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Volume 19(1); May 1986
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Original Articles
Health Care Policy and Cost Containment in the U.S..
S E Berki
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):1-15.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
A Survey on the Status of Noisy Working Environment in Manufacturing Industries.
Joon Youn Kim, Byung Soo Kim, Chae Un Lee, Jin Ho Jun, Jong Tae Lee, Jin Ok Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):16-30.
  • 1,854 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for the improvement of noisy working environments and the effective hearing conservation program on workers exposed to industrial noise, the authors surveyed the working processes and evaluated the noise levels on 56 manufacturing industries in Pusan area from April to July in 1985. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The noise level was the highest in shipbuilding and repairing(95.6 dBA), and followed by steel rolling(92.9 dBA), manufacture of motor vehicles(93.1 dBA), manufacure of fishing nets(92.9 dBA), manufacture of testiles(92.5 dBA), iron and steel foundries(89.3 dBA), manufacture of metal products(89.1 dBA), preserving and processing of marine foods(87.0 dBA), manufacture of rubber products(85.3 dBA), manufacture of plywood(84.9 dBA) and manufacture of paints(84.5 dBA). 2. Among fifty surveyed working processes, the noise level of twenty-one processes(42%) exceeded the threshold limit value for 8 hours per day. 3. As the allowable exposure times by governmental threshold limit values to industrial noise level(dBA), cocking of shipbuilding and repairing and plating(CGL) of steel rolling were the shortest(30 minutes), and followed by assembling(rivet) of manufacture of motor vehicles(1 hour) weaving of manufacture of textiles and shot, machine, pipe laying of shipbuilding and repairing(2 hours). 4. By the result of octave band analysis on noisy working processes in excess of 90 dBA, the sound level was the highest at 2,000 Hz or 4,000 Hz. 5. It was recognized that the measurement of overall sound pressure level was also effective as octave band analysis in evaluating the industrial noise.
Summary
A Survey on the Level of NO2 Inside and Outside Urban Homes by Palmes Tube.
Yong Wan Kim, Ki Taek Pae, Sung Chun Kim, Duck Hwan Moon, Jong Tae Lee, Joon Youn Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):31-44.
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
For many years, NO2 has been regarded as one of the elements among indoor air pollutants of urban homes, leading to increased public concerns on this gas. For the purpose of preparing the fundamental data for the evaluation and control of health effect relevant to NO2 levels, authors measured the indoor (kitchen, living room, bedroom) and outdoor NO2 levels categorized by the type of house(apartment, detached dwelling) and cooking fuel(L.P.G., briquette) in the winter and summer, and surveyed the variables(kitchen ventilation, family size, parental smoking) may effect the indoor NO2 levels. The level of NO2 was measured by Palmes tube, and this survey was carried out at 110 homes in the Pusan area from October 1984 to September 1985. The obtained results were as follows: 1) The mean indoor and outdoor NO2 level in winter and summer, respectively, was 0.029+/-0.012 ppm and 0.022+/-0.012 ppm in the kitchen, 0.022+/-0.009 ppm and 0.018+/-0.010 ppm in the living room, 0.017+/-0.008 ppm and 0.016+/-0.010 ppm in the bed room, and 0.021+/-0.007 ppm and 0.016+/-0.007 ppm outdoors. 2) In the category of the type of house and cooking fuel, the highest mean indoor and outdoor NO2 level in the winter was in apartments using briquettes, and in the summer, the highest level was in apartments using L.P.G. 3) In the category of the type of house, the mean indoor and outdoor NO2 level in the winter and summer was higher in the apartment group compared to detached dwelling. 4) In the category of the type of cooking fuel, the mean indoor and outdoor NO2 level in the winter was higher in the briquette group, and in the summer, the L.P.G. group was higher. 5) In the category of the kitchen ventilation, family size, parental smoking and asthma attack history of children, there was an insignificant difference in the indoor NO2 levels.
Summary
A Study on the Positivity of HBsAg in Urban, Rural and Coastal Area.
Seok Joon Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):45-55.
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
It is well known that Korea is one of the endemic area for type B viral hepatitis. A screening test for HBsAg by RPHA method was performed to evaluate the prevalence of HBsAg among urban, rural and coastal area population during the period between Jan. 1985 and Aug. 1985. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The HBsAg was detected in 242 among 2,849 with positive rate of 8.49%. The positive rate by sex showed higher rate in males(9.07%) than females(6.79%) for HBsAg. But these differences by sex were not statistically significant. 2) By living area, the positivity of HBsAg was 8.67% in urban, 7.43% in rural and 8.37% in coastal area. But the differences were not statistically significant. 3) The positivity differences of HBsAg were significantly observed between male(9.26%) and female(6.44%) in urban area. But there was not in rural and coastal area. 4) The positivity was the highest in 4th decade in urban area. But 6th decade in rural and 4th and 5th decade in coastal area. Generally the positivity of HBsAg was more prevalent in young age and decreasing by the age increasing in the male. But in the female it was most common in 6th decade. 5) Evaluated SGOT(>40 Unit) was significantly higher in HBsAg positive group(13.6%) than in HBsAg negative group(3.4%).
Summary
A Simulation Model of a Outpatient Scheduling System.
Ki Hong Chun, Young Moon Chae
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):56-64.
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This paper describes a GPSS-based, multi-server queueing model that was developed to simulate the patient flow, and to analyze the effectiveness of the patient scheduling system under various conditions. Unpredictable and unacceptably long waits to receive the service at the outpatient department of a general hospital necessitated the study. Arrival and service time distribution needed for the simulation model were generated from actual arrival and service patterns observed during the peak hours. The simulation results show that a change in patient scheduling system (i.e. time interval between appointments, starting time, and the number of physicians) from a current system would significantly reduce the patient wait time. This study provides the hospital administrator with an analysis of patient scheduling system under several conditions, and will be used to plan future scheduling system and staffing. Studies such as this can demonstrate the value of simulation in providing information for use in future planning.
Summary
An Assessment of Air Pollution using Pollutant Standards Index (PSI): 1983~1984 in Seoul.
Yong Chung, Jae Yeon Jang, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):65-75.
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  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to assess the general health effect due to air pollution and to determine the critical pollutant which is meant by the worst effect to health among various pollutants in Seoul, air quality measurements at 10 sites during 1983~1984 were analyzed using Pollutant Standards Index (PSI): This index has been ultimately proposed to describe the comprehensive degree of the air pollution by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) since 1976. Total average of PSI in Seoul during the two years was 139 that is described in "unhealthful". The highest PSI appeared in Winter 183 through the 2 years, the lowest in Summer 99, and Spring 129 and Fall 150 respectively. PSI in Deungchon dong and Seongsu dong which are industrial areas were very high in terms of "very unhealthful", while Shinlim dong was shown in low in terms of "good". TSP was a priority pollutant in Seoul as the most frequently occurring critical pollutant. Its frequency was 76.4% in Spring, 86.0% in Summer, 78.0% in Fall and 44.2% in Winter during the 2 years. In Winter, TSP X SO2 was an important term as the critical pollutant in Seoul. Oxidant was the most frequently occurring critical pollutant in Kwangwhamoon through the whole seasons. It was recommended that the PSI could be used to assess the air pollution administratively and legally in context with public health.
Summary
Study on the Precision in Determinations of Lead and Zinc in the Whole Blood.
Jung Duck Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):76-84.
  • 1,688 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Analyses of lead and zinc were made by means of standard addition method using atomic absorption spectrophotometer(Baird Ltd., Model A5100) with flameless method for lead and flame method for zinc. The blood samples used were merely diluted with triton x-100, because it was simple, rapid and minimal risk of contamination. Mean recovery rate for lead added to the blood ranged from 97.7 to 101.3% with coefficient of variation ranging from 1.9 to 10.7%, and that for the added zinc ranged from 99.0 to 102.2% with coefficient of variation ranging from 2.1 to 9.1%. In repeated measurements of zinc in the blood, good reproducibility and inter-individual variation were proved(p<0.01). In comparison of the lead and zinc concentrations in the blood determined by the standard addition method and standard method, there were good correlations between 2 sets of data (r=0.9731 for lead and r=0.9785 for zinc), although lead levels were estimated higher by the former method(p<0.01) and zinc levels by the latter method(p<0.01). It can be concluded that lead zinc levels in blood standard addition method is reliable for determination of lead and zinc in the blood with good accuracy and reproducibility.
Summary
Gastroscopic Findings of Rural Residents with Symptoms of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorder.
Jung Han Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Dong Koo Lee, Yong Whan Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):85-90.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted in July-August, 1984, to define the causes of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in rural population and to provide data for the management of such patients. A household survey was conducted to identify all the residents of Youngchun and Sungju counties in Kyungpook province who were over 20 years of age, had chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms for over the last 6 months, never had medical examination for the symptoms, and volunteered to participate in the gastroscopic examination. Gastroscopy was done for 106 males and 108 females. Gastric ulcer was found in 16.8% of all the examinees, duodenal ulcer in 15.4%, gastritis in 14.0%, and gastric cancer in 3.7%. No lesion was found by gastroscopy in 52.3%. Gastric ulcer more common in male(26.4%) than in female(7.4%) (p<0.01) and the same was true for duodenal ulcer(20.8% of male, 10.2% of female). Gastric cancer was found in 7.5% of the male while none of the female had gastric cancer. A higher proportion of the female(68.5%) showed normal finding in the gastroscopy than the male(35.9%) (p<0.01). No significant association was found between the upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the gastroscopic findings. The higher prevalence rate of gastric ulcer than that of duodenal ulcer in this study which is the reverse of the study findings of urban area in Korea and western countries may be related in part with the dietary habit and social environment of the rural population. Although early diagnosis is the most important for the treatment of gastric cancer, many of the people with chronic upper gastrointestinal complaints defer the diagnosis and treatment. It is may be due to lack of the knowledge of disease and the health care attitude of the rural people. A national program for the health education and mass screening for the gastric cancer should be developed.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Study on Related Factors to HBsAg and Anti-HBs.
Joo Ja Kim, Gu Woong Han, Taik Sung Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):91-99.
  • 1,765 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine relationships of supposed risk factors to positives for HBsAg and Anti-HBs and also relationships of subjective symptoms to positives for HBsAg and Anti-HBs, study of 658 people working in the hospital, university, bank and other office was performed. Positive rate for HBsAg was about 7.9% and positive rate for Anti-HBs was about 20.0%. Odds ratio of HBsAg was high and significant in individuals who are married and who have previous hepatitis B(P<0.001), medical personnel in family, more than 4 people in a room.(0.01 Odds ratio of Anti-HBs was also significant in individuals who have previous hepatitis B, liver disease in family, more than 4 people in a room.(0.01
Summary
Health Concern Survey of Parents of School Children.
Myung Ho Kim, Jong Hyun Baek, Kyung Ja Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):100-122.
  • 1,957 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Obtaining an available information on health concerns of parents of school-age children and furthermore developing the sound policy for the public on health education, this study was conducted during Nov.-Dec. 1985 in the four selected areas; Seoul, large, middle and small city, and farming and fishery villages for 3,337 parents of schoolchildren in Korea. In this study, parents complected a questionnaire containing 34 items related to health concerns(e.g. drinking alcohol, air pollution, cancer, etc. see Table 4 and Fig. 2). For each health items, respondents were asked to indicate a choice between three levels of concern; "Very high concern", "Moderate concern", "Little concern", and "No opinion". An analysis of responses indicated that most of the top ten health concerns identified by parents as cancer, abortions among high school students, medical malpractice, water pollution, traffic accidents, air pollution, suicide of parents and homicide of offspring, heart disease, venereal diseases, and high blood pressure in that order. Those health problems about which respondents were least concerned were more closely related to the individual, such as drinking alcohol, smoking, tooth decay, gum disease, underweight, overweight. Of greater concern were more such as water pollution, abortions among high school students, air pollution, accidents, medical malpractice. For cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, various accidents, environmental pollution, parents showed high concern, however, for health issues which contributed as causative influences such as lung cancer from smoking and liver cirrhosis and traffic accidents from drinking alcohol showed less concern. Relationship between parent's residential areas, educational level and sex distribution and health concern showed little difference, however, for these issues parents identified as relatively high concern. Most parents showed more concern in sex-related of family-related health issues such as abortions among high school students, suicide of parents and homicide of offspring.
Summary
Influence of Intrauterine Position on Fetal Weight in albino Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide.
Soo Hun Cho, Jang Seok Choi, Dork Ro Yun
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):123-129.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Fetal weight data from 84 litters of Sprague-Dawley rats were statistically analyzed for the effect of position in the uterine horn on fetal weight. The standard score obtained from the mean weight and standard deviation of all fetuses in a uterine horn were studied for position effect. In control group, the heaviest fetus occupied the middle position with a progressive decrease in weights toward the ovarian and cervical ends of the horn. But the effect related to position for the fetal weight was not statistically significant. In contrast, rats acutely or chronically exposed to carbon monoxide showed statistically significant positional differences of fetal weight within the uterine horns. The findings that the intrauterine position effect on fetal weight which is not significant in control group may act one of confounders at the situation of transplacental toxicological studies.
Summary
Particle Size Distribution of Suspended Particulates in the Atmosphere of a Seoul Residential Area.
Eui Jung Han, Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):130-136.
  • 1,808 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The particle size of suspended particulates was measured by a Andersen air sampler from Mar. 1982 to Feb. 1984 in a part of Seoul. It was concluded as follows: 1) The arithmetic concentration of suspended particulates was 147.8 microgram/m3 in Spring, 136.9 in Summer, 131.9 in Autumn and 158.1 in Winter respectively. 2) The cumulative distribution of suspended particulates size in logarithmic diagram showed similar to normal log distribution. 3) The atmospheric particulate matters showed a bimodal size distribution on the base of unit particle concentrations, which divided at approximately 2 micrometer in the diameter. 4) While the fine particulates less than 2.1 micrometer was 35.4-45.0%, the coarse particulates was 55.0-64.5%. 5) The higher the concentration of suspended particulates, the more increased the ratio of fine particulates. The higher the concentration of suspended particulates, the lower median size of suspended particulate as well. 6) The respirable dust particulates less than 4.7 micrometer was 52.2-62.9% in seasonal average through the 2 year samples. With the above result, air pollution concerned with public health could be evaluated and the control measures also are suggested.
Summary
A Study on the Health Care Utilization in Korea.
Seung Hum Yu, Yong Ho Lee, Woo Hyun Cho, Young Pyo Hong, Byoung Won Jin, Sang Jai Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):137-145.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A Nationwide health care utilization survey was conducted from March 11 to September 19, 1985 to assess the level of illness and the magnitude of medical care utilization. A probability sample of 15,427 persons was taken from 180 Enumerated Districts designated by the Economic Planning Board. Of those 4,500 housewives were proxy respondents. A interview was conducted with pre-tested questionnaire schedule which was recorded by well trained interviewers. Age and sex compositions of the study population were similar to those of general population structure in 1985. The major findings of this survey are as follows: 1) A total of 64.5% of the study population lived in city area and 35.5% lived in county area. 2) While no difference was observed in interview rate between city and county area, it showed statistically significant difference in the medical security program coverage rate between the two areas(44.7% and 37.1%, respectively). 3) Morbidity rate was 79 per 1,000 persons during the two week periods. There was difference in age and sex adjusted morbidity rates between city and county area. Furthermore morbidity rates by the status of the program were significantly difference between the two areas. 4) Average ambulatory care utilization rate was 7.2 visits per person per year and average admission rate was 1.8 per 100 persons per year. There was significant difference in average ambulatory care utilization rate by the program. but no significant difference in medical utilization rate between city and county area. 5) The major symptoms of the perceived illness was the respiratory system(44.1%). 6) A total of 50.4% of the perceived illness among the covered group by the program were treated at the hospital and clinics, but those who are not covered used primarily drug stores(61.3%).
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health