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Volume 54(6); November 2021
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Original Articles
Presence of Thrombectomy-capable Stroke Centers Within Hospital Service Areas Explains Regional Variation in the Case Fatality Rate of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Korea
Eun Hye Park, Yong Jin Gil, Chanki Kim, Beom Joon Kim, Seung-sik Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):385-394.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.329
  • 3,787 View
  • 227 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to explore the status of regional variations in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment and investigate the association between the presence of a thrombectomy-capable stroke center (TSC) and the case fatality rate (CFR) of AIS within hospital service areas (HSAs).
Methods
This observational cross-sectional study analyzed acute stroke quality assessment program data from 262 hospitals between 2013 and 2016. TSCs were defined according to the criteria of the Joint Commission. In total, 64 HSAs were identified based on the addresses of hospitals. We analyzed the effects of structure factors, process factors, and the presence of a TSC on the CFR of AIS using multivariate logistic regression.
Results
Among 262 hospitals, 31 hospitals met the definition of a TSC. Of the 64 HSAs, only 20 had a TSC. At hospitals, the presence of a stroke unit, the presence of stroke specialists, and the rate of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) treatment were associated with reductions in the CFR. In HSAs, the rate of EVT treatment (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99) and the presence of a TSC (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.99) significantly reduced the CFR of AIS.
Conclusions
The presence of a TSC within an HSA, corresponding to structure and process factors related to the quality of care, contributed significantly to lowering the CFR of AIS. The CFR also declined as the rate of treatment increased. This study highlights the importance of TSCs in the development of an acute stroke care system in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
혈관 내 재개통술(endovascular thrombectomy, EVT)는 많은 전문인력과 장비등 상당한 자원을 필요로 하는 특성으로 인해 상대적으로 자원이 부족한 지역에 치료 공백이 발생할 수 있다. EVT 가능 병원(Thrombectomy capable stroke center, TSC)를 "연간 EVT 15회 이상 시행, 뇌졸중 전문치료실 운영 그리고 뇌졸중 관련 전문의(신경과, 신경외과, 재활의학과)가 모두 근무하는 병원으로 정의하고 진료권 단위로 분석한 결과 진료권 내 TSC의 존재는 허혈성 뇌졸중 환자군의 치명률를 유의하게 감소시켰다. 그러므로 급성 허혈성 뇌졸중 치료의 지역 간 변이를 줄이기 위해서 진료권 내 TSC 를 정의하고 설치하는 것의 중요하며, 이러한 결과는 향후 70개 진료권 단위 지역책임의료기관을 구축하는 과정에 중요한 근거자료로 활용될수 있을 것이다.

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  • Prioritization of Injury Prevention and Management Programs and Research and Development (R&D) Projects: Survey Using the Delphi Technique and Analytic Hierarchy Process
    Won Kyung Lee, Minsu Ock, Ju Ok Park, Changsoo Kim, Beom Sok Seo, Jeehee Pyo, Hyun Jin Park, Ui Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Shinyoung Woo, Hyesook Park
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2024; 36(1): 78.     CrossRef
  • Regional variation in access to and quality of acute stroke care: results of Germany’s Health System Performance Assessment pilot, 2014–2020
    P. Hengel, U. Nimptsch, M. Blümel, K. Achstetter, R. Busse
    Research in Health Services & Regions.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Patterns in the number of interventionalists for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the US
    Ankita Tripathi, Laura K. Stein, Mandip S. Dhamoon
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases.2023; 32(2): 106943.     CrossRef
  • Thrombectomy-Capable Stroke Centre—A Key to Acute Stroke Care System Improvement? Retrospective Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of Endovascular Treatment in Cardiac Cathlab
    Krzysztof Pawłowski, Artur Dziadkiewicz, Anna Podlasek, Jacek Klaudel, Alicja Mączkowiak, Marek Szołkiewicz
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(3): 2232.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 case-fatality variations with application to the Middle East countries
    Sami Khedhiri
    GeoJournal.2022; 88(1): 1127.     CrossRef
The Effects of Social Activities and Living Arrangements on Cognitive Functions in Middle-aged and Elderly Adults: A Panel Study Using the 2006-2018 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging
Yoon-Jung Choi, Yun-Chul Hong, Young-Kyung Do
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):395-403.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.384
  • 3,700 View
  • 202 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Previous studies have shown that participation in social activities (SA) can prevent cognitive decline (CD) and that living arrangements (LA) can affect cognitive function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SA and LA on CD, as well as their interactions, using longitudinal data.
Methods
Data were used from the 2006-2018 Korean Longitudinal Study for Aging, which followed 10 254 adults older than 45 years over a 12-year period. CD was defined as a ≥4-point score decrease in the Mini-Mental Status Exam over 2 years. We developed an extended Cox proportional hazards model for time-dependent covariates to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CD in 4 groups: (1) socially active and living with others, (2) socially active and living alone, (3) socially inactive and living with others (SILO), and (4) socially inactive and living alone (SILA). The model was stratified by gender and adjusted for important confounders.
Results
The HR of CD was significantly higher in the SILO group in men (HR,1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.78) and in the SILA group in women (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.75). However, the interaction term for gender was not significant.
Conclusions
Among socially inactive elderly adults, the HR of CD was elevated in men who lived with others and in women who lived alone, although the interaction term for gender was not significant. Socially inactive men who live with others and socially inactive women who live alone are particularly encouraged to participate in SA to prevent CD.
Summary
Korean summary
고령화연구패널조사(KLoSA)(2006-2018)에 참여한 10,254명의 45세 이상 성인을 2년마다 추척하여 생존분석을 이용하여, 사회활동 참여여부와 독거 여부가 인지기능 저하에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 인지기능 저하는 2년동안 Mini-Mental Status Exam이 4점 이상 감소한 경우로 정의하였다. 그 결과 사회활동에 참여하지 않으면서 가족과 함께 사는 남성과, 사회활동에 참여하지 않으면서 혼자 사는 여성에서 인지기능 저하의 위험이 증가했다.

Citations

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  • Eight‐year trajectories and predictors of cognitive function in community‐dwelling Korean older adults with cardiovascular diseases
    Youn‐Jung Son, Da‐Young Kim, Yoon‐Gyeong Choi, Eun Young Kim
    Journal of Nursing Scholarship.2024; 56(1): 153.     CrossRef
  • ANÁLISE DO ESTADO COGNITIVO DE PESSOAS IDOSAS HOSPITALIZADAS
    Heloysa Waleska Soares Fernandes, Bárbara Maria Lopes da Silva Brandão, Tamires Paula Gomes Medeiros, Eduarda Cordeiro D'Oliveira Alves, Luana Rodrigues de Almeida, Rafaella Queiroga Souto
    Revista Enfermagem Atual In Derme.2024; 97(4): e024263.     CrossRef
  • Is Formal Social Participation Associated with Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies
    Cláudia Cunha, Gina Voss, Renato Andrade, Alice Delerue-Matos
    Behavioral Sciences.2024; 14(4): 262.     CrossRef
  • Longitudinal Relationship Between Baseline Social Frailty and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: 14-Year Follow-Up Results From the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing
    Jae Jun Lee, Min Kyung Park, Namhee Kim, Layoung Kim, Gwang Suk Kim
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.2024; : 105124.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Cognitive Impairment on the Association Between Social Network Properties and Mortality Among Older Korean Adults
    Eunji Kim, Kiho Sung, Chang Oh Kim, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a ‘social activity program that encourages interaction’ on rural older people's psychosocial health: Mixed‐methods research
    Mami Kikuchi, Ryuta Onishi, Risa Takashima, Kazuko Saeki, Michiyo Hirano
    International Journal of Older People Nursing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Green Space, Air Pollution, Weather, and Cognitive Function in Middle and Old Age in China
    Lingling Zhang, Ye Luo, Yao Zhang, Xi Pan, Dandan Zhao, Qing Wang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Effect of an Educational Intervention on Health Literacy and the Adoption of Nutritional Preventive Behaviors Related to Osteoporosis Among Iranian Health Volunteers
Leila Dehghankar, Rahman Panahi, Elham Hasannia, Fatemeh Hemmati, Fatemeh Samiei Siboni
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):404-411.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.183
  • 3,939 View
  • 164 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Given the increase in osteoporosis among health volunteers and the effect of health literacy on the adoption of nutritional preventive behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effects of an educational intervention on health literacy and the adoption of nutritional preventive behaviors related to osteoporosis among health volunteers.
Methods
This was a quasi-experimental, interventional study of health volunteers conducted in 2020. In this study, 140 subjects (70 in both intervention and control groups) were selected using the random multi-stage sampling method. An educational intervention was conducted using the Telegram application, and educational messages were sent to the health volunteers in the intervention group across 6 sessions. Data were collected via a demographic questionnaire, the Health Literacy for Iranian Adults survey, and a nutritional performance questionnaire, which were completed before and 3 months after the intervention. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 23.
Results
Before the intervention, there were no significant differences in the mean scores for health literacy variables and the adoption of nutritional preventive behaviors between the intervention and control groups (p>0.05). After the intervention, there was a significant change in the mean scores for health literacy and the adoption of preventive behaviors in the intervention group (p<0.05) as opposed to the control group.
Conclusions
Interventions aimed at increasing health literacy are effective for promoting the adoption of preventive and healthy nutritional behaviors related to osteoporosis.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors related with nursing students’ health literacy: a cross sectional study
    Enrique Ramón-Arbués, José Manuel Granada-López, Isabel Antón-Solanas, Ana Cobos-Rincón, Antonio Rodríguez-Calvo, Vicente Gea-Caballero, Clara Isabel Tejada-Garrido, Raúl Juárez-Vela, Emmanuel Echániz-Serrano
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Health literacy interventions among patients with chronic diseases: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Yingshan Shao, Huaqin Hu, Yaxin Liang, Yangyang Hong, Yiqing Yu, Chenxi Liu, Yihua Xu
    Patient Education and Counseling.2023; 114: 107829.     CrossRef
Association Between Low Muscle Mass and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Diagnosed Using Ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Derived Proton Density Fat Fraction, and Comprehensive NAFLD Score in Korea
Hun Ju Lee, Jae Seung Chang, Jhii Hyun Ahn, Moon Young Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Yeon-Soon Ahn, Sang Baek Koh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):412-421.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.387
  • 4,451 View
  • 131 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disease. Muscle is known to influence NAFLD development. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationships among low muscle mass, NAFLD, and hepatic fibrosis using various definitions of low muscle mass and NAFLD diagnostic methods, including magnetic resonance imaging-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF).
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 320 participants (107 males, 213 females) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population cohort. Muscle mass was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for the height squared, body weight, and body mass index (BMI). NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography (US), MRI-PDFF, and the comprehensive NAFLD score (CNS). Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using magnetic resonance elastography. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to determine the aforementioned associations.
Results
According to US, 183 participants (57.2%) had NAFLD. Muscle mass adjusted for body weight was associated with NAFLD diagnosed using US (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 5.31), MRI-PDFF (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.53), and CNS (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.73 to 6.65) and hepatic fibrosis (males: β=-0.070, p<0.01; females: β=-0.037, p<0.04). Muscle mass adjusted for BMI was associated with NAFLD diagnosed by US (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.86) and CNS (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.65), whereas muscle mass adjusted for height was not associated with NAFLD.
Conclusions
Low muscle mass was associated with NAFLD and liver fibrosis; therefore, maintaining sufficient muscle mass is important to prevent NAFLD. A prospective study and additional consideration of muscle quality are needed to strengthen the findings regarding this association.
Summary
Korean summary
비알콜성 간질환은 대사질환 중 하나로 적은 근육양과의 연관성이 지속적으로 제시되었으나, 기존 연구들에서 일관되지 않은 결과를 보여주었다. KoGES-ARIRANG 코호트의 320명을 대상으로 초음파·MRI-PDFF·CNS 진단기준을 사용하여 단면연구를 수행한 결과, 세 진단기준에서 모두 적은 근육량과 비알콜성 간질환 사이에 연관성이 나타났다.

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  • Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Varies According to the Method of Assessment and Adjustment: Findings from the UK Biobank
    Christine L. Freer, Elena S. George, Sze-Yen Tan, Gavin Abbott, David Scott, Robin M. Daly
    Calcified Tissue International.2024; 114(6): 592.     CrossRef
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    Jing Du, Shizhan Ma, Li Fang, Meng Zhao, Zhongshang Yuan, Yiping Cheng, Jiajun Zhao, Xiude Fan, Qingling Guo, Zhongming Wu
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(2): 209.     CrossRef
  • Predicting Habitual Use of Wearable Health Devices Among Middle-aged Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in South Korea: Cross-sectional Study
    Jaeyoung Ha, Jungmi Park, Sangyi Lee, Jeong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Junhyoung Kim, Sung-il Cho, Gyeong-Suk Jeon
    JMIR Formative Research.2023; 7: e42087.     CrossRef
  • Osteosarcopenia in NAFLD/MAFLD: An Underappreciated Clinical Problem in Chronic Liver Disease
    Alessandra Musio, Federica Perazza, Laura Leoni, Bernardo Stefanini, Elton Dajti, Renata Menozzi, Maria Letizia Petroni, Antonio Colecchia, Federico Ravaioli
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(8): 7517.     CrossRef
Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19: A Comparative Study From Bangladesh
Sumaya Binte Masud, Faiza Zebeen, Dil Ware Alam, Mosharap Hossian, Sanjana Zaman, Rowshan Ara Begum, Mohammad Hayatun Nabi, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):422-430.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.432
  • 7,511 View
  • 261 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to respiratory infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but insufficient research has investigated pregnancy and its outcomes in women with COVID-19. This cross-sectional study compared birth outcomes related to COVID-19 between Bangladeshi pregnant women with and without COVID-19.
Methods
The study was conducted at 3 tertiary referral hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from March to August 2020. Pregnant women admitted for delivery at these hospitals with laboratory results (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) were analyzed. Using convenience sampling, we included 70 COVID-19-positive and 140 COVID-19-negative pregnant women. Trained and experienced midwives conducted the interviews. Data were analyzed using the t-test, the chi-square test, and univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression.
Results
Pregnant women with COVID-19 were more likely to give birth to a preterm baby (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 4.37) and undergo a cesarean section (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.51 to 7.07). There were no significant differences in birth weight, premature rupture of membranes, and the Apgar score at 1 minute or 5 minutes post-delivery between women with and without COVID-19. All the newborn babies who were born to COVID-19-positive women were COVID-19-negative.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 were more likely to give birth to a preterm baby and undergo a cesarean section. For this reason, physicians should be particularly cautious to minimize adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborn babies.
Summary

Citations

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  • SARS-CoV-2 infection by trimester of pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes: a Mexican retrospective cohort study
    Rakesh Ghosh, Juan Pablo Gutierrez, Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel, Arturo Juárez-Flores, Stefano M Bertozzi
    BMJ Open.2024; 14(4): e075928.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 vaccine decision-making among pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh
    Rupali J. Limaye, Prachi Singh, Alicia Paul, Berhaun Fesshaye, Clarice Lee, Eleonor Zavala, Sydney Wade, Hasmot Ali, Hafizur Rahman, Shirina Akter, Ruth Karron, Towfida Jahan Siddiqua
    Vaccine.2023; 41(26): 3885.     CrossRef
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    Yeonsong Jeong, Min-A Kim
    Obstetrics & Gynecology Science.2023; 66(4): 270.     CrossRef
  • Sources of COVID-19 Vaccine Promotion for Pregnant and Lactating Women in Bangladesh
    Berhaun Fesshaye, Sydney A. Wade, Clarice Lee, Prachi Singh, Eleonor Zavala, Hasmot Ali, Hafizur Rahman, Towfida Jahan Siddiqua, Shirina Atker, Ruth A. Karron, Rupali J. Limaye
    Vaccines.2023; 11(8): 1387.     CrossRef
  • Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their babies: clinical and epidemiological features
    María José Vidal, Èrica Martínez-Solanas, Sergi Mendoza, Núria Sala, Mireia Jané, Jacobo Mendioroz, Pilar Ciruela
    Gaceta Sanitaria.2023; 37: 102332.     CrossRef
  • An outbreak of infection due to severe acute respiratory corona virus-2 in a neonatal unit from a low and middle income setting
    Firdose Lambey Nakwa, Reenu Thomas, Alison van Kwawegen, Nandi Ntuli, Karabo Seake, Samantha Jane Kesting, Noela Holo Bertha Kamanga, Dikeledi Maureen Kgwadi, Neema Chami, Tshiamo Mogajane, Claude Ondongo-Ezhet, Thulisile Nelly Maphosa, Stephanie Jones, V
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Protection Motivation Theory and Rabies Protective Behaviors Among School Students in Chonburi Province, Thailand
Mayurin Laorujisawat, Aimutcha Wattanaburanon, Pajaree Abdullakasim, Nipa Maharachpong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):431-440.   Published online November 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.457
  • 3,975 View
  • 154 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to predict rabies protective behaviors (RPB) based on protection motivation theory (PMT) among fourth-grade students at schools in Chonburi Province, Thailand.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021. A multistage sampling technique was used for sample selection. The questionnaire was divided into socio-demographic data and questions related to PMT and RPB. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted using the EpiData program and inferential statistics, and the results were tested using the partial least squares model with a significance level of less than 5%.
Results
In total, 287 subjects were included, of whom 62.4% were girls and 40.4% reported that YouTube was their favorite media platform. Most participants had good perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self efficacy levels related to rabies (43.9, 68.6, and 73.2%, respectively). However, 54.5% had only fair perceived severity levels related to rabies. Significant positive correlations were found between RPB and the PMT constructs related to rabies (β, 0.298; p<0.001), and the school variable (S4) was also a predictor of RPB (β, -0.228; p<0.001). Among the PMT constructs, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of RPB (β, 0.741; p<0.001).
Conclusions
PMT is a useful framework for predicting RPB. Future RPB or prevention/protection intervention studies based on PMT should focus on improving self efficacy and response efficacy, with a particular focus on teaching students not to intervene with fighting animals. The most influential PMT constructs can be used for designing tools and implementing and evaluating future educational interventions to prevent rabies in children.
Summary

Citations

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  • Screening Intention Prediction of Colorectal Cancer among Urban Chinese Based on the Protection Motivation Theory
    Wenshuang Wei, Miao Zhang, Dan Zuo, Qinmei Li, Min Zhang, Xinguang Chen, Bin Yu, Qing Liu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(7): 4203.     CrossRef
  • Career resilience of the tourism and hospitality workforce in the COVID-19: The protection motivation theory perspective
    Diep Ngoc Su, Thi Minh Truong, Tuan Trong Luu, Hanh My Thi Huynh, Barry O'Mahony
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Regional Differences in the Effects of Social Relations on Depression Among Korean Elderly and the Moderating Effect of Living Alone
Chanki Kim, Eun Jee Chang, Chang-yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):441-450.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.337
  • 3,565 View
  • 140 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Socioeconomic disadvantages interact with numerous factors which affect geriatric mental health. One of the main factors is the social relations of the elderly. The elderly have different experiences and meanings in their social lives depending on their socio-cultural environment. In this study, we compared the effects of social relations on depression among the elderly according to their living arrangement (living alone or living with others) and residential area.
Methods
We defined social relations as “meetings with neighbors” (MN). We then analyzed the impact of MN on depression using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging Panel with the generalized estimating equation model. We also examined the moderating effect of living alone and performed subgroup analysis by dividing the sample according to which area they lived in.
Results
MN was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms among elderlies. The size of the effect was larger in rural areas than in large cities. However, elderly those who lived alone in rural areas had a smaller protective impact of MN on depression, comparing to those who lived with others. The moderating effect of living alone was significant only in rural areas.
Conclusions
The social relations among elderlies had a positive effect on their mental health: The more frequent MN were held, the less risk of depressive symptoms occurred. However, the effect may vary depending on their living arrangement and environment. Thus, policies or programs targeting to enhance geriatric mental health should consider different socio-cultural backgrounds among elderlies.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 사회적 관계가 노인의 우울에 미치는 영향이 독거 상태 및 거주 지역에 따라 달라지는지 확인하였다. 사회적 관계를 이웃과의 만남 빈도로 정의하고 고령화연구패널자료를 분석한 결과 사회적 관계의 효과 크기는 대도시에서 가장 작었고 독거의 조절효과는 농어촌에서만 유의하였다.

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    Jeong-Hye Park, Se-Won Kang
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    Bongjeong Kim, Jinseub Hwang, Dohyang Kim, Soo Jin Kang
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  • Global rural health disparities in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: State of the science
    Lisa Ann Kirk Wiese, Allison Gibson, Marc Aaron Guest, Amy R. Nelson, Raven Weaver, Aditi Gupta, Owen Carmichael, Jordan P. Lewis, Allison Lindauer, Samantha Loi, Rachel Peterson, Kylie Radford, Elizabeth K. Rhodus, Christina G. Wong, Megan Zuelsdorff, La
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Associations Between Parental Depression and Early Childhood Development in Indonesia: A Cross-sectional Study
Ika Saptarini, Anissa Rizkianti, Prisca Petty Arfines, Suparmi , Iram Barida Maisya
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):451-460.   Published online November 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.158
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to determine the associations between parental depression and early childhood development among children aged 36 months to 59 months in Indonesia.
Methods
From Indonesia’s Basic Health Survey (RISKESDAS) 2018, this study included 6433 children aged 36 months to 59 months and their parents. Maternal and paternal depression was examined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview survey instrument, which was previously translated into Indonesian. The study also used the Early Child Development Index to measure child development and its 4 domains (cognitive, physical, socio-emotional, and learning). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between parental depression and early childhood development.
Results
Overall, 10.3% of children aged 36 months to 59 months were off-track for development. After adjusting for biological, parental, and social characteristics, children born to parents with depression were found to be 4.72 times more likely to be off-track for development (95% confidence interval, 1.83 to 12.15).
Conclusions
Children of depressed parents were more likely to be off-track for development. The findings highlight the need for early diagnosis and timely intervention for parental depression to promote early childhood development.
Summary

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  • Impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on the development of 18-months-old children
    Mariana Lacerda Gontijo, Janaína Matos Moreira, Thiago Rosental Silva, Claudia Regina Lindgren Alves
    Journal of Affective Disorders Reports.2022; 10: 100401.     CrossRef
Socio-demographic Determinants of Low Physical Activity in Peruvian Adults: Results of a Population-based Survey Performed in 2017-2018
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):461-470.   Published online November 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.418
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  • 4 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of low physical activity (PA) in Peruvian adults and to identify associated factors.
Methods
An analytical study was performed using data from the 2017-2018 Nutritional Food Surveillance by Life Stages survey. The outcome variable was low PA (yes or no), assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form. Prevalence ratios were estimated as a measure of association.
Results
Among the 1045 persons included in the analysis, the age-standardized prevalence of low PA was 61.9%. The adjusted model showed that being female and migrating from a rural to an urban area in the last 5 years were associated with a higher probability of having low PA than males and individuals who had not migrated, while residing in rural highlands and jungle areas was associated with a reduced probability of having low PA compared to people residing in other geographic domains.
Conclusions
Being a female and migration from a rural to an urban area in the last 5 years were associated with a higher likelihood of having low PA. Therefore, promotion and prevention strategies related to PA are required, especially in the female and migrant populations.
Summary

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  • Individualized Biological Age as a Predictor of Disease: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) Cohort
    Seokyung An, Choonghyun Ahn, Sungji Moon, Eun Ji Sim, Sue-Kyung Park
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(3): 505.     CrossRef
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    Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Manuel Chacón-Diaz
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(7): 3838.     CrossRef
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Association Between Cadmium Exposure and Liver Function in Adults in the United States: A Cross-sectional Study
Dongui Hong, Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):471-480.   Published online November 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.435
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  • 163 Download
  • 23 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Cadmium is widely used, leading to extensive environmental and occupational exposure. Unlike other organs, for which the harmful and carcinogenic effects of cadmium have been established, the hepatotoxicity of cadmium remains unclear. Some studies detected correlations between cadmium exposure and hepatotoxicity, but others concluded that they were not associated. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cadmium and liver damage in the general population.
Methods
In total, 11 838 adult participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2015 were included. Urinary cadmium levels and the following liver function parameters were measured: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and each liver function parameter after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual family income, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, physical activity, and body mass index.
Results
The covariate-adjusted results of the linear regression analyses showed significant positive relationships between log-transformed urinary cadmium levels and each log-transformed liver function parameter, where beta±standard error of ALT, AST, GGT, TB, and ALP were 0.049±0.008 (p<0.001), 0.030±0.006 (p<0.001), 0.093±0.011 (p<0.001), 0.034±0.009 (p<0.001), and 0.040±0.005 (p<0.001), respectively. Logistic regression also revealed statistically significant results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of elevated ALT, AST, GGT, TB, and ALP per unit increase in log-transformed urinary cadmium concentration were 1.360 (1.210 to 1.528), 1.307 (1.149 to 1.486), 1.520 (1.357 to 1.704), 1.201 (1.003 to 1.438), and 1.568 (1.277 to 1.926), respectively.
Conclusions
Chronic exposure to cadmium showed positive associations with liver damage.
Summary
Korean summary
카드뮴은 사회 전반에서 널리 쓰이고 있어 직업적인 노출은 물론 환경적인 노출이 빈번히 일어나고 있다. 본 연구는 미국 국민건강영양조사 데이터를 이용하였으며 소변 내 카드뮴의 증가는 알라닌 아미노전이효소 (ALT), 아스파테이트 아미노전이효소 (AST), 감마 글루타밀전이효소 (GGT), 총 빌리루빈, 알칼리 인산분해효소 (ALP)의 상승과 관련이 있었다. 따라서 만성적인 카드뮴 노출은 간 손상과 연관이 있다고 할 수 있다.

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Letter to the Editor
Pleading Voices Behind Bars: Health Equity for Detainees During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines
Dalmacito A. Cordero Jr.
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):481-482.   Published online November 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.520
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Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health