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Volume 16(1); October 1983
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Original Articles
An Assessment of the Protective Efficacy of BCG against Plmounary Tuberculosis.
Sung Chan No
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):5-11.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The BCG vaccination has been employed as the main control measure for pulmonary tuberculosis in Korea since 1952. However, the protective efficacy of BCG against tuberculosis has been controversial worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis by a case-control study. The study subjects included all the pulmonary tuberculous patients under 20 years of age who were registered in six health centers in Taegu City between May 1 and September 30, 1982. The controls were randomly selected among non-tuberculous out-patients matched by the age, sex and residence of the cases. The history of BCG vaccination was confirmed by the scar of 400 cases and 659 controls. The relative risk of the BCG recipients for pulmonary tuberculosis were 0.5 and the protective efficacy of the BCG was 51.5%. It appears that the BCG vaccination is an efficient preventive measure in Korea where tuberculosis is prevalent. Thus the routine BCG vaccination should be continued.
Summary
Prevalence Rate of HBsAg and Anti-HBs in prostitutes.
Chang Youn Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):13-18.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was attempted to define epidemiologically the possibility and the magnitude of sexual transmission of HBV in Korea. Two groups of prostitutes; one group(309) deals with Koreans, the other group(126) deals with American soldiers stationing in Korea, were tested for the presence of HBsAg and anti-HBs. The prevalence rate of HBsAg or anti-HBs was significantly higher in prostitutes who deal with Korean(41.7%) than in prostitutes who deal with American soldiers(30.2%) (p<0.025). Among the prostitutes who deal with American soldiers, there was no appreciable difference in the prevalence rate of HBsAg or anti-HBs by the duration of prostitution. However, among the prostitutes who deal with Koreans, the prevalence rate was increased with the duration of prostitution, although it did not reach the statistically significant level(p=0.12). There was no remarkable association between the prevalence rate of HBsAg or anti-HBs and educational level, history of operation or history of transfusion. The data support the possibility of sexual transmission of viral hepatitis B but it seems sexual transmission does not contribute significantly to the prevalence rate of HBsAg or anti-HBs in Korea.
Summary
Combined Effects of Iron and Zinc on Accumulation of Lead in Some Organs of Rats.
Hyung Taek Ohm, Dong Bin Song, Chul Whan Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):19-24.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to study the effects of iron and zinc on the lead poisoning of rats, lead with iron and zinc, or lead alone were administered orally to a total of 98 adult rats of Sprague-Dawley Species. The concentrations of lead, zinc, and iron were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer at every 20 days intervals of 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th and 120th day as a final measurement. Those datas were analysed and compared with those of control groups. The results were summarized as follow; 1. The concentration of lead in blood, bone, and liver tissues kept increasing in case of lead exposure group whereas it started decreasing at 60-80th day when concentration of zinc started increasing in case of combined exposure group. However, in kidney tissue, the concentration of lead in combined exposure group kept increasing up to the end of observation showing special high concentration at the final measurement at 120th day. 2. Concentration of zinc in blood and liver tissues had increased from 60-80th day in case of combined exposure group. 3. Concentration of iron in blood showed decreasing from 44.15+/-9.67 to 32.44+/-2.69 microgram/ml in case of lead exposure group, whereas it showed constant level of 47.50~45.65 microgram/ml. However, in liver tissue it kept constant as control did from 40th to 60th days, but from 100th day on it started increasing to show much higher concentration than control.
Summary
The Effect of Combined Treatment of Cadmium and Methionine on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Liver and Kidney and the Activation of Alkaline Phosphatase in Blood of Mice.
Kyung Soo You, Eun Sang Bae, Chul Whan Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):25-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This research is to examine the detoxication effect of methionine on cadmium intoxication. For this purpose, this paper provides an analysis of the data on the groups of mice (ICR), one group of mice treated with 40 ppm of cadmium only, and other groups of mice combined-treated with cadmium and 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% methionine. After breeding for 40 days, the data on the growth of mice, changes in activation of alkaline phosphatase in blood, and the cadmium content in the liver and kidney, are analysed. The results were as follow: 1) The growth-rate of mice, in the cadmium only injected group, was declined by 9% in comparison with the control group after 40 days. But the two groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine showed the rise of 9% and 14% respectively above the growth-rate of the control group. The results from the groups of cadmium with 0.1% and 0.25% methionine were similar to that from the cadmium only injected group. 2) Changes in activation of alkaline phosphatase in blood decreased to 86.45% in the cadmium only injected group behind the 100% activation of the control group. The groups of cadmium with 0.1% and 0.25% methionine showed no difference with the former group. But the groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine recovered to the 93.14% and 96.08% of activation respectively. 3) The mean content of cadmium in the liver was 0.028+/-0.001 microgram/g in the control group. The cadmium only injected group showed the mean cadmium content of 2.80+/-0.62 microgram/g in the liver, which was similar to 2.82+/-1.03 microgram/g in the group of cadmium with 0.1% methionine, and 2.56+/-0.77 microgram/g in the group of cadmium with 0.25% methionine. But the groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine showed the reduction of cadmium contents in the liver to 1.84+/-0.56 microgram/g and 1.74+/-0.35 microgram/g respectively. In the kidney, the groups of cadmium with 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% methionine showed the similar cadmium content to the group treated with cadmium only. But the group of cadmium with 1% methionine showed a small increase to 4.13+/-1.00 microgram/g in comparison with the group treated with cadmium only. This analysis proves that the mobility and diffusion of cadmium in the tissues advance faster in the group treated with cadmium and methionine than in the group treated with cadmium only.
Summary
Study on Applicability of Predictive Equations of Subjective Symptoms of Workers Using Organic Solvents in Certain Factory.
Yong Hee Cheon, Young Hahn Moon, Dae Kyu Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):31-34.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For the study of the applicability of predictive equation of subjective symptoms of workers using organic solvents, 67 male workers using organic solvents were selected. The predictive equation was quotated from previous Cheon's study. All the datas of necessary variables were gained. The predictive values and observed values were compared. The results were summarized as below; 1. The difference between predictive values and observed values were characteristically large. The coefficient of determination between the two values was 0.0024. 2. The R2 value of multiple stepwise regression equation derived from present study was 0.2827.
Summary
A Study on the Modified Broca's Index to Estimate Standard Body Weight of Korean Adults.
Byoung Mann Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):35-40.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The author investigated the modified Broca's index that could be applied to Korean adults, what is called Korean Broca's Index, with 2322 apparently healthy subjects of 20-59 years old in order to obtain the index which could be used to estimate the standard body weight of Korean adults. The obtained results were as follow: 1. Linear regression equation of body weight to height was Y (weight in kg) =0.7195 X (height in cm)-57.9746 in male, and Y (weight in kg) =0.4288 X (height in cm)-16.6528 in female. 2. Estimated constant that could be applied to Korean Broca's Index was 0.93 in male and 0.89 in female, and these sexual difference was statistically significant. (P<0.01)
Summary
Socio-medical Study on Gonorrhoea with Special References of Prevalence, PPNG and Antibiotic Resistance.
Seong Ho Lee, In Dam Hwang, Young Soo Park, Dai Ha Koh
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):41-50.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The incidence of sexually transmitted disease, especially gonorrhoea has risen despite the progress in its diagnosis and treatment. For the effective control programs of sexually transmitted disease, it should be required socio-medical approaches. A study on gonorrhoea and penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoea (PPNG) was conducted in Jeonju and Kunsan area from March, 1982 through August, 1982. The 221 entertrainers were studied in order to determine the prevalences of gonorrhoea and PPNG. Socio-demographic informations of the entertainers were obtained by interviewing them. Gonococci were cultured on Thayer-Martin enrichment media for isolation, and PPNG was confirmed using beta-lactamase reagent(PADAC(tm) Beta-Lactamase Test Strips, Galbiochem-Behring). The results of the study are summarized as follows; 1. The average age of the entertainers studied was 26.1+/-4.7 years. 2. The average years of working in entertaining business was 2.4+/-1.4 years, and the average income per month was 239,592+/-90,480 won. On the education level, 70.6% of the entertainers were middle or high school graduates. 3. 47.5% of the entertainers were using contraceptives. 90.5% have experienced artificial abortion. 4. 37(16.7%) out of 221 entertainers were revealed to gonorrhoea, and 13(35.1%) of gonorrhoea patients were by PPNG. 5. The prevalence rates of gonorrhoea and the proportion of PPNG by age were not significant statistically. Meanwhile, the colelations between the rates of gonorrhoea and education, frequency of love-making with customers and type of sexual partner were highly significant statistically. 6. 37 strains of gonococci isolated were almost resistant to several antimicrobial agents, especially amikacin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. Furthermore PPNG strains were completely resistant to not only above drugs but also penicillin.
Summary
Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Sprayer Occupationally Exposed to Organic Phosphate Pesticides.
Dong Shik Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):51-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to obtain the basic data for the preverition of chronic poisoning by organic phosphate pesticides. 6 sprayers who participated in the summer pest control programs of Jeonju city were chosen as the subjects in this study. Pesticides which were spread in the period of study are DDVP (1.09%), dursban (1.8%) and dibrom (1.9%). And from May 16, 1983 to Aug. 22, 1983, plasma cholinesterase activity, hematological and biochemical parameters were measured with several physical examinations for each sprayers and controls. Majors findings are as following; 1. Before pesticides were sprayed, plasma cholinesterase were 7.32+/-6 microM/20microliter/hr. in sprayers and 7.13+/-1.39 microM/20 microliter/hr. in the control group(p>0.05). 2. At 60th day of spraying, plasma cholinesterase activity of sprayers was 6.78+/-2.01 microM/20 microliter/hr. Which is significantly decreased from the pre-exposed value(p<0.01), but plasma cholinesterase activity in the control group was not changed. 3. The specific findings which suggested to organophosphorous poisoning were not found through the period of study. 4. Hematological and bichemical parameters were not significantly changed in the both groups.
Summary
Study of Factors Affecting to Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Body Weight and Height.
G W Han
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):59-65.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Screening data from preplacement and periodic examination in Gu Mi Industrial Estate from May, 1983 to June, 1983 provide an opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported height and weight. The data for men and women were analyzed separated for effects of age, marital status, educational level, employment status, measured height, measured weight and relative weight (percent of ideal body weight). The mean percent discrepancy from self-reported and measured height was analyzed by cross-tubulation, P value for analysis of variance and multiple correlation analysis in men and women. It is clear from the data that self-reported height and weight differ from the quantities in systemic ways. But the magnitude of misreporting is very small on average except for weight in women. Whereas height tend to be over-reported, weight is under-reported in women but over-reported in men. Weight was accurate for age group 20-29 years in men and age group over 40 years in women and over-reporting of weight increased with age in men and under-reporting of weight decreased with age in women. Weight was accurate in 60-64kg group in men and under 50kg group in women and under-stating of weight increased with weight in men and women. Weight was the most accurate in 100-109 percent relative weight group in men and in 90-99 percent relative weight group in women and under-stating of weight increased with relative weight and over-stating decreased with relative weight and over-stating decreased with relative weight in men and women. Height was the most accurate for group of primary school and except group of primary school, accuracy of height increased with educational level in men and women. In height, the highest measured height groups(over than 175cm measured height in men and over than 165cm measured height in women) were the most accurate and over-reporting of height decreased with measured height. Single variable regression analysis and ANOVAs showed age(P<0.003), measured weight(P<0.0001) relative weight(P<0.0001), educational level(P<0.0005) and employment status(P<0.0007) to be significantly related to delta WT in women and measured height(P<0.0001), educational level(P<0.03) and marital status(P<0.03) to be significantly related to delta HT in men. The women were more sensitive about her body weight than height.
Summary
A Study on the Emission and Dispersion of Particulate Mather from a Cement Plant.
Man Ik Chang, Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):67-77.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the an air pollution by particulate matter and its dispersion, a cement plant producing portland cement 600,000ton/year and its vicinity were surveyed from October, 1980 to April, 1983. The survey was mainly focused on main stack emission rate of the cement plant and particle size distribution in the dust, dustfall and total suspended particulate concentration in the area by month and distance from the stack. The results of the study were as follows; 1. The main stack emission rate was surveyed before and after the spray tower was additionally installed to the original E.P. and bag filter. Before the spray tower installed, the main stack emission rate was higher(0.64g/Nm3) than the emission standard of Korean Environmental Preservation Law's(0.5g/Nm3, amended to 0.4g/Nm3 on April 1983), but after the spray tower was installed, its main stack emission rate was markedly decreased to the standard (0.43g/Nm3). 2. 2~3 micrometer of the particle size was the largest portion(20.8%) of the dust particulate from the main stack and 50% of the frequency distribution was 1.5 micrometer of the size. Most particle size was below 10 micrometer. 3. The spray tower reduced the dustfall to 37.81~9.76ton/km2/month while dustfall appeared at 45.29-15.45ton/km2/month, in the vicinity of plant before spray tower installed. 4. Mean concentrations of total suspended particulate for 24 hours of the various stations were determined in 20.6-200.0 microgram/m3, 3 stations of them were higher than the value of Harry and William's arithmetic average standard 130 microgram/m3. 5. Linear regression between dustfall[X] and total suspended particulate[X] concentration was an equation, Y=4.024X+11.479.[r=0.91]. 6. During the whole seasons in the opposite area 100m apart from the emission source the prevailing wind direction was with estimated more than 30ton/km2/month, and the concentration of total suspended particulate for 24 hours averaging time was more than 140 microgram/m3 in the same area and direction. 7. Assuming the wind direction were constant through the day dustfalls for a day were estimated at 13.40ton/km2/day, 10.79ton/km2/day and 4.55ton/km2/day at various distances of 100m, 500m and 1,500m from the emission source respectively. 8. In the simutalion of dustfall and suspended dust by area, Gaussian dispersion model modified by size distribution of particulate matter was not applicated since the emission of dust were from multi sources other them stack. From the above results, it could be applied that the dispersion of dust from the cement plant is estimated and regulated for the purpose of environmental protection.
Summary
Alteration of Lactic Dehydrogenase Activity and Isozyme of Rat Tissues Treated with Trihalomethanes.
Dong Chun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):79-88.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There has been some evidence concerning the fact that trihalomethanes(THMs), toxic chlorinated compounds, may be present in drinking water. One of the important methodologies to evaluate the toxicity of THMs is to determine enzyme alteration in experimental animal tissues after treatment. This study was intended to investigate how lactic dehydrogenase(LDH) of rat tissues is affected by administration of chloroform(CHCl3) and dichloromonobromomethane (CHCl2Br). THMs, high dose(1/10 LD50) or low dose(1/50 LD50) of CHCl3 or CHCl2Br were administered orally to experimental rates for 4 or 8 weeks. The treated groups of rats were sacrificed to determine LDH specific activity and isozyme pattern in various organs which were liver, thigh muscle, kidney and brain. The conclusions were obtained as follow: 1. Alteration of LDH activities and isozyme patterns were revealed before morphologic changes in tissues. 2. The LDH specific activities were increased significantly in liver and brain after administration of high concentrations of CHCl3 and CHCls2Br for 4 weeks respectively. Otherwise, they were decreased significantly in liver, muscle and kidney after administration for 8 weeks. 3. The isozyme activities of LDH-4 and LDH-5 were increased in muscle, brain, and especially the liver. 4. It was more distinct for the decrement of LDH H-type isozyme than the increment of M-type isozyme in muscle.
Summary
A Study on the Factors Which Influenced Vaccination Rate of Infants in a City.
Mi Seung Pai
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):89-97.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
From January to March in 1979 and 1982, the vaccination rate of B.C.G., D.P.T. and Sabin with 392 infants who were registered at M.C.H. room in a Health Center in Seoul were as follows: 1. There were no specific relations between the sex and the vaccination for B.C.G., D.P.T. and Polio. 2. In 1982, the younger the mother's age was, the higher the vaccination rate for B.C.G. was. For the D.P.T. and Polio the rate of above 35 year group was the highest but the completion rate of the vaccination and the regular vaccination rate were the highest in the age of 30-34 year group. 3. In 1982, the higher the educational levels of the mother were, the higher the vaccination rates for B.C.G., D.P.T. and Polio were. 4. The vaccination rate for B.C.G. within a month after birth was the highest in Salaried laborer group. The completion rate of the vaccination and regular vaccination rate for D.P.T.and Polio were also the highest in salaried laborer group. 5. In 1982, the rates of all vaccination for B.C.G. were the highest in the first child. The completion rate of the vaccination and regular vaccination rate for D.P.T. and Polio were also the highest in the first child in 1982.
Summary
A Nutrition Intakes Survey of Pregnant Women in a Urban Area.
In Sook Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):99-104.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Aiming at the total 200 pregnant women including 150 ones registered with the Health Center of Chung Ku District and 50 ones registered with the Health Center of Mapo District, we have conducted a research study of the socio-medical characteristics, maternal child health, and the status of nutritional intake which has utilized the application of convenient method for the study of nutritional status, during the period of April 20 to May 25, 1983. And we have obtained the following conclusions: 1. Regarding age distribution, the pregnant women aged from 26 to 30 were most numerous, which was 54.0%. The percentage of women who experienced the first pregnancy was 12.0% and the percentage of those who experienced the second pregnancy was 37.0%, which was the highest. Regarding the weeks of pregnancy of the pregnant women, the first trimester was 11.5%, the second trimester 30.0%, and the third trimester 58.6%. 2. Regarding academic achievements, the pregnant women who graduated from middle schools reached 43.5%, which was the highest percentage. Regarding economic status, the pregnant women who owned their own houses were only 21.0%. And the pregnant women whose monthly income was from 300,000 won to 400,000 won were 40%, which was the most numerous. 3. The women above 15 years old who experienced the first menstruation were 84.0%. And those who experienced abortion were totally 54.4%, and 35.5% among those women experienced artificial abortion. 4. 70.5% of the pregnant women said that their health condition was excellent, 24.5% felt subjective complaints, and 5.0% specially received medical consultation for their diseases. 5. 82.0% received prenatal care, but 60.5% regularly received prenatal care. 68.0% received the education for nutrition and only 19.5% regularly received the education for nutrition. 6. Regarding the family composition, the families consisting of two generations were 47.0%, which was the most numerous. 97.5% of the preparation for meals was conducted by housewives. They said that they did not lack time for meal preparation. 7. 94.9% of the pregnant women said that they had eaten as in ordinary times during their pregnancy. 25.5% said that there were tabooed foods. Tabooed foods are chiefly pork, chicken, milk, and eggs. 68.0% don't drink milk during pregnancy, 32.5% take the intake of vitamins, and 20.5% take iron supplement. 8. The average amounts of the intake of protein, fat, and carbohydrate of a pregnant women are 49.3gm, 29.4gm, and 205.1gm respectively, which showed the phenomenon in which the amount of the intake of nutrition increased as the weeks of pregnancy increased. The average amount of the intake of salt was 14.2gm. 9. Regarding the hemoglobin value of all pregnant women, those whose hemoglobin value was less than 11.0gm were 66.5%, those whose hemoglobin value was 11 to 12gm were 16.5%, and those whose hemoglobin value was above 12gm were 17.0%. The pregnant women whose hemoglobin value was less than 11.0gm in the first trimester of pregnancy, in the second trimester, and in the trimester were 81.8%, 62.8%, and 64.9% respectively. This shows that the phenomenon of anemia increased as the weeks of pregnancy increased. 10. Regarding physical development of a pregnant women during prenatal period, the height and weight were 156.7cm +/-14.1 and 51.1kg+/-58 respectively. When the standard increase of a prenatal weight gain is set as 100%, the women over the range of 100% were 28.0% and the women under the range of 80% were 37.0%.
Summary
The Diet and Physical Exercise Patterns of Bank Personnel for the Health Maintenance.
Nung Ki Yoon
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):105-112.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To characterize the diet and physical exercise patterns of bank personnel for the health maintenance, a questionnaire was administered to all the employees (1,249) of Daegu Bank in June 1983 among which 78.1% (976) responded. Three quarters of the respondents were between 20 and 34 years old. About 30% of 20-24 years old group were male compared with 73.1% of 25-39 years old group. Major findings of the survey are as follows: 1) The most concerned chronic disease of the respondents were in the order of cancer (27.4%), psychiatric disease (15.1%), hypertension (14.1%), heart disease (13.7%) and tuberculosis (7.9%). 2) For the prevention of adulthood disease and obesity, 53.4% of the respondents were restricting sugar intake; 40.9%, salt; and 35.1%, fat-rich food. 3) Among all the respondents 36.9% were making effort to reduce body weight and 17.7% were trying to gain body weight. 4) The proportion of respondents who practice physical exercise for the health maintenance was 82.9% in male and 62.5% in female.
Summary
Demand Forecasting for Developing Drug Inventory Control Model in a University Hospital.
Myong Sei Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):113-120.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The main objective of this case study is to develop demand forecasting model for drug inventory control in a university hospital. This study is based on the pertinent records during the period of January 1975 to August 1981 in the pharmacy and stock departments of the hospital. Through the analysis of the above records the author made some major findings as follows: 1. In A.B.C. classification, the biggest demand(A class) consists of 9 items which include 6 items of antibiotics. 2. Demand forecasting level of an index or discrepancy in A class drug compared with real demand for 6 months is average 30.4% by X-11 Arima method and 84.6% by Winter's method respectively. 3. After the correcting by the number of bed, demand forecasting of drug compared with real demand for 6 months is average 23.1% by X-11 Arima method and 46.6% by Winter's method respectively.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health