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Volume 17(1); September 1984
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Original Articles
An Epidemiological Study on the Neurological Sequelae of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
Byung Joo Park, Soo Hun Cho, Yoon Ok Ahn, Young Soo Shin, Dork Ro Yun
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):5-24.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There has been an immense need for elaborate studies on the complications and the neuological sequelae generated by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning which is highly prevalent in Korea due to widespread adoption of the anthracite coal briquette as domestic fuel for heating and for cooking. For this epidemiological study, a total of 444 subjects who received hospital emergency care for acute CO poisoning during the period of March 1982 February 1983 were randomly selected from the emergency patients's lists of 13 general hospitals in Seoul area. Informations on the neurological sequelae were elucidated by means of home visiting with prearranged questionnaire consisting questions and concise neurological examination. The findings obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The complications were found in 18% of the surveyed and acute decubitus was comprised 67.5% of the complications. 2. The total cumulative incidence of the neurological sequelae was 41.2 per 100 patients and the absolute incidence rate regardless of the duration after poisoning was 40.8%. 3. The incidence of the neurological sequelae was higher in the older age than in the younger and also higher in female than in male. Twice higher incidence was observed in the admitted patients than in the non-admitted patients and the incidence became higher in proportion to the duration of CO exposure, coma and admission. The poorer the consciousness level of patients found, at emergency room and at discharge, the higher the incidence. The incidence of the neurological sequelae by emergency care was higher in hyperbaric oxygen therapy group(51.9%) than in 100% O2 group(38.0%). 4. A total of five variables significantly associated with the occurrence of the neurological sequelae were selected by the stepwise discriminant analysis. The variables were following course of emergency care, age, consciousness level at discharge, admission duration, and consciousness level at emergency room in their sequence of discriminant power. Eight variables were selected as those associated with the degree of the neurological sequelae through the stepwise multiple regression analysis. Of these variables, the acute decubitus alone explained 21.1% of the total variation and all the eight variables could explain 36.5% of the same. The remaining seven variables listed in the order of their relative importance were: age, consciousness level at discharge, admission duration, coma duration and consciousness level at emergency room. 5. It was postulated that unexpectedly high incidence of the neurological sequelae of the CO poisoning in this epidemiological study was mainly due to the inadequate emergency care and the lack of efficient and sophisticated treatment measure. In the effort to minimize the incidence of grave neurological sequelae of acute CO poisoning, new guidelines for the emergency care and treatment should be pursued with efficient ways.
Summary
The Effect of Textile Industry on the Workers' Blood Pressure.
Jong Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):25-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the effect of noise on the blood pressure of workers, 70 weaving and 70 refining female workers in 15 to 24 years of ages were tested for the changes of blood pressure before and after exposure to the noise. The noise levels at work place were 99 dB (A) for weavers and 80 dB(A) for refiners. The mean age of refiners was 17.7 years and that of weavers was 18.6 years, and the difference in mean ages was statistically significant (p<0.05). The means of heights, weights and working durations were not significantly different between two groups. The mean systolic blood pressure of the weavers was 112.5mmHg before exposure to the noise and it was increased to 115.7mmHg after exposure to 99 dB(A) of noise for 30 minutes, and the mean diastolic blood pressure from 71.6mmHg to 74.1mmHg. These increments of blood pressure were statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean systolic blood pressure of the refiners was decreased from 108.9mmHg to 106.7mmHg after exposure to 80 dB(A) of noise for 30 minutes, and the mean diastolic blood pressure from 67.3mmHg to 67.1mmHg. These changes of blood pressure were not statistically significant. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the weavers before exposure to the noise were significantly higher than that of refiners (p<0.05). The difference of blood pressure between refiners and weavers was significantly associated with noises (p<0.05), and not ages and their interactions. The study results support the hypothesis that exposure to excessive noise increases the blood pressure of workers.
Summary
A Study on the Utilization of Health Subcenter in a Rural Area.
Dong Sun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):31-36.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to know about the utilization of health subcenter in a Korean rural community, a study was carried out through analyzing the records on the outpatients in Su-Dong Health Subcenter during 5 years from 1978 to 1982, and the following results were obtained. 1. The annual utilization rate of health subcenter of Su-Dong Myun showed decreasing tendency such as 946.6 in 1978, 886.4 in 1979, 736.5 in 1980, 708.3 in 1981 and 609.1 in 1982 per 1,000 people. 2. In terms of annual utilization rate of health subcenter by sex, utilization rate of female was higher than that of male such as in 1978 (male 908.6, female 986.3), 1979 (male 819.2, female 956.7) and 1981 (male 686.0, female 731.5) except 1980 (male 790.0, female 683.3) and 1982 (male 632.7, female 585.0). 3. Every year the 5 major diseases of the new patients cared in health subcenter were the same as follows; Diseases of the Respiratory System, Diseases of the Digestive System, Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue, Accident Poisoning and Violence, and Diseases of the Nervous System and Sensory Organ. 4. In terms of annual utilization rate of health subcenter by age, utilization rate of 0~4 year group was highest every year such as 3,666.0 in 1978, 3,232.5 in 1979, 2,819.0 in 1980, 2,361.4 in 1981 and 2408.7 in 1982 per 1,000 people. 5. The average visiting times per case to health subcenter were not much different every year such as 1.75 times in 1978, 1.79 times in 1979, 1.69 times in 1980, 1.79 times in 1981, and 1.80 times in 1982. 6. The monthly utilization rates per 1,000 people of health subcenter had two peaks in February(40.9 in 1980 and 86.4 in 1981) and July(84.6 in 1980 and 721. 1981) except 1982. 7. The distribution of new patients by the source of medical fee payment was follows; community health organization member 86.9%, medicaid program 6.5%, and medical insurance 6.6% in 1980 and community health organization member 76.8%, medicaid program 11.4%, and medical insurance 11.8%, in 1981 and community health organization member 78.2%, medicaid program 14.8% and medical insurance 13.2% in 1982.
Summary
Medical Care Utilization Pattern of Medical Aid Program Beneficiaries.
Ju Ho Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):37-46.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The study was conducted to identify the problems in the medical aid program by reviewing the medical care utilization pattern of the beneficiaries. The data were abstracted from the monthly bills and vouchers for medical care of the whole beneficiaries(17,527) in Gyeongsan Gun submitted by the physicians to county government for the period of 1 calendar year from October 1981 to September 1982. The number of medical aid beneficiary accounted for 12.7% of the total county population, a higher proportion than the national average-9.5%. Monthly primary care utilization rate per 100 beneficiaries was 9.3 persons with 14.0 visits and 42.9 medication days. For the 2nd and 3rd care, there were 1.7 admissions and 9.3 OPD visits per 100 beneficiaries per year. The beneficiaries of the first class medical aid program had a higher utilization rate of both the primary and secondary/tertiary care facilities. Females utilized more the primary care facilities than males while males utilized more the secondary/tertiary care facilities than females. A significantly lower utilization rate was observed in January than in the other months and this was seemed due to the renewal process of the medical aid certificate. Among 1,931 patients utilized the 2nd/3rd care facilities 84.4% was out-patients and the lowest ratios were in the minor specialties including ENT, ophthalmology, dermatology and urology. The average hospital days per in-patient were 21.2 days and OPD days per out patient were 4.7 days. The average hospital days for a psychiatry in-patient was 74.4 days which was the longest average hospital days among all the specialties. Average medical care cost per beneficiary in a year was W9,821:W24,420 for the 1st class and W7,464 for the 2nd class. The medical care cost for the primary care per patient was W3,901 and W840 per day compared with W49,875 per patient and W5,822 per day for the secondary/tertiary care. From the findings of this study following recommendations were made to improve the medical care program: 1) The renewal process of the medical care certificate should be expedited. 2) Minor specialty clinics should be designated as the primary medical care facility for the medical aid program to reduce the expenses by absorbing more patients referred to the secondary/tertiary care facilities directly. 3) The medical care cost for the primary care facility should be escalated to reduce the differential between the primary and secondary/tertiary care facilities.
Summary
The Effects of Maternal HBs antigenemia on the Neonatal Health.
Jung Han Park, Sung Do Yoon, Chang Youn Kim, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):47-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To study the risk factors associated with maternal HBsAg carrier and the effects of maternal HBs antigenemia on the neonatal health, sera of 729 pergnant women admitted to the Keimyung University Hospital for delivery during the period of February 1-May 30, 1982 were tested for HBsAg by RPHA method and for anti-HBs by PHA method. Among them 43 women (5.9%) had HBsAg and 246 women (33.7%) had anti-HBs giving an infection rate of 39.6%. The interview data for 43 HBsAg positive mothers and randomly selected 210 HBsAg negative mothers showed a statistically significant association between acupuncture history and HBsAg positive rate (p<0.005) which suggest that acupuncture might have contributed significantly to the propagation of viral hepatitis in Korea. The living standard of HBsAg positive mothers was generally lower than that of HBsAg negative mothers which supports the hypothesis that environmental factors are associated with viral hepatitis B infection. None of the 43 neonates born to HBsAg positive mothers had HBsAg in their cord blood. Three months after birth, 35 out of 43 infants were retested and only one infant became HBsAg positive. At six months of age, 32 out of 35 infants were retested and none of them were HBsAg positive except the same infant who was positive at three months. Among 20 control infants of HBsAg negative mothers, all of them were HBsAg negative at three and six months follow-up. These findings are not consistent with the supposition that perinatal infection is a main route of viral hepatitis B transmission in south-east Asia including Korea. HBsAg positive mothers had significantly higher rate of premature delivery (27.9%) than HBsAg negative mothers (11.7%) (p<0.05). Also, the low birthweight incidence rate was higher among HBsAg positive mothers (23.3%) than negative mothers (14.1%) but this was not statistically significant (p=0.16). The premature rupture of membrane was more frequent among HBsAg positive mothers (25.5%) than negative mothers (11.1%) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the stillbirth rate and incidence of congenital anomalies between HBsAg positive and negative groups. It was not clarified in this study due to small sample size whether higher incidence of premature delivery and premature rupture of membranes among HBsAg positive mothers was due to HBs antigenemia per se or their lower living standard than HBsAg negative mothers.
Summary
Hearing Threshold Shift Level of Weavers on Wearing the Ear Plugs.
Yeong Hwan Kim, Jong Young Lee, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):57-64.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the hearing conservation by the hearing protection devices in the field, 1,237 healthy female weavers of 16 to 24 year old were surveyed from April 1982 to January 1983. By reviewing the charts, their working durations, hearing threshold shift levels and whether wearing the ear plugs or not were checked. The hearing threshold levels were measured at 4,000 Hz by audiometry AA-30A, RION Japan. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group with ear plug and the control group without it. The threshold shift level above 40dB in controls was 44.6% in left and 40.9% in right ear and that in experimental group 8.0% in left and 6.6% in right ear. The distribution of threshold shift levels between control and experimental group was significantly different in both ears, but that between left and right ear not significantly different in both groups. The longer the working durations were, the more the proportion of high threshold shift levels was and the larger the differences in the proportion of above 40dB between both groups were.
Summary
A Decreasing Trend of Industrial Injuries at a Large Scale Textile Company.
Soon Ho Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):65-74.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the status of industrial injuries, a large scale textile company located around Taegu city was selected. And it was investigated from January 1981 to December 1982. After the department for workers safety was established, frequency rate of injury was 9.70 in 1981 and 4.15 in 1982, incidence rate per 1,000 workers was 27.11 in 1981 and 12.96 in 1982, and then, intensity rate was 0.33 in 1981 and 0.01 in 1982. The average duration of working loss was 36.64 days in 1981 and 3.34 in 1982. The incidence rate per 100 workers was 2.3 in annual average., 2.7 in men and 2.0 in women. The monthly incidence rate per 1,000 workers was highest as 3.6 in June; daily incidence rate, lowest as 1.8 on Sunday; and the highest as 14.7 from 10 to 12 o'clock in a day. The frequency by injured parts of body was highest as 42.3% on finger and 14.4% on the other part of hand, and the lower extremities as 14.4% followed. According to the kind of injuries, the laceration was the highest as 46.1%, the next was contusion as 15.4%, and the third was superficial injuries as 6.7%. According to the cause of injuries, the machinery accidents showed the highest as 47.1% and the accidents due to hand tool followed as 16.3%. By underlying cause of injuries, the environmental factors were 13.5% and the human factors 86.5%. The psychologic factors among human factors were the most common as 60.6%.
Summary
An Epidemiological Study on Traffic Accidents.
Dong Chul Park, Dong Joon Lew
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):75-84.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A retrospective study has been made of 170,026 cases of motor vehicle accidents which had been reported to the National Police Headquarters of Republic of Korea, 1983. Also a study has been made of 264 cases of road traffic casualties who were treated at the Eul-ji General Hospital from Jan. 1, 1983 to Dec. 31, 1983. This study was conducted to find out the nature and pattern of the traffic accidents from the clinical and epidemiological view points. In additions, the modes of injury from the road accidents were pursued which might help to reduce the traffic accident rate. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. In this study, the highest incidence was in the age group between 21-30 years (21.29%). And the age group of highest death rate was under 10 years (7.28%). 2. In the comparison of sexual differences, male was dominated in accidents number and death rate. (Casualty rate; 61.66%). 3. In the comparison of each hour differences, the accident was mostly occurred during afternoon from 16 : 00 to 18 : 00 (12.23%). 4. The most common day of week was Sunday (14.74%). 5. The most common season of year was Autumn (27.92%). 6. In the comparison of occupational differences, the high incidences were showed in labor men (31.06%) and business men (12.12%). 7. In the comparison of accidental vehicles, the most common vehicle were cars and the next were trucks and buses. 8. The most common mechanism of accidents was collision (57.41%). 9. In the comparison of clinical differences, orthopaedic and neurosurgical injuries were most common types of the hospitalized casualties. 10. In the comparison of anatomical fracture sites, the most common site was tibia (15.81%) and the next site was femur (12.56%).
Summary
Evaluation of Village Health Worker's Activities.
Tae Yong Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):85-94.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to develop some indicies for the evaluation of village health worker's activities and to find out personal characteristics and other factors that affect the activities, an interview survey was conducted to thirty seven village health workers (VHW) in Sunwon, Naega and Bulun townships in Kangwha county, where the Community Health Project of Yonsei University, College of Medicine, has been implemented for the past ten years. In addition, daily activity records of the VHW's were also analyzed. The results are summarized below: First, meeting attendance rates, number of regular family visits, number of antenatal care visits and number of family planning visits were identified as the most meaningful criterion for the evaluation of the village health worker's activities. Second, personal factors that significantly affect the village health worker's activities were identified as age, educational background, living with in-laws, religion, presence of preschool child in the family, holding leader's position of village woman's association concurrently, and duration serving as a VHW. The more aged and the more educated VHWs were the more effective. Those VHWs who were living with in-laws, without preschool child in the family, holding the leader's position of the village woman's association, and the longer service duration were the more effective. Other factors that affect the VHW's activities were the number of households in the target village and the number of natural villages in the target villages. It showed that the smaller the size of number of households and natural villages, the higher the degrees of the effectiveness of the VHW.
Summary
A Study on the concentration of trace metal elements in whole blood of the women in reproductive ages in urban and rural area.
Jin Ho Jun
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):95-106.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To acquire the essential basic data to the establishment of control measure for the hazardous health effect that could be caused by harmful metals, the author measured the concentrations of trace metals in whole blood of women of 20-39 years old living in urban and rural area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The summarized results were as follows; 1. The mean concentration of zinc in whole blood was 10.69+/-8.07 microgram/ml in rural area. The frequency distribution by zinc concentration level was nearly L-type and the cumulative frequency distribution was showed bimodal type in both area. 2. The mean iron concentration in whole blood was 323.09+/-87.15 microgram/ml and 322.07+/-104.74 microgram/ml in urban and rural area, respectively. The frequency distribution was similar to normal distribution type in both area, but the cumulative distribution was unimodal type in urban area and bimodal type in rural area. 3. The mean magnesium concentration was 41.08+/-19.58 microgram/ml and 40.28+/-16.82 microgram/ml in the area, respectively. The frequency distribution type had skewness to the right and the cumulative frequency distribution was unimodal type in both area. 4. The mean copper concentration was 1.417+/-0.761 microgram/ml and 1.375+/-0.743 microgram/ml in the area, respectively. The frequency distribution type had skewness to the right and the cumulative frequency distribution was bimodal type in both area. 5. The mean manganese concentration was 0.079+/-0.039 microgram/ml and 0.07+/-0.058 microgram/ml in the area, respectively. The frequency distribution type had skewness to the right in both area but slight irregular in rural area and the cumulative distribution was unimodal and bimodal type in urban and rural area, respectively. 6. The mean cadmium concentration in whole blood was 0.031+/-0.026 microgram/ml in urban and 0.028+/-0.023 microgram/ml in rural area. The frequency distribution type had skewness to the right and cumulative frequency distribution was bimodal type in both area.
Summary
A Study on the Morbidity of rural populations(Seosan County Choong Nam province).
Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):107-120.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
At the preliminary survey of Seosan demonstration project for integration of family planning and maternal and child health service, 6 questions about morbid conditions of all household members were included. Definition of morbid condition used at the survey was self-conceived physical or mental infirmity which had been caused by diseases or accidents, resulting in obstacles to ordinary daily life for past 30 days. Analyzing those morbidity data, the following results were obtained. 1. The morbid person rate was 192.2 per 1,000 persons and the morbidity rate 214.2 per 1,000 persons. 2. The percentage of household which had at least one morbid person was 61.9% and average number of morbidity per one household was 1.1. 3. Analyzing the 1st morbid condition of the total 4,433 morbid persons, morbidity rate of male was 194.6 per 1,000 persons and that of female was 189.8 per 1,000 persons. 4. The highest age specific morbidity rate was that of 0~4 years of age, and it was 304.3 per 1,000 persons. The lowest was that of 10~14 years of age and the rate of 93.8 per 1,000 persons. 5. The following was the order of five major diseases which were classified according to 17 International Classification of Diseases. (1) Symptoms and Ill defined conditions : 17.3% (2) Disease of the Digestive system : 15.7% (3) Infections and Parasitic disease : 14.3% (4) Disease of the Respiratory system : 13.7% (5) Disease of the Nervous system and sense organs : 9.4%. 6. 30 leading morbid conditions were described in Table III-2 and which composed 70.6% of total morbid conditions. 7. The percentage of the morbid conditions of which duration was longer than 90 days was 40.5%. 8. Of the total 4,433 morbid persons, 4,394 morbid persons responded for the morbid condition management method. Of those, Hospital & clinic (35.3%), drug store (40.0%), herb drug store (3.6%), health center (2.2%) ware selected for the 1st place or method for management morbid condition, and 18.0% did not search for morbid condition management.
Summary
A Comparative Study on Medical Care Services in Two Community Health Sub-centers.
Il Young Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):121-126.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Several detailed aspects of medical care services during one year (Aug 1, 1982~July 31, 1983) were compared between two community health sub-centers; one (A) was served by a local clinician, the other (B) by a trainee of preventive medicine. The results were analysed as follows: 1. Total spells of medical services during the same period in "A" sub-center was 4,087 and that in "B" 2,347. Medicaid visitors in "A" was 1,051 (25.7% of the total), that in "B" was 250 (10.7%). Significant difference was observed. 2. Average number of visits for the same case in "A" was 2.0, that in "B" was 1.4. Average duration of service by day for the same case in "A" was 3.9, that in "B" 3.0. 3. Average cost of service for a case in "A" was 6,770 won, that in "B" 4,230 won. 4. Difference in age distribution of visitors in the two sub-centers was insignificant. 0-9 year group was 38.5% of the total. Difference in distribution by sex (between two sub-centers) was minimal. Male utilisers more than female by ca. 10%. 5. Concerning distribution of visitors by month, utilisation in July, August and September was the highest; the sum of them was 32.7% of the total in "A" and 32.9% in "B". 6. Distribution by diagnoses in "A" in decreasing order of frequency was Respiratory system diseases (26.1%), Digestive system diseases (23.0%), Diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue (17.4%), Accidents and poisoning (11.5%) and Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (5.4%). That in "B" was Respiratory system diseases (39.0%), Digestive system diseases (23.0%), Diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue (14.2%), Accidents and poisoning (10.9%) and Infection and parasitic diseases (9.1%). 7. The 10 most frequent diagnoses comprised 68.5% of the total in "A" and 65.5% in "B". 8. Utilisation by accessibility to each sub-center was studied. It is shown that the nearer the distance or the easier the accessibility, the more visits to services. The distinct pattern is manifested in the utilisation in "A"-Myun.
Summary
A Study on the Factors which Influenced the Faithfulness to Treatment Among the Pulmonary tuberculosis Patients Registered in a City Health Center.
Young Woo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):127-131.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Personal and social characteristics, disease status, reason of delay of receiving drug from City Health Center and knowledge and attitude on the pulmonary tuberculosis were compared between the faithful group in treatment and the unfaithful group among the patients for pulmonary tuberculosis registered in a City Health Center in order to analyze the factors which influenced the faithfulness to treatment. Record as well as interview survey was done toward all patients of 247 who were registered and being cared during over 6 months in a City Health Center from April 1, 1982 to March 31, 1983, and results were as follows; 1. There was no statistically significant difference in sex and age distribution between the faithful group in treatment and the unfaithful group. 2. There was no statistically significant difference in marital status distribution between the faithful group and unfaithful group in treatment. 3. The lower education group comprised higher proportion than the higher education group among the faithful group in treatment. 4. The proportion of the employed was higher than unemployed among the unfaithful group in treatment. 5. The proportion of mild case was higher than severe case among the unfaithful group in treatment. 6. As for the onset of delay of receiving drug, "less than 3 month after starting treatment" was 59.5% among the unfaithful group in treatment. 7. The reasons of delay of receiving drug were "no time" (42.2%), "being away from home" (25.0%), "being sick" (13.8%), and "forget the appointed date"(12.0%). 8. There was no statistically significant difference in the knowledge on the communicability of the tuberculosis between the faithful groups in treatment and the unfaithful group. 9. There was no statistically significant difference in the knowledge on B.C.G as vaccination drug of tuberculosis between the faithful group and the unfaithful group in treatment. 10. There was no statistically significant difference in the satisfaction on the treatment of health center between the group of faithful and unfaithful in treatment. 11. There was no statistically significant difference in the belief on the complete recovery of tuberculosis between the faithful group and the unfaithful group in treatment. 12. The rate of consulting on tuberculosis treatment with life partner was higher among the faithful group in treatment than the unfaithful group.
Summary
Study on the Indoor Air Pollution.
Hyung Suk Kim, Yang Won Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):137-144.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Studies on Standard Physical Growth and Development by Age and Body Height in Korean Youth.
Kwang Tai Ahn, Soon Young Park, Yang Won Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):145-172.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to assess the physical growth pattern of Korean Youth, the authors measured the body height, chestgirth and sitting height of 40967 persons (24832 males and 16135 females) from primary schools, middle and high schools and colleges of metropolitan (urban) and rural areas, and calculated the mene, standard deviation, standard error and coefficient variance of the body weight chestgirth, sitting height and various pertinent index by body height to demonstrate the standard physical growth and development by body height of sex and age. The following conclusions were obtained. 1. Physical growth and development: Rapid growth of physical growth in terms of body height has been observed among males in the age 7-15 and among female 7-13. Growth in terms of body height turned out to be slower among students of higher age by both sexes. The age of cross over between to sexes is between 10 to 13 years where upon girls out grows boys. Maximum annual growth were upon girls out grows boys. Maximum annual growth were both of 6.16cm from 8 to 9 years old and 12 to 13 years old for boys and 7.2cm from 8 to 9 and 6.1cm from 9 to 10 for girls. This indicates that girls enter a rapidly growing stage 2 years earlier than boys. Meanwhile, prominent improvement in body height of national students over period of ten year was noticed. 2. The distribution status of body height by age: The distribution status of body height by age were as follows; 7 year of age: boys-30cm range of body height from 104.0cm to 133.9cm, girls-27cm from 104.0 to 130.9cm, 8 year of age: boys-30cm from 116.0 to 145.9cm, girls-33cm from 113.0 to 145.9cm, 9 year of age: boys-30cm from 116.0 to 145.9cm, girls-33cm from 113.0 to 145.9cm, 10 year of age: boys-39cm from 116.0 to 154.9cm, girls-39cm from 119.0 to 157.9cm, 11 year of age: boys-45cm from 119.0 to 163.9cm, girls-39cm from 122.0 to 160.9cm, 12 year of age: boys-45cm from 125.0 to 169.9cm, girls-42cm from 125.0 to 166.9cm, 13 year of age: boys-45cm from 128.0 to 172.9cm, girls-42cm from 128.0 to 169.9cm, 14 year of age: boys-48cm from 131.0 to 178.9cm, girls-36cm from 134.0 to 169.9cm, 15 year of age: boys-42cm from 137.0 to 181.9cm, girls-33cm from 137.0 to 169.9cm, 16 year of age: boys-39cm from 146.0 to 184.9cm, girls-30cm from 143.0 to 172.9cm, 17 year of age: boys-39cm from 146.0 to 184.9cm, girls-27cm from 143.0 to 169.9cm, 18 year of age: boys-36cm from 152.0 to 187.9cm, girls-27cm from 146.0 to 172.9cm, 19 year of age: boys-30cm from 155.0 to 184.9cm girls-24cm from 146.0 to 169.9cm, 20 year of age: boys-24cm from 158.0 to 181.9cm girls-18cm from 149.0 to 166.9cm, 3. Standard values of body weight, chest-girth and sitting height by body height of age were found all age groups from 7 to 20 years old and listed in tables from 3-a to 16-a. 4. Standard values of relative body weight, relative chestgirth and relative sitting height by body height of age were found all age groups from 7 to 20 years old and listed in tables from 3-b to 16-b. 5. Standard values of physical and nutritional indices (Rohrer index, Kaup index, Vervaeck index and Pelidisi index) by body height of age were found all age groups from 7 to 20 years old and listed in tables from 3-c to 16-c.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health