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Volume 47(3); May 2014
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Special Articles
The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea
Hong-Jun Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):129-135.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.129
  • 14,619 View
  • 160 Download
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.

Summary

Citations

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Burden of Disease in Japan: Using National and Subnational Data to Inform Local Health Policy
Stuart Gilmour, Yi Liao, Ver Bilano, Kenji Shibuya
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):136-143.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.136
  • 16,062 View
  • 170 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

Summary

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Original Articles
Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers
Seok-Ju Yoo, Sung-Jun Park, Byoung-Seok Kim, Kwan Lee, Hyun-Sul Lim, Jik-Su Kim, In-Shik Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):144-149.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.144
  • 9,479 View
  • 121 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers.

Methods

We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods.

Results

The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively.

Conclusions

The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers.

Summary

Citations

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The Effect of Sleep Duration on the Risk of Unintentional Injury in Korean Adults
Yeon-Yong Kim, Un-Na Kim, Jin-Seok Lee, Jong-Heon Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):150-157.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.150
  • 11,354 View
  • 91 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The decrease or increase in sleep duration has recently been recognized as a risk factor for several diseases, including hypertension and obesity. Many studies have explored the relationship of decreased sleep durations and injuries, but few have examined the relationship between increased sleep duration and injury. The objective of this research is to identify the risk for injury associated with both decreased and increased sleep durations.

Methods

Data from the 2010 Community Health Survey were used in this study. We conducted logistic regression with average sleep duration as the independent variable, injury as a dependent variable, and controlling for age, sex, occupation, education, region (cities and provinces), smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and depression. Seven categories of sleep duration were established: ≤4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and ≥10 hours.

Results

Using 7 hours of sleep as the reference, the adjusted injury risk (odds ratio) for those sleeping a total of ≤4 h/d was 1.53; 1.28 for 5 hours, for 1.11 for 6 hours, 0.98 for 8 hours, 1.12 for 9 hours, and 1.48 for ≥10 hours. The difference in risk was statistically significant for each category except for the 8 and 9 hours. In this study, risk increased as the sleep duration decreased or increased, except for the 8 and 9 hours.

Conclusions

This research found that either a decrease or increase in sleep duration was associated with an increased risk for injury. The concept of proper sleep duration can be evaluated by its associated injury risk.

Summary

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Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey
Seri Hong, Hong Chul Bae, Hyun Soo Kim, Eun-Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):158-168.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.158
  • 11,327 View
  • 83 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping.

Methods

Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time.

Results

Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012.

Conclusions

Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.

Summary

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Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea
Sung-Ae Park, Sugyeong Gwak, Sangjun Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):169-176.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.169
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians.

Methods

Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers.

Results

A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops.

Conclusions

Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers.

Summary

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Brief Report
Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Salmonellosis in Gyeongju, Korea
Seok-Ju Yoo, Hyun-Sul Lim, Kwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):177-181.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.177
  • 9,675 View
  • 104 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

A salmonellosis outbreak occurred within a community of Gyeongju residents who ingested catered food from a wedding in June 2009. We aimed to epidemiologically investigate the probable vehicle of the infection.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 34 local residents who ingested the wedding food.

Results

Among the 34 residents, 31 (91.2%) reported symptoms of infection after eating the food. Among all of the wedding foods, pan-fried foods were highly associated with the diarrheal attack rate. On bacteriological examination, Salmonella species were detected in the pan-fried foods among the leftover foods and in 17 of the 31 stool specimens from the cases. There were five different types of pan-fried foods, but the onset of symptoms was independent of the ingredients used. We found that the pan-fried food was prepared at a food store in Seoul and that eggs were a common ingredient.

Conclusions

The major cause of the salmonellosis in this population was presumed to be the pan-fried food prepared with contaminated eggs. These food items might have been partially undercooked because of their irregular shape, which allowed the Salmonella species to survive and multiply before ingestion.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health