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C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):275-287.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.025
  • 9,188 View
  • 201 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea.
Methods
A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors.
Results
The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions
Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Binary cutpoint and the combined effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on cardiovascular disease mortality: A community-based cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Ji Hoon Hong, Sangjun Lee, Seokyung An, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0270510.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum high-sensitivity C reactive protein with risk of mortality in an Asian population: the Health Examinees cohort
    Sang-Ah Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Hyerim Park, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(7): e052630.     CrossRef
  • Associations of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen with mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer among U.S. adults
    Junxiu Liu, Yanan Zhang, Carl J. Lavie, Fred K. Tabung, Jiting Xu, Qingwei Hu, Lixia He, Yunxiang Zhang
    Preventive Medicine.2020; 139: 106044.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the association between self-rated health and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in Koreans: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Se-Won Park, Seong-Sik Park, Eun-Jung Kim, Won-Suk Sung, In-Hyuk Ha, Boyoung Jung
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Association Between Smoking Tobacco After a Diagnosis of Diabetes and the Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Korean Male Population
Hyungseon Yeom, Jung Hyun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):108-117.   Published online March 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.062
  • 9,211 View
  • 142 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Smoking is known to be associated with nephropathy in patients with diabetes. The distinct effects of smoking before and after diabetes has been diagnosed, however, are not well characterized. We evaluated the association of cigarette smoking before and after a diagnosis of diabetes with the presence of diabetic nephropathy.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2011-2013 editions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 629 male patients diagnosed with diabetes were classified as non-smokers (90 patients), former smokers (225 patients), or continuing smokers (314 patients). A “former smoker” was a patient who smoked only before receiving his diagnosis of diabetes. A “continuing smoker” was a patient who smoked at any time after his diabetes had been diagnosed. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as the presence of albuminuria (spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g) or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association after adjusting for age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, medication for hypertension, and medication for dyslipidemia. Female patients were excluded from the study due to the small proportion of females in the survey who smoked.
Results
Compared to non-smokers, continuing smokers had significantly higher odds ratio ([OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.83) of suffering from diabetic nephropathy. The corresponding OR (95% CI) for former smokers was 1.26 (0.70 to 2.29).
Conclusions
Smoking after diagnosis of diabetes is significantly associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy in the Korean male population.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome
Ju-Mi Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hye Min Cho, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):181-187.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.181
  • 16,064 View
  • 173 Download
  • 52 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. However, the direct association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in a community-based cohort study in Korea.

Methods

We performed cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 889 males and 1491 females (aged 38 to 87) who participated in baseline examinations of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study: Kanghwa study. Blood samples were collected after at least an 8 hour fast. Uric acid quartiles were defined as follows: <4.8, 4.8-<5.6, 5.6-<6.5, ≥6.5 mg/dL in males; and <3.8, 3.8-<4.3, 4.3-<5.1, ≥5.1 mg/dL in females. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria with adjusted waist circumference cutoffs (90 cm for males; 80 cm for females). The association between serum uric acid quartiles and metabolic syndrome was assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results

The odds ratio for having metabolic syndrome in the highest versus lowest quartiles of serum uric acid levels was 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 4.46) in males and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.50 to 3.05) in females after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, total cholesterol, HbA1c, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and log C-reactive protein. The number of metabolic abnormalities also increased gradually with increasing serum uric acid levels (adjusted p for trend < 0.001 in both sexes).

Conclusions

Higher serum uric acid levels are positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean males and females.

Summary

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The Association Between Serum Albumin Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Population of Korea
Hye Min Cho, Hyeon Chang Kim, Ju-Mi Lee, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):98-104.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.98
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

A positive association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome has been reported in observation studies, but it has not been established in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum albumin levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome among a sample of apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study analyzed data of 3189 community-dwelling people (1189 men and 2000 women) who were aged 40 to 87 years and were living in a rural area in Korea. Serum albumin levels were classified into quartile groups for each sex. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with an adjusted waist circumference cut-off value (≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women). An independent association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

Higher serum albumin levels were associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome for the highest versus the lowest serum albumin quartiles was 2.81 (1.91 to 4.14) in men and 1.96 (1.52 to 2.52) in women, after adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. When each metabolic abnormality was analyzed separately, higher serum albumin levels were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in both sexes, and with abdominal obesity in men.

Conclusions

These results suggest that higher serum albumin levels are positively associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

Summary

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Statistical Algorithm in Genetic Linkage Based on Haplotypes.
Jinheum Kim, Dae Ryong Kang, Yun Kyung Lee, Sun Mi Shin, Il Suh, Chung Mo Nam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):366-372.   Published online November 30, 2004
  • 2,023 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to propose a new transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to test the linkage between genetic markers and diseasesusceptibility genes based on haplotypes. Simulation studies were performed to compare the proposed method with that of Zhao et al. in terms of type I error probability and powers. METHODS: We estimated the haplotype frequencies using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with parents' genotypes taken from a trio dataset, and then constructed a two-way contingency table containing estimated frequencies to all possible pairs of parents' haplotypes. We proposed a score test based on differences between column marginals and their corresponding row marginals. The test also involved a covariance structure of marginal differences and their variances. In simulation, we considered a coalescent model with three genetic markers of biallele to investigate the performance of the proposed test under six different configurations. RESULTS: The haplotype-based TDT statistics, our test and Zhao et al.'s test satisfied a type I error probability, but the TDT test based on single locus showed a conservative trend. As expected, the tests based on haplotypes also had better powers than those based on single locus. Our test and that of Zhao et al. were comparable in powers. CONCLUSION: We proposed a TDT statistic based on haplotypes and showed through simulations that our test was more powerful than the single locus-based test. We will extend our method to multiplex data with affected and/or unaffected sibling (s) or simplex data having only one parent's genotype.
Summary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Association Between Meat Consumption and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Korean Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.
Sun Min Oh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Hye Jin Chi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(6):486-495.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.6.486
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The effect of meat consumption on cardiometabolic risk has been continuously studied, but their associations are not conclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of meat or red meat and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy Korean adults. METHODS: This study evaluated 2374 community-dwelling adults (933 men and 1441 women) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer, living in a rural area in Korea. Total meat and red meat intakes were assessed with a validated 103 item-food frequency questionnaire. Carotid IMT was evaluated ultrasonographically, IMTmax was defined as the highest value among IMT of bilateral common carotid arteries. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean IMTmax tended to increase in higher meat consumption groups in both men and women with metabolic syndrome (p for trend= 0.027 and 0.049, respectively), but not in participants without metabolic syndrome. Frequent meat consumption (> or =5 servings/week) was significantly associated with higher IMTmax in men with metabolic syndrome (by 0.08 mm, p=0.015). Whereas, the association was not significant in women (by 0.05 mm, p=0.115). Similar but attenuated findings were shown with red meat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a higher meat consumption may be associated with a higher carotid IMT in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. The frequent meat consumption (> or =5 servings/week), compared with the others, was associated with a higher carotid IMTmax only in men with metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to explore optimal meat consumption in people with specific medical conditions.
Summary

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    Saerom Shin, Seungmin Lee
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    Bernhard Haring, Wenyu Wang, Amanda Fretts, Daichi Shimbo, Elisa T. Lee, Barbara V. Howard, Mary J. Roman, Richard B. Devereux
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    José R. Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
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    Hannah Gardener, Clinton B. Wright, Digna Cabral, Nikolaos Scarmeas, Yian Gu, Ken Cheung, Mitchell S.V. Elkind, Ralph L. Sacco, Tatjana Rundek
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  • Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome
    Ju-Mi Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hye Min Cho, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(3): 181.     CrossRef
Evaluation Studieses
C-reactive Protein and Carotid Intima-media Thickness in a Population of Middle-aged Koreans.
Mina Suh, Joo Young Lee, Song Vogue Ahn, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):29-34.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and carotid intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) in a population of middle-aged Koreans. METHODS: A total of 1,054 men and 1,595 women (aged 40-70 years) from Kanghwa County, Korea, were chosen for the present study between 2006 and 2007. We measured high-sensitivity CRP and other major cardiovascular risk factors including anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and carotid ultrasonography. Health related questionnaires were also completed by each study participant. Carotid IMT value was determined by the maximal IMT at each common carotid artery. The relationship between CRP level and carotid IMT was assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models after adjustment for age, body mass index, menopause (women), systolic blood pressure, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglyceride level, fasting glucose, smoking, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Mean carotid IMT values from the lowest to highest quartile of CRP were 0.828, 0.873, 0.898, and 0.926 mm for women (p for trend<0.001), and 0.929, 0.938, 0.949, and 0.979 mm for men (p for trend=0.032), respectively. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship between CRP and carotid IMT was significant in women (p for trend=0.017), but not in men (p for trend=0.798). Similarly, adjusted odds ratio of increased IMT, defined as the sex-specific top quartile, for the highest versus lowest CRP quartiles was 1.55 (95% CI=1.06-2.26) in women, but only 1.05 (95% CI=0.69-1.62) in men. CONCLUSIONS: CRP and carotid IMT levels appear to be directly related in women, but not in men.
Summary

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  • Hematocrit Values Predict Carotid Intimal-Media Thickness in Obese Patients With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Giovanni Tarantino, Luigi Barrea, Domenico Capone, Vincenzo Citro, Teresa Mosca, Silvia Savastano
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome
    Ju-Mi Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hye Min Cho, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(3): 181.     CrossRef
  • Relationships between high-sensitive C-reactive protein and markers of arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients. Differences by sex
    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Jose I Recio-Rodríguez, Maria C Patino-Alonso, Cristina Agudo-Conde, Leticia Gomez-Sanchez, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sanchez, Marta Gomez-Sanchez, Vicente Martinez-Vizcaino, Luis Garcia-Ortiz
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.2012;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association between Hypertension and Pulmonary Function in Rural Adults in Korea.
Joo Young Lee, Song Vogue Ahn, Dong Phil Choi, Mina Suh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Young Sam Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):21-28.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.21
  • 5,538 View
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  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Whilst hypertension exerts a negative effect on several organs there have been few studies regarding its effect on pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between hypertension and pulmonary function in rural Korean adults. METHODS: In 2006, 2534 people were recruited, aged 40 to 70, in Kangwha County. We selected 1454 (male: 624, female: 830) participants whose pulmonary function results were repeatable. Blood pressure (BP) was measured twice and the average calculated. Participants were divided into two groups (hypertensive group and non-hypertensive group) in accordance with The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Pulmonary function was measured by dry rolling seal spirometry. Forced expiratory volume in the one second and forced vital capacity were converted into percent-predicted values based on average pulmonary function amongst Koreans. RESULTS: The number of hypertensive participants in the present study was 460 (male: 205, female: 255) and the number of non-hypertensive participants was 994 (male: 419, female: 575). Our findings have shown that the mean values for expiratory volume in the one second and forced vital capacity were significantly lower for hypertensive people than for non-hypertensive people, among women (P=0.002 for forced expiratory volume in the one second, P<0.001 for forced vital capacity volume). Odds ratio analysis revealed that hypertensive participants were more likely to have lower pulmonary function than non-hypertensive participants, again significantly among women. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary function of hypertensive women was significantly lower than that of non-hypertensive women aged 40-70.
Summary

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English Abstract
The Association between Obesity Indices in Adolescence and Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Young Adults: Kangwha Study.
Yoo Jung Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Hyeon Chang Kim, Nam Wook Hur, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(2):107-114.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.2.107
  • 4,865 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to investigate the association between obesity indices (body mass index, weight, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference) in adolescents and the carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in early adulthood. We also wanted to identify the best predictor for C-IMT among these obesity indices. METHODS: This study used community-based prospective cohort study, known as the Kangwha Study, and the data we used were from subjects who were 16-years old in 1996 (defined as "adolescencec") and 25 years-old in 2005 (defined as "early adulthoodc"). The 256 subjects (113 men and 143 women) who were used for analysis participated in both follow-ups, and they underwent B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries at the early adulthood follow-up. Obesity indices were defined as the body mass index, weight, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference. The C-IMT was defined as the mean of the maximal IMT of each common carotid artery. The C-IMT and obesity indices associations were evaluated via multivariable regression, logistic regression and the receiver-operator characteristic curve analyses. RESULTS: In men, all the obesity indices in adolescence were showed to have statistically significant positive association with C-IMT in early adulthood. However, no such relationship was showed in women. On multiple regression and logistic regression analysis, the waist-hip ratio showed the biggest relationship with the C-IMT among the 4 obesity indices. However, there were no statistical significant differences and no best predictor was found. For the women, the obesity incidences and C-IMT showed no relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that obesity in adolescence was related to an increase C-IMT in healthy young Korean men.
Summary

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    Pentti Nieminen
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    Farhad Hosseinpanah, Amirhosein Seyedhoseinpour, Maryam Barzin, Maryam Mahdavi, Erfan Tasdighi, Pooneh Dehghan, Amin Momeni Moghaddam, Fereidoun Azizi, Majid Valizadeh
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    Zehra Esra Önal, Levent Soydan, Hatice Eren Öztürk, Çiğdem Sağ, Tamay Gürbüz, Çağatay Nuhoğlu, Mehmet Masum Şimşek
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    Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
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    Hyun Wook Chae, Il Suh, Ah Reum Kwon, Ye Jin Kim, Yong Hyuk Kim, Dae Ryong Kang, Ha Yan Kim, Sun Min Oh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Duk Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim
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    Jung Eun Oh, Jiyoung Jung, Hae Soon Kim, Young Mi Hong, Jung Hyun Yoo, Young Whan Song, Jo Won Jung, Nam Su Kim, Chung Il Noh
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    Sun Min Lim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hoon Sang Lee, Joo Young Lee, Mina Suh, Song Vogue Ahn
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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Impact of Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Young Adults: The Kangwha Study.
Hoo Sun Chang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Nam Wook Hur, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):411-417.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.411
  • 4,675 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Although risk factors for coronary artery disease are also associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), there is little information available on the asymptomatic, young adult population. We examined the association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and the common carotid IMT in 280 young Korean adults. METHODS: The data used for this study was obtained from 280 subjects (130 men and 150 women) aged 25 years who participated in the Kangwha Study follow-up examination in 2005. We measured cardiovascular risk factors, including anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, carotid ultrasonography, and reviewed questionnaires on health behaviors. Risk factors were defined as values above the sex-specific 75th percentile of systolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, fasting blood glucose and smoking status. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT+/-standard deviation observed was 0.683+/-0.079 mm in men and 0.678+/-0.067 mm in women (p=0.567) and the evidence of plaque was not observed in any individuals. Mean carotid IMT increased with an increasing number of risk factors(p for trend <0.001) and carotid IMT values were 0.665 mm, 0.674 mm, 0.686 mm, 0.702 mm, and 0.748 mm for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 to 5 risk factors, respectively. The odds ratio for having the top quartile carotid IMT in men with 3 or more risk factors versus 0-2 risk factors was 5.09 (95% CI, 2.05-12.64). CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate the need for prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors in young adults and more focus on those with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.
Summary

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  • Association Between Risk Factors in Childhood and Sex Differences in Prevalence of Carotid Artery Plaques and Intima‐Media Thickness in Mid‐Adulthood in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study
    Mohammad Shah, Marie‐Jeanne Buscot, Jing Tian, Hoang T. Phan, Brooklyn J. Fraser, Thomas H. Marwick, Terence Dwyer, Alison Venn, Seana Gall
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Original Articles
Factors Associated with Hypertension Control and Antihypertensive Medication among Hypertensive Patients in a Community.
Dong Han Lee, Youn Hee Choi, Kang Hee Lee, Dae Ryong Kang, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):289-297.
  • 4,638 View
  • 56 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this study are to identify the factors associated with hypertension control and to determine the influencing factors associated with antihypertensive therapy. METHODS: The study was conducted on 107 subjects who participated in the 1999 and 2002 Gwacheon Study and who had had uncontrolled hypertension (systolic > or=140 or diastolic > or= 90mmHg) in 1999. We compared the characteristics of the controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive group and investigated the characteristics of those taking antihypertensive medication. Univariate associations between hypertension control and its characteristics and the association between antihypertension treatment and its characteristics were tested with x2-test. We also performed logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The participants who had their blood pressure checked within 6 months before their first measurement and those who had taken the antihypertensive medication showed significantly better hypertension control during the follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline antihypertensive therapy was the most important determinant factor of hypertension control during the follow-up. Socioeconomic level and life style did not affect hypertension control when controlled by the treatment variable in this study. The factors associated with antihypertensive therapy at follow-up were previous antihypertensive therapy, old age, and high educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Those who received antihypertensive therapy and those who had their blood pressure re-checked within 6 months both showed well controlled hypertension. The subjects with high educational level complied well with the antihypertensive regimen, but those in their forties did not.
Summary
Awareness, Treatment, Control, and Related Factors of Hypertension in Gwacheon.
Youn Hee Choi, Chung Mo Nam, Mi Hyun Joo, Ki Tae Moon, Jee Seon Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):263-270.
  • 2,204 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the factors related to awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a Gwacheon population. METHODS: This study surveyed 1, 176 Gwacheon residents older than 40 years, and measured blood pressure using a standardized guideline in 1999. The study subjects were 473 adults (175 males, 298 females) with hypertension defined as a systolic blood pressure > or= 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or= 90 mmHg or reported treatment with antihypertensive medications. Information on awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and sociodemographic and health-related factors was collected through person-to-person interviews with a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 252 (53.3%) of hypertensive subjects were aware of their condition, of whom as many as 193 (76.6%) were being treated, and 81 (42.0%) had their blood pressure controlled at the recommended level (< 140/90 mmHg). However, of the 473 subjects found to have hypertension, only 40.8% were being treated, and 17.1% were under control. There were no significant differences in the proportions of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. In multiple logistic regression models, awareness of hypertension was positively associated with age and family history of hypertension in females. Control of hypertension was also positively associated with having a partner and marital status in females. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that much greater efforts on improving awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension are needed, even in urban community settings, considering related factors such as age, family history, and marital status. However, these factors should be further investigated for their causal relationship.
Summary
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Kang Sook Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):157-165.
  • 2,189 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders(CVD) in Koreans using a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of beneficiaries who had taken health examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons) in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. Four hundred and twenty five (425) cases were selected following the validation of diagnosis among 2,026 reported CVD (I60-I68) inpatients during the year from 1993 to 1997. Controls were matched (1:1) with age and gender of the cases among inpatients without CVD during the same period. The source of data in this study were the files of the 1990 health examinations and the 1992 health questionnaires, as well as an additional telephone survey undertaken from March to November 1999. RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for total CVD were hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unrespectively, the odds ratio of ex-smoker was significantly lower than that of those who had never smoked. The risk factors for ischemic CVD also were hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, only blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for hemorrhagic CVD. Hypercholesterolemia was not a risk factor for total CVD, ischemic CVD, and hemorrhagic CVD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most important risk factor for CVD (including subtype) in Koreans was hypertension.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
  • 2,817 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary
Timing of Menarche and Physical Growth during Childhood and Adolescence: The Kangwha Study.
Chang Soo Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Duck Hi Kim, Hyun Chang Kim, Kang Hee Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):521-529.
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OBJECTIVES
To assess height, weight and body mass index from childhood to adolescence according to the age at menarche and hence to study the influence of childhood growth on the menarche age. METHODS: "The Kangwha Study" was a community-based prospective cohort study which included the entire population of 219 female first graders in Kangwha county in 1986. Among the 219 girls, 119 girls who had received complete follow up checks during the study period(1986~1997), were included in this study, except one for whom menarche age information was unavailable. The remaining 118 girls were divided into three groups according to the timing of menarche : early(<25 percentile), intermediate and late(> or =75 percentile) maturers. RESULTS: The average age at menarche was 12.7 years : early 11.3 years, intermediate 12.6 years and late 13.7 years. The early maturers were taller and heavier between 6~8 years. But, the mean weight and body mass index at the menarche age did not differ statistically among the three groups. The weight and body mass index of the early maturers were consistently higher than those of the late maturers over the entire period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Critical body weight and body mass index must be attained for menstruation to be attained and the age at menarche is largely determined by the childhood growth. In addition, it seems that childhood growth and age at menarche are associated with adolescent weight and body mass index.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health