difficult to promptly use COVID-19 RWD. Against this backdrop, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea decided to open its COVID-19 RWD collected through Korea’s universal health insurance program, under the title of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project. The dataset, consisting of 476 508 claim statements from 234 427 patients (7590 confirmed cases) and 18 691 318 claim statements of the same patients for the previous 3 years, was established and hosted on HIRA’s in-house server. Researchers who applied to participate in the project uploaded analysis code on the platform prepared by HIRA, and HIRA conducted the analysis and provided outcome values. As of November 2020, analyses have been completed for 129 research projects, which have been published or are in the process of being published in prestigious journals.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Symptoms and Conditions in Children and Adults up to 90 Days after SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Retrospective Observational Study Utilizing the Common Data Model
    Minjung Han, Taehee Chang, Hae-ryoung Chun, Suyoung Jo, Yeongchang Jo, Dong Han Yu, Sooyoung Yoo, Sung-il Cho
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2911.     CrossRef
  • Data Resource Profile: Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Covid-19 Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (HIRA Covid-19 OMOP) database in South Korea
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    International Journal of Epidemiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chul Young Yoon, Junhun Lee, Tae Hoon Kong, Young Joon Seo
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    BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Tatiane B. Ribeiro, Fátima Roque, Fidelia Ida, Ana I. Plácido, Mai Vu, Jose J. Hernández-Muñoz, Maria Teresa Herdeiro
    Vaccines.2022; 10(11): 1896.     CrossRef
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    Ya-Hui Yu, In-Sun Oh, Han Eol Jeong, Robert W. Platt, Antonios Douros, Ju-Young Shin, Kristian B. Filion
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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COVID-19: Perspective
New Obligations of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service: Taking Full-fledged Action Against the COVID-19 Pandemic
Seung Mi Yoo, Seol Hee Chung, Won Mo Jang, Kyoung Chang Kim, Jin Yong Lee, Sun Min Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):17-21.   Published online January 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.594
  • 3,978 View
  • 183 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to global health systems. The Korea has taken full-fledged actions against this novel infectious disease, swiftly implementing a testing-tracing-treatment strategy. New obligations have therefore been given to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) to devote the utmost effort towards tackling this global health crisis. Thanks to the universal national health insurance and state-of-the-art information communications technology (ICT) of the Korea, HIRA has conducted far-reaching countermeasures to detect and treat cases early, prevent the spread of COVID-19, respond quickly to surging demand for the healthcare services, and translate evidence into policy. Three main factors have enabled HIRA to undertake pandemic control preemptively and systematically: nationwide data aggregated from all healthcare providers and patients, pre-existing ICT network systems, and real-time data exchanges. HIRA has maximized the use of data and pre-existing network systems to conduct rapid and responsive measures in a centralized way, both of which have been the most critical tactics and strategies used by the Korean healthcare system. In the face of new obligations, our promise is to strive for a more responsive and resilient health system during this prolonged crisis.
Summary
Korean summary
건강보험심사평가원은 전 국민과 전체 요양기관의 축적된 정보, 전체 요양기관과 연결된 네트워크, 실시간 데이터 공유를 통해 이번 코로나19 위기 대응에 기여했다. 건강보험심사평가원은 1) 진단검사∙약제 등재, 2) 요양기관 내 고위험군 감지, 3) 마스크 중복구매 방지 시스템 구축, 4) 주요 보건의료자원 가동현황 모니터링 시스템 구축, 5) 환자관리 정보시스템 구축 및 익명화된 환자 데이터 공개로 국제협력연구 촉진의 다섯 가지 전략을 성공적으로 수행했다. 건강보험심사평가원은 현재의 보건위기 상황을 극복하고, 코로나19 시대 이후로도 새롭게 주어진 위기대응의 역할과 소명을 다할 것이다.

Citations

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    British Journal of General Practice.2023; 73(728): e220.     CrossRef
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    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023040.     CrossRef
Perspective
What Else Is Needed in the Korean Government’s Master Plan for People With Developmental Disabilities?
Jin Yong Lee, Jieun Yun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):200-204.   Published online May 7, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.249
  • 4,883 View
  • 113 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
On September 12, 2018, President Jae-In Moon announced the Comprehensive Plan for Lifelong Care for People with Developmental Disabilities, with representatives from the associated government branches (Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Employment and Labor) in attendance. The goals of this plan are to provide health, medical, rehabilitative, special education, and social welfare services according to the life-stages of the affected individuals; to reduce parental pressure; to promote social interventions; and to enhance community-level participation in order to create a ‘welfare society in harmony.’ However, in order for the plan to succeed, additional efforts must be made in the following areas. First, an epidemiological survey is needed to understand the scale, prevalence, and incidence of developmental disabilities and to establish an evidence base to support policy development. Second, accurate definitions of developmental disabilities must be established in order to avoid policy discrimination based on impairment type and age. Third, personal evaluations to assess disabled individuals’ unmet needs and customized service designs to deliver those needs are required. Fourth, the plan must fulfill the goals of accessibility and fairness that the government intends to provide. Fifth, the government should consider an integrated financial support system and to propose a detailed plan for monetary distributions. Finally, an integrated system that links health, medical, employment, educational, and welfare services must be constructed.
Summary
Korean summary
2018년 9월 대통령이 직접 발표한 “발달장애인 평생케어 종합대책”의 성공적인 수행을 위해 필수적인 정책을 제안하였다. 특히, 발달장애인의 정확한 규모, 유병률, 발생률 등 기초적인 현황 파악과 정책 개발을 뒷받침하기 위한 역학연구, 발달장애인 개인평가에 기반한 미충족 필요의 측정과 이를 바탕으로 한 개인별 맟춤형 서비스 디자인, 서비스의 접근성과 형평성 달성, 그리고 보건-의료-고용-교육-복지서비스를 통합적으로 제공할 수 있는 시스템 구축이 필요함을 지적하였다.

Citations

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  • Prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders in the Republic of Korea
    Jieun Yun, Beomjun Kang, Jae-ryun Lee, Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Lee
    Autism.2023; 27(8): 2397.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Premature Mortality Statistics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Birth Cohort Study
    Seung-Mi Yoo, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Sungchan Kang, Hyun Joo Kim, Jieun Yun, Jin Yong Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determining the reasons for unmet healthcare needs in South Korea: a secondary data analysis
    Boyoung Jung, In-Hyuk Ha
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Young Suk Yoon, Boyoung Jung, Dongsu Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(13): 2391.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between spinal pain and temporomandibular joint disorders in Korea: a nationwide propensity score-matched study
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Original Articles
Assessing Reliability of Medical Record Reviews for the Detection of Hospital Adverse Events
Minsu Ock, Sang-il Lee, Min-Woo Jo, Jin Yong Lee, Seon-Ha Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(5):239-248.   Published online September 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.049
  • 9,373 View
  • 112 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of medical record review for the detection of hospital adverse events.
Methods
We conducted two stages retrospective medical records review of a random sample of 96 patients from one acute-care general hospital. The first stage was an explicit patient record review by two nurses to detect the presence of 41 screening criteria (SC). The second stage was an implicit structured review by two physicians to identify the occurrence of adverse events from the positive cases on the SC. The inter-rater reliability of two nurses and that of two physicians were assessed. The intra-rater reliability was also evaluated by using test-retest method at approximately two weeks later.
Results
In 84.2% of the patient medical records, the nurses agreed as to the necessity for the second stage review (kappa, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.83). In 93.0% of the patient medical records screened by nurses, the physicians agreed about the absence or presence of adverse events (kappa, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.97). When assessing intra-rater reliability, the kappa indices of two nurses were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.87), whereas those of two physicians were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00) and 0.37 (95% CI, -0.16 to 0.89).
Conclusions
In this study, the medical record review for detecting adverse events showed intermediate to good level of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Well organized training program for reviewers and clearly defining SC are required to get more reliable results in the hospital adverse event study.
Summary

Citations

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  • The Korea National Patient Safety Incidents Inquiry Survey: Feasibility of Medical Record Review for Detecting Adverse Events in Regional Public Hospitals
    Min Ji Kim, Hee Jung Seo, Hong Mo Koo, Minsu Ock, Jee-In Hwang, Sang-Il Lee
    Journal of Patient Safety.2022; 18(5): 389.     CrossRef
  • The Korea National Patient Safety Incidents Inquiry Survey: Characteristics of Adverse Events Identified Through Medical Records Review in Regional Public Hospitals
    Min Ji Kim, Hee Jung Seo, Hong Mo Koo, Minsu Ock, Jee-In Hwang, Sang-Il Lee
    Journal of Patient Safety.2022; 18(5): 382.     CrossRef
  • Feasibility of Capturing Adverse Events From Insurance Claims Data Using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Codes Coupled to Present on Admission Indicators
    Juyoung Kim, Eun Young Choi, Won Lee, Hae Mi Oh, Jeehee Pyo, Minsu Ock, So Yoon Kim, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Patient Safety.2022; 18(5): 404.     CrossRef
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    Tammy L. Pham, Allan Garland
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    Dorthe O. Klein, Roger J.M.W. Rennenberg, Richard P. Koopmans, Martin H. Prins
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A New Disability-related Health Care Needs Assessment Tool for Persons With Brain Disorders
Yoon Kim, Sang June Eun, Wan Ho Kim, Bum-Suk Lee, Ja-Ho Leigh, Jung-Eun Kim, Jin Yong Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(5):282-290.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.282
  • 65,535 View
  • 107 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to develop a health needs assessment (HNA) tool for persons with brain disorders and to assess the unmet needs of persons with brain disorders using the developed tool.

Methods

The authors used consensus methods to develop a HNA tool. Using a randomized stratified systematic sampling method adjusted for sex, age, and districts, 57 registered persons (27 severe and 30 mild cases) with brain disorders dwelling in Seoul, South Korea were chosen and medical specialists investigated all of the subjects with the developed tools.

Results

The HNA tool for brain disorders we developed included four categories: 1) medical interventions and operations, 2) assistive devices, 3) rehabilitation therapy, and 4) regular follow-up. This study also found that 71.9% of the subjects did not receive appropriate medical care, which implies that the severity of their disability is likely to be exacerbated and permanent, and the loss irrecoverable.

Conclusions

Our results showed that the HNA tool for persons with brain disorders based on unmet needs defined by physicians can be a useful method for evaluating the appropriateness and necessity of medical services offered to the disabled, and it can serve as the norm for providing health care services for disabled persons. Further studies should be undertaken to increase validity and reliability of the tool. Fundamental research investigating the factors generating or affecting the unmet needs is necessary; its results could serve as basis for developing policies to eliminate or alleviate these factors.

Summary
Special Articles
A Strategy Toward Reconstructing the Healthcare System of a Unified Korea
Yo Han Lee, Seok-Jun Yoon, Seok Hyang Kim, Hyun-Woung Shin, Jin Yong Lee, Beomsoo Kim, Young Ae Kim, Jangho Yoon, Young Seok Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):134-138.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.134
  • 8,083 View
  • 109 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

This road map aims to establish a stable and integrated healthcare system for the Korean Peninsula by improving health conditions and building a foundation for healthcare in North Korea through a series of effective healthcare programs. With a basic time frame extending from the present in stages towards unification, the roadmap is composed of four successive phases. The first and second phases, each expected to last five years, respectively, focus on disease treatment and nutritional treatment. These phases would thereby safeguard the health of the most vulnerable populations in North Korea, while fulfilling the basic health needs of other groups by modernizing existing medical facilities. Based on the gains of the first two phases, the third phase, for ten years, would prepare for unification of the Koreas by promoting the health of all the North Korean people and improving basic infrastructural elements such as health workforce capacity and medical institutions. The fourth phase, assuming that unification will take place, provides fundamental principles and directions for establishing an integrated healthcare system across the Korean Peninsula. We are hoping to increase the consistency of the program and overcome several existing concerns of the current program with this roadmap.

Summary

Citations

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Lessons From Healthcare Providers' Attitudes Toward Pay-for-performance: What Should Purchasers Consider in Designing and Implementing a Successful Program?
Jin Yong Lee, Sang-Il Lee, Min-Woo Jo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):137-147.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.137
  • 16,365 View
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  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

We conducted a systematic review to summarize providers' attitudes toward pay-for-performance (P4P), focusing on their general attitudes, the effects of P4P, their favorable design and implementation methods, and concerns. An electronic search was performed in PubMed and Scopus using selected keywords including P4P. Two reviewers screened target articles using titles and abstract review and then read the full version of the screened articles for the final selections. In addition, one reference of screened articles and one unpublished report were also included. Therefore, 14 articles were included in this study. Healthcare providers' attitudes on P4P were summarized in two ways. First, we gathered their general attitudes and opinions regarding the effects of P4P. Second, we rearranged their opinions regarding desirable P4P design and implementation methods, as well as their concerns. This study showed the possibility that some healthcare providers still have a low level of awareness about P4P and might prefer voluntary participation in P4P. In addition, they felt that adequate quality indicators and additional support for implementation of P4P would be needed. Most healthcare providers also had serious concerns that P4P would induce unintended consequences. In order to conduct successful implementation of P4P, purchaser should make more efforts such as increasing providers' level of awareness about P4P, providing technical and educational support, reducing their burden, developing a cooperative relationship with providers, developing more accurate quality measures, and minimizing the unintended consequences.

Summary

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Original Articles
Proportion of Death Certificates Issued by Physicians and Associated Factors in Korea, 1990-2002.
Min Woo Jo, Young Ho Khang, Sungcheol Yun, Jin Yong Lee, Moo Song Lee, Sang Il Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):345-352.   Published online November 30, 2004
  • 2,228 View
  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies showed that death certification by physicians was an important predictor to improve the quality of death certificate data in South Korea. This study was conducted to examine the proportion of death certificates issued by physicians and associated factors in South Korea from 1990 to 2002. METHODS: Data from 3, 110, 883 death certificates issued between 1990 and 2002, available to the public from the National Statistical Office of Korea, were used to calculate the proportion of death certificates issued by physicians and to examine associated factors with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall proportion of death certificates issued by physicians increased from 44.6% in 1990 to 77.6% in 2002 (mean: 63.5%). However, the proportion was greatly influenced by the deceased's age. In 2002, more than 90% of the deceased aged 51 or less were certified by physicians. A higher proportion was found among deceased who had tertiary education (college or higher) living in more developed urban areas. CONCLUSION: The information regarding the cause of death for younger, well-educated deceased in urban areas of South Korea may show a higher level of accuracy. Epidemiologic research using information on causes of death may well benefit from the continually increasing proportion of death certificates issued by physicians in the future in South Korea.
Summary
Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Health Center Information System.
Jin Yong Lee, Young Gyoung Do, Jung Gyu Lee, Gi Dong Park, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):359-366.
  • 3,610 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to review the diffusion process and factors affecting the adoption of the Health Center Information System (HIS). METHODS: Data were collected from POSDATA (private company), MOHW, other Ministries and local governments. To specify the date of adoption, supplementary information was collected from 40 health centers. The following three kinds of factors were analyzed. Internal factors included type, size, and innovativeness of health centers. Community factors were composed of population size, economic status, and level of education. Organizational environmental factors consisted of information score of the municipalities, financial support of the from central government, and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers. RESULTS: All health centers in the metropolitan cities of Seoul, Gwangju and Jeju adopted the HIS. The laggards were those in the metropolitan cities of Busan (18.8%), Incheon (20.0%) and Daejun (20.0%), and cities with population more than 300, 000 (54.8%) and counties with health center hospitals (47.1%). Financially supported rural health centers adopted the HIS more rapidly than those not supported. The factors identified as being statistically significant (p< 0.05), from a univariate analysis by Kaplan-Meier method, were: (1) internal factors of the type, size and innovativeness of health centers; (2) community factors of population size and economic status; (3) organizational environmental factors of the central government financial support and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers. A multivariate analysis, using a Cox proportional hazard method, proved the innovativeness of health centers, central government financial support and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers, were statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The innovativeness of health centers, financial support from central government and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers, rather than community factors related to regional socioeconomic status, affected the adoption of the HIS in health centers. Further in-depth studies, modifying the MOHW's strategy to propagate the HIS to the laggard health centers, are recommended.
Summary
English Abstract
Factors Affecting National Health Insurance Mass Screening Participation in the Disabled.
Jong Hyock Park, Jin Seok Lee, Jin Yong Lee, Ji Young Hong, So Young Kim, Seong Ok Kim, Byong Hee Cho, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin, Yoon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(6):511-519.
  • 3,051 View
  • 50 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
As the disabled have higher prevalence rates and earlier onsets of chronic diseases than the nondisabled, their participation in mass screening is important for the early detection and intervention of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, in Korea, the disabled have lower participation rates in mass screening services than the nondisabled. The purpose of the study was to find determinants for the participation in the National Health Insurance (NHI) mass screening program among the disabled. METHODS: In this study, the NHI mass screening data of 423,076 disabled people, which were identified using the National Disability Registry (2003), were analyzed. Of the factors affecting the participation rates in mass screenings, the following variables were included for the analysis: socioeconomic stati, such as sex, age, category of health insurance program, region and income; disability characteristics, such as disability type, and severity. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the participation rates, disability characteristics variables and demographic variables. RESULTS: The participation rate in mass screening of the disabled was 41.3%, but was lower in females, an age of more than 70 years, self-employed and for those with an average monthly insurance premium over 133,500 Won and in metropolitan regions. The participation rate was 1.31 times lower in females than males (95% CI=1.29-1.33); 3.50 times lower in the elderly (more than 70 years) than the younger (95% CI=3.33-3.67); 1.43 times lower in those who live in metropolitan areas (95% CI=1.40-1.46); 2.59 times lower for those in a health insurance program for the self-employed than for employees (95% CI=2.56-2.63); 1.19 times lower for the higher income (more than 133,500) than the lower income group (4,400-22,000) for the average monthly insurance premium (95% CI=1.15-1.23); 2.04 times lower for those with brain palsy and stroke disabilities than with auditory impairments (95% CI= 1.97-2.11) and 3.27 times for those with severe compared to mild disabilities (95% CI=3.15-3.40). CONCLUSIONS: The disabled with high severity, and locomotive and communication disabilities have lower participation rates in mass screening services in Korea.
Summary
Comparative Study
Differences in Medical Care Utilization Rates of the Disabled and the Non-disabled with Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.
Sang Jun Eun, Jee Young Hong, Jin Yong Lee, Jin Seok Lee, Yoon Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):411-418.
  • 2,336 View
  • 62 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the disabled have worse access to primary care than the non-disabled. METHODS: We used the National Disability Registry data and the National Health Insurance data for the calendar year 2003, and we analyzed 807,380 disabled persons who had been registered until December 2001 and we also analyzed 1,614,760 non-disabled persons for nine ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). The rates of physician visits and hospitalizations for the patients with ACSCs were compared between the disabled and the nondisabled. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between medical care utilization and disability and to assess the association between hospitalization and the number of physician visits while controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: The numbers of physician visits per 100 patients were 0.78~0.97 times lower for the disabled than that for the non-disabled with five of nine ACSCs. The numbers of hospitalizations per 100 patients were 1.16~1.77 times higher for the disabled than that for the non-disabled with all the ACSCs. While the ORs of a physician visit for the disabled were significantly lower than that for the non-disabled with all the ACSCs (OR: 0.44~0.70), and the ORs of hospitalization for the disabled were significantly higher (OR: 1.16~1.89). The lower physician visit group (number of physician visits < or =1) was more likely to be hospitalized than the higher physician visit group (number of physician visits > or =2) (OR: 1.69~19.77). The effect of the physician visit rate on hospitalization was larger than the effect of disability on hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the disabled were more likely to be hospitalized for ACSCs due to their lower access to primary care.
Summary
English Abstracts
Estimating the Burden of Psychiatric Disorder in Korea.
Jae Hyun Park, Seok Jun Yoon, Hee Young Lee, Hee Sook Cho, Jin Yong Lee, Sang Jun Eun, Jong Hyock Park, Yoon Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):39-45.
  • 2,850 View
  • 98 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study estimated the burden of disease especially caused by psychiatric disorders in Korea by using DALY, a composite indicator that was recently developed by the Global Burden of Disease study group. METHODS: First, 11 of the major psychiatric disorders in Korea were selected based on the ICD-10. Second, the burden of disease due to premature death was estimated by using YLLs (years of life lost due to premature death). Third, for the calculation of the YLD (years lived with disability), the following parameters were estimated in the formula: the incidence rate, the prevalence rate and the disability weight of each psychiatric disorder. Last, we estimated the DALY of the psychiatric disorders by adding the YLLs and YLDs. RESULTS: The burden of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 people was attributed mainly to unipolar major depression (1,278 person-years), schizophrenia (638 person-years) and alcohol use disorder (287 person-years). For males, schizophrenia (596 person-years) and alcohol use disorder (491 person-years) caused the highest burden. For females, unipolar major depression (1,749 person-years) and schizophrenia (680 person-years) cause the highest burden. As analyzed by gender and age group, alcohol use disorder causes a higher burden than schizophrenia in men aged 40 years and older. For females, unipolar major depression causes the highest burden in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found that each of the psychiatric disorders that cause the highest burden is different according to gender and age group. This study's results can provide a rational basis to plan a national health policy regarding the burden of disease caused by psychiatric disorders.
Summary
Biosafety of Microbiological Laboratories in Korea.
Jin Yong Lee, Sang Jun Eun, Ki dong Park, Jong Kyun Kim, Jeong Soo Im, Yoo Sung Hwang, Yong Ik Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):449-456.
  • 2,796 View
  • 144 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The biosafety level (BSL) practiced in microbiology laboratories in Korea according to the laboratory biosafety manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated using the data obtained by a survey. METHODS: Under the advise of Clinical Laboratory Physicians, 144 types of microorganisms were screened based on the guidelines of biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories published by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention and classified into 1-4 risk groups. A questionnaire containing 21 questions in 5 areas was developed using the biosafety manual by published WHO. Of the 1, 876 different organizations sent the survey, 563 responded to the survey (response rate: 30.0%). The species of microoganisms handled by as well as the biosafety level in microbiology laboratories were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 123 species of microorganisms handled in microbiology labs in Korea. The BSL required in 512 microbiology labs was answered by the survey responders as the first grade in 33 labs (6.4%), 2nd in 437 (85.4%), 3rd in 42 (8.2%), and 4th in none. The average number of items satisfied was 12.2, showing only a 57.9% satisfactory rate and normal distribution. CONCLUSIONS: The state of overall observance of BSL in most microbiology labs of Korea was evaluated as lagging compared with the standard set up by WHO. Therefore, the Korean government need to produce and distribute a biosafety manual in microbiology laboratories and make efforts to prevent this threat through measures such as training in biosafety in microbiology labs.
Summary
Estimating the Burden of Diseases due to High Alcohol Consumption in Korea.
Jung Kyu Lee, Yong Ik Kim, Seok Jun Yoon, Jin Yong Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Jong Hyock Park, Youngsoo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):175-181.
  • 2,512 View
  • 64 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study estimated the burden of disease due to high alcohol consumption using DALY, a composite indicator recently developed by the Global Burden of Disease study group. The results were analyzed by age and sex. METHODS: Firstly, high alcohol consumption-related diseases, and their relative risk (RR), were selected. Secondly, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were computed using formulae, including the relative risk (RR) and prevalence of exposure (Pe). Thirdly, the DALYs of high alcohol consumption-related diseases were estimated. Lastly, the attributable burdens of diseases due to high alcohol consumption wereconcluded as being the sum of the products that multiplied the DALYs of high alcohol consumption-related diseases by their population attributable fraction (PAF). RESULTS: The burden of high alcohol consumption in Korea was 2992.3 person years (PYs) per 100, 000 persons in men, and 1426.6 in women. For men, the high alcohol consumption-induced diseases with the five biggest burdens were liver cirrhosis, hypertensive disease, liver cancer, cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. For women, these were cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertensive disease, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the attributable fraction of diseases due to exposure to high alcohol consumption, by quantifying the results of exposure to risk factors. Therefore, it is now possible to assess interventions for risk factors in quantifiable terms in each population. Finally, measuring the risk factor burdens was expected to contribute to priority setting and effective resource allocation in public health policy.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health