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Volume 47(1); January 2014
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Special Articles
Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, So-Yeon Kim, Hyung-Nam Myung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):1-6.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.1
  • 11,594 View
  • 94 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics.

Summary

Citations

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    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.2019; 272(3): 032016.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(5): 733.     CrossRef
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  • Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(4): 744.     CrossRef
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    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
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    Soo-Hong Park, Dong-Mug Kang, Bon-Hak Koo, Young-Ki Kim, Jong-Eun Kim
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
General Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, So-Yeon Kim, Sun-Ja Kim, Kyung-Eun Lee, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Eun-Hye Kim, Kyung-Ho Choi, Young-Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):7-17.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.7
  • 13,223 View
  • 144 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion.

Summary

Citations

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    Exposure and Health.2023; 15(1): 185.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence and removal of benzotriazole and benzothiazole in drinking water treatment plants
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    Louis Kumi, Jaewook Jeong, Jaemin Jeong
    Buildings.2023; 13(9): 2305.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of Children’s Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates and Health Risk at E-Waste Dismantling Area
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(12): 7332.     CrossRef
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  • Development of a Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Allergenic Flavoring Agents in Cigarettes and Quantitative Risk Assessment for Consumer Safety
    Dae Yong Jang, Hyung Soo Kim, Eun Chul Pack, Ye Ji Koo, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi
    Toxics.2021; 9(4): 87.     CrossRef
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  • Development of General Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment in Korean Children
    Hyojung Yoon, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Jungkwan Seo, Taksoo Kim, Pyeongsoon Kim, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Jung Heo, Wonho Yang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(6): 1988.     CrossRef
  • Seasonal occurrence and removal of organophosphate esters in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment plants
    Gyojin Choo, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Water Research.2020; 186: 116359.     CrossRef
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    Yumin Wang, Guangcan Zhu, Bernard Engel
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.2019; 170: 346.     CrossRef
  • Stabilization of fluorine in soil using calcium hydroxide and its potential human health risk
    Seulki Jeong, Doyoung Kim, Hye-On Yoon
    Environmental Engineering Research.2019; 24(4): 654.     CrossRef
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  • Mixture risk assessment of selected mainstream cigarette smoke constituents generated from low-yield cigarettes in South Korean smokers
    Eun Chul Pack, Dae Yong Jang, Hyung Soo Kim, Seung Ha Lee, Hae Young Kim, Seok Ho Song, Hoon Sik Cho, Kyeng Hee Kwon, Kun Ho Park, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.2018; 94: 152.     CrossRef
  • Measurement of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Health Risk Assessment of Cooking-Generated Particles in the Kitchen and Living Rooms of Apartment Houses
    Hyungkeun Kim, Kyungmo Kang, Taeyeon Kim
    Sustainability.2018; 10(3): 843.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the current contamination status of PFASs and OPFRs in South Korean tap water associated with its origin
    Heejeong Park, Gyojin Choo, Hyerin Kim, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Science of The Total Environment.2018; 634: 1505.     CrossRef
  • Health risk assessment by CRPS and the numerical model for toluene in residential buildings
    Haneul Choi, Hyungkeun Kim, Taeyeon Kim
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  • Health risk assessment of occupants through exposure scenarios of daily indoor air pollutants
    Himchan Kim, Hooseung Na, Hyungkeun Kim, Taeyeon Kim
    KIEAE Journal.2017; 17(6): 279.     CrossRef
  • Species-specific accumulation of methyl and total mercury in sharks from offshore and coastal waters of Korea
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    Marine Pollution Bulletin.2016; 102(1): 210.     CrossRef
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    Water Research.2016; 103: 182.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments
    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
  • Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: review of influencing factors
    N. Hodas, M. Loh, H.‐M. Shin, D. Li, D. Bennett, T. E. McKone, O. Jolliet, C. J. Weschler, M. Jantunen, P. Lioy, P. Fantke
    Indoor Air.2016; 26(6): 836.     CrossRef
Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, Sun-Ja Kim, Hyung-Nam Myung, Cho-Il Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):18-26.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.18
  • 9,907 View
  • 76 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Updated general exposure factors for risk assessment in the Korean population
    Hyojung Yoon, Jungkwan Seo, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Youngtae Choe, Wonho Yang
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2023; 33(6): 1013.     CrossRef
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Activity Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, So-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Eun Lee, Kyung-Ho Choi, Young-Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):27-35.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.27
  • 9,110 View
  • 100 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Updated general exposure factors for risk assessment in the Korean population
    Hyojung Yoon, Jungkwan Seo, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Youngtae Choe, Wonho Yang
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2023; 33(6): 1013.     CrossRef
  • Exposure parameters and health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the recreational water activities for urban residents in China
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    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
  • Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: review of influencing factors
    N. Hodas, M. Loh, H.‐M. Shin, D. Li, D. Bennett, T. E. McKone, O. Jolliet, C. J. Weschler, M. Jantunen, P. Lioy, P. Fantke
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Original Articles
Levothyroxine Dose and Fracture Risk According to the Osteoporosis Status in Elderly Women
Young-Jin Ko, Ji Young Kim, Joongyub Lee, Hong-Ji Song, Ju-Young Kim, Nam-Kyong Choi, Byung-Joo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):36-46.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.36
  • 12,109 View
  • 171 Download
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To evaluate the association between fracture risk and levothyroxine use in elderly women with hypothyroidism, according to previous osteoporosis history.

Methods

We conducted a cohort study from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database from January 2005 to June 2006. The study population comprised women aged ≥65 years who had been diagnosed with hypothyroidism and prescribed levothyroxine monotherapy. We excluded patients who met any of the following criteria: previous fracture history, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, or pituitary disorder; low levothyroxine adherence; or a follow-up period <90 days. We categorized the daily levothyroxine doses into 4 groups: ≤50 µg/d, 51 to 100 µg/d, 101 to 150 µg/d, and >150 µg/d. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with the Cox proportional hazard model, and subgroup analyses were performed according to the osteoporosis history and osteoporosis-specific drug prescription status.

Results

Among 11 155 cohort participants, 35.6% had previous histories of osteoporosis. The adjusted HR of fracture for the >150 µg/d group, compared with the 51 to 100 µg/d group, was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.37) in osteoporosis subgroup. In the highly probable osteoporosis subgroup, restricted to patients who were concurrently prescribed osteoporosis-specific drugs, the adjusted HR of fracture for the >150 µg/d group, compared with the 51 to 100 µg/d group, was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.14 to 3.26).

Conclusions

While further studies are needed, physicians should be concerned about potential levothyroxine overtreatment in elderly osteoporosis patients.

Summary

Citations

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Implementation and Results of a Survey on Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, Korea: Focusing on Participants at a Local Public Health Center
Hyun-Joong Kim, Se-Min Hwang, In-Young Lee, Joon-Pil Cho, Myoung-Ok Kwon, Jae-Hun Jung, Ju-Young Byun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):47-56.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.47
  • 10,029 View
  • 83 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of and problems with the Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu, one of the 25 districts of the capital city of Korea.

Methods

The study subjects were 396 individuals who were involved in Safe Community Programs between 2009 and 2011. We examined the effectiveness and willingness of respondents to participate as a safety leader of the Safe Community Program with a questionnaire. We examined the injury death rates of Gangbuk-gu by using of the death certificate data of Korea's National Statistical Office. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests were used.

Results

The effectiveness of programs did not differ but active participation differed significantly among subjects (p<0.05). The injury death rate of Gangbuk-gu as a whole increased during the implementation period. However, senior safety, in particular, may be a helpful program for reducing injuries in Gangbuk-gu.

Conclusions

This study suggests that the lack of active participation may be a major problem of Safe Community Programs in Gangbuk-gu. Therefore, Safe Community Programs should be expanded to the entire district of Gangbuk-gu and more active participation programs should be developed.

Summary

Citations

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  • THE SAFE COMMUNITY CONCEPT – A SUCCESSFUL TOOL FOR INJURY PREVENTION AND SAFETY PROMOTION
    Birutė Strukčinskienė, Sabine Distl, Sigitas Griškonis
    Visuomenės sveikata.2019; 28(7): 41.     CrossRef
IL-4 and IL-5 Secretions Predominate in the Airways of Wistar Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Vapor
Kouame Kouadio, Kui-Cheng Zheng, Abdoulaye Abba Toure, Mireille Dosso, Hidemi Todoriki
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):57-63.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.57
  • 8,089 View
  • 94 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

We established a Wistar rat model of asthma caused by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure, and investigated the relationship between TDI exposure concentrations and respiratory hypersensitivity, airway inflammation, and cytokine secretions in animals, to better understand the mechanism of TDI induced occupational asthma.

Methods

Wistar rats were exposed to two different concentrations of TDI vapor four hours a day for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and differential leucocytes from the BAL fluid were analyzed. Lung histopathological examination was carried out to investigate the inflammatory status in the airways. Production of cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 productions in the BAL fluid in vivo was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results

The TDI-exposed rats exhibited greater airway hypersensitivity symptoms than the control rats. The BAL differential cell count and lung histopathological examination demonstrated that inflammation reactions were present in both the central and peripheral airways, characterized with marked infiltration of eosinophils in the TDI-exposed rats. The cytokine assay showed that IL-4 and IL-5 were predominantly produced in the BAL fluid in vivo.

Conclusions

These findings imply that TDI exposure concentrations may greatly affect the occurrence and extent of inflammatory events and that Th2 type cytokines may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational respiratory hypersensitivity.

Summary

Citations

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  • Evaluation of animal toxicity studies with diisocyanates regarding presence of thresholds for induction and elicitation of respiratory allergy by quantitative weight of evidence
    Wolfgang Dekant, Thomas Colnot
    Toxicology and Industrial Health.2022; 38(9): 578.     CrossRef
Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model
Hashem Mohamadian, Mohammad Ghannaee Arani
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):64-71.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.64
  • 13,417 View
  • 188 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.

Methods

This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.

Results

The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001).

Conclusions

The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

Summary

Citations

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    Hao Lin, Haidong Chen, Qingzao Liu, Jie Xu, Shan Li
    Frontiers in Psychology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Modelo de Nola Pender para promoção da saúde do adolescente
    Daniela Bulcão Santi, Iara Sescon Nogueira, Vanessa Denardi Antoniassi Baldissera
    REME-Revista Mineira de Enfermagem.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Physical Activity and its Effective Factors in Junior High School Female Students in Rafsanjan City: Application of Social-cognitive Theory, 2017-18
    Zahra Soleiman Ahari, Mohammad Asadpour, Leili Mazar, Mostafa Nasirzadeh
    Qom Univ Med Sci J.2021; 15(3): 188.     CrossRef
  • Predicting physical activity among urban adolescent girls: A test of the health promotion model
    Vicki R. Voskuil, Lorraine B. Robbins, Steven J. Pierce
    Research in Nursing & Health.2019; 42(5): 392.     CrossRef
  • Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy
    Anna Maria Jankowska, Marta Łockiewicz, Dorota Dykalska-Bieck, Ariadna Łada, Weronika Owoc, Dawid Stańczykowski
    Health Psychology Report.2017; 6(1): 94.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between self-esteem and overall health behaviors in Korean adolescents
    Junghyun Park, Young-Ho Kim, Seon-Joo Park, Sooyeon Suh, Hae-Jeung Lee
    Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine.2016; 4(1): 175.     CrossRef
  • Should Schools Send BMI Report Cards to Parents? A Review of Literature
    Alexander Henningsen, Piroska Boros, Kent Ingvalson, Fabio E. Fontana, Oksana Matvienko
    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.2015; 86(9): 26.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health