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Yong Chung 16 Articles
A Meta-analysis of Ambient Air Pollution in Relation to Daily Mortality in Seoul, 1991~1995.
Jong Tae Lee, Douglas W Dockery, Chun Bae Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Yong Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):177-182.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To reexamine the association between air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul, Korea using a method of meta-analysis with the data filed for 1991 through 1995. METHODS: A separate Poisson regression analysis on each district within the metropolitan area of Seoul was conducted to regress daily death counts on levels of each ambient air pollutant, such as total suspended particulates (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), controlling for variability in the weather condition. We calculated a weighted mean as a meta-analysis summary of the estimates and its standard error. RESULTS: We found that the p value from each pollutant model to test the homogeneity assumption was small (p<0.01) because of the large disparity among district-specific estimates. Therefore, all results reported here were estimated from the random effect model. Using the weighted mean that we calculated, the mortality at a 100 microgram/m3 increment in a 3-day moving average of TSP levels was 1.034 (95% CI 1.009-1.059). The mortality was estimated to increase 6% (95% CI 3-10%) and 3% (95% CI 0-6%) with each 50 ppb increase for 3-day moving average of SO2 and 1-hr maximum O3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Like most of air pollution epidemiologic studies, this meta-analysis cannot avoid fleeing from measurement misclassification since no personal measurement was taken. However, we can expect that a measurement bias be reduced in a district-specific estimate since a monitoring station is better representative of air quality of the matched district. The similar results to those from the previous studies indicated existence of health effect of air pollution at current levels in many industrialized countries, including Korea.
Summary
Risk Assessment on Carcinogenic Pesticides of Vegetables in Korea.
Jae Hong Yoon, Jong Tae Lee, Yong Chung, Dongchun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):155-161.
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OBJECTIVES
The study was conducted to estimate the carcinogenic risks from the ingestion of some carcinogenic pesticides (CPs) in vegetables sampled at a local agricultural product market in Seoul. METHODS: After applying a hazard identification step, we selected four pesticides, such as DDT, dieldrin, folpet, and heptachlor epoxide, for this risk assessment. Concentrations of each pesticide were measured from randomly sampled vegetables. In order to estimate the human exposure levels, we combined the concentration of pesticides in the vegetables with consumption rate of those vegetables. Three scenarios were hypothesized for human exposure assessment. Scenario I was the most conservative which supposed the undetected CPs would be the detection limit values. Scenario II was assumed that the undetected CPs would be a half of the detection limit values, and finally scenario III merely considered only values greater than the detection limit values. We finally presented the estimated carcinogenic risks on the basis of the traditional risk assessment procedure suggested by U.S. EPA. RESULTS: Pesticides including DDT, dieldrin, folpet and heptachlor epoxide were detected in 9 samples (6%) in the range of 0.0006~0.09ppm. The daily intake levels of carcinogenic pesticides were estimated in the range of 0.0009~0.0079 microgram/day. As we expected, excess cancer risks based on scenario I was also the highest (1.1x10-8~ 5.5x10-5). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the estimated risks from the pesticides we investigated were not serious. We, however, propose that a continuos monitoring is needed to make sure for the protection of public health.
Summary
Air particulate matters and daily mortality in Ulsan, Korea.
Jong Tae Lee, Seong Im Lee, Dongchun Shin, Yong Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):82-90.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A large number of studies have indicated associations between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP) by high volume air sampler were matched to daily death counts supplied by the National Statistics Office, Korea. All deaths, except deaths from accidents, occurred at Ulsan from 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1994 were considered in the poisson regression analysis. The multiple regression models were used to investigate a main effects of air particulate pollution controlling for SO2 levels, air temperature, relative humidity, seasonal variation, and calendar year. The results indicated that the effects of TSP, SO2, temperature, and relative humidity were not significantly associated with all cause mortality. It could, however, be emphasized that the size of the parameter estimate of TSP was very similar to that of previous studies. An increase in particulates of 100microgram/m4 was associated with a 3% increase in mortality. This relationship was observed at TSP levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 150microgram/m4 in Korea as well.
Summary
Scientific rationale and applicability of dose-reponse models for environmental carcinogens.
Dongchun Shin, Yong Chung, Jongman Kim, Seongim G Lee, Mansik Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):27-42.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study described methods to predict human health risk associated with exposure to environmental carciongens using animal bioassay data. Also, biological assumption for various dose-response models were reviewed. To illustrate the process of risk estimate using relevant dose-response models such as Log-normal, Mantel-Bryan, Weibull and Multistage model, we used four animal carcinogenesis bioassy data of chloroform and chloroform concentrations of tap water measured in large cities of korea from 1987 to 1995. As a result, in the case of using average concentration in exposure data and 95 % upper boud unit risk of Multistage model, excess cancer risk(RISK I) was about 1.9 x 10-6, in the case of using probability distribution of cumulative exposure data and unit risks, those risks(RISK II) which were simulated by Monte-Carlo analysis were about 2.4 x 10(-6) and 7.9 x 10(-5) at 50 and 95 percentile, respectively. Therefore risk estimated by Monte-Carlo analysis using probability distribution of input variables may be more conservative.
Summary
Health Risk of Organic Pollutants in the Suspended Particulates in a Traffic Area of Seoul.
Dong Chun Shin, Yong Chung, Jong Man Kim, Seong Eun Park, Yong Wook Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):326-336.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Due to rapid industrialization and economic development since 1970's, Seoul has become known as one of the most heavily polluted cities in the world. This is especially because of its air pollution. This study was conducted to characterize the cancer risk from organic pollutants in the suspended particulates of Seoul. Extractable organic matter(EOM)and PAHs in Shinchon, a major traffic area, were measured monthly in two periods of Aug. 1987-Sep. 1988, and Sep. 1990-Aug. 1991. While the differences both of EOM and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations between these two periods were not significant(P>0.05), the differences between heating and non-heating seasons were significant(P<0.01). The estimated mean concentrations of EOM and benzo(a)pyrene in fine particles in non-heating season were 3.98 microgram/m3 and 0.51ng/m3 respectively, and in heating season were 6.75 microgram/m3 and 2.96 ng/m3 respectively, in these two periods combined. The calculated risk from EOM was compared with that from benzo(a)pyrene and also these values were compared with the level of acceptable risk.
Summary
Atmospheric concentration and mutagenicity of organic pollutants of suspended particulate in Seoul.
Dong Chun Shin, Yong Chung, Young Hahn Moon, Jae Hoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):43-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the difference of concentration and mutagenicity of organic pollutants between residential and traffic area of Seoul, air samples were collected in Bulkwang (residential) and Shinchon (traffic) area. Samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of extractable organic matters (EOM) and their subfractions and mutagenicites were tested using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also measured by gas-chromatography and compared between two areas. The results were as follows ; 1. While the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) in residental area was below the environmental standard in annual average, the concentration in traffic area was above the standard and was up to its maximum 256 microgram/m3 in November. The difference of TSP concentrations in both areas of each month was statistically significant (P<0.05). 2. The concentration of fine particle in traffic area was significantly higher compare to that in residential area and showed statistically significant monthly difference in both areas (P<0.05). The proportion of concentration of fine particle to TSP was 55-68%. 3. Mean concentrations of EOM in residential and traffic areas were 4.3 microgram/m3 and 5.3 microgram/m3 respectively. The proportion of amount of EOM from fine particle to EOM from TSP was 70-88%. 4. While the percentage of polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) of fine particle in Bulkwang's sample was higher compare to Shinchon's sample, the percentage of aliphatic compounds of fine particle in Shinchon's sample was higher compare to Bulkwang's sample. The percentages of PAH fraction were as low as 6-10% in both areas. 5. The mutagenic activity of unit concentration of organic matters extracted from fine particle was higher compare to that of coarse particle and was increased when metabolically activated with S9. Mutagenicities with metabolic activation calculated by unit air volume were significantly different between residential and traffic area, 17 revertants/m3 and 22 revertants/m3 respectively. 6. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in fine particle of traffic and residential areas were 3.10 microgram/m3 and 2.02 microgram/m3 respectively. Sixteen PAHs were higher in samples of traffic area compare to residential area and also concentrations of PAHs in fine particle were higher compare to coarse particle.
Summary
A study on the concentration and health risk of trihalomethanes in drinking water.
Yong Chung, Dong Chun Shin, Bo Young Lee, Sung Han Yu, Sang Hyuk Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):495-505.
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This study was conducted as a nationwide survey in Korea to determine the THM (trihalomethane) concentration levels in the drinking water of 14 selected cities. The survey was undertaken in one city (Kwangju) during September and October of 1988 and 14 cities in January through February of 1988. The results were as follows: 1. The KMnO4 consumption was 10.6 mg/l - 11.6 mg/l in Pusan and Ulsan, exceeding the drinking water standard of 10 mg/l. Pusan, Inchon, Kwangju, Ulsan, Mokpo and Junju areas also exceeded the ammonia nitrate standard of 0.5 mg/l, Other tap waters surveyed were detected below the drinking water standards. 2. The THM concentrations of tap water measured in January and February of 1989 were detected in the range 1.20 microgram/l - 150.8 microgram/l. 3. In the comparative study of the THM concentration of tap water measured in the Kwangju area during September and October of 1988, the average THM concentration of 145.63 +/- 70.72 microgram/l showed a sifford increase compared to that of 23.8 +/- 8.31 microgram/l surveyed in January and February 1989. 4. The proportion of the four THM compounds found in tap water was bromoform, 47%; chloroform, 30%; chlordibromomethane, 13%; and dichlorobromomethane, 10%. 5. Since the results indicate that the concentration of bromoform was 2 - 10 times higher than that of chloroform measured in the seaside district of Pusan, Ulsan and Cheju Island, it is reasonable to assume that the raw water was somehow influenced by seawater. 6. The average lifetime cancer rate of the population exposed to chloroform measured in the surveyed areas was 17 cancer incidences per 1 million population. From the above results, the existence of THM in the distribution systems seems to be inevitable, since chlorine disinfection is performed in water treatment plants in our country. There seems to be a trend of increasing. THM concentrations due to the contamination of raw water. In order to establish any form of regulations, health risk assessment is an imminent subject.
Summary
Particle Size Distribution of Suspended Particulates in the Atmosphere of a Seoul Residential Area.
Eui Jung Han, Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):130-136.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The particle size of suspended particulates was measured by a Andersen air sampler from Mar. 1982 to Feb. 1984 in a part of Seoul. It was concluded as follows: 1) The arithmetic concentration of suspended particulates was 147.8 microgram/m3 in Spring, 136.9 in Summer, 131.9 in Autumn and 158.1 in Winter respectively. 2) The cumulative distribution of suspended particulates size in logarithmic diagram showed similar to normal log distribution. 3) The atmospheric particulate matters showed a bimodal size distribution on the base of unit particle concentrations, which divided at approximately 2 micrometer in the diameter. 4) While the fine particulates less than 2.1 micrometer was 35.4-45.0%, the coarse particulates was 55.0-64.5%. 5) The higher the concentration of suspended particulates, the more increased the ratio of fine particulates. The higher the concentration of suspended particulates, the lower median size of suspended particulate as well. 6) The respirable dust particulates less than 4.7 micrometer was 52.2-62.9% in seasonal average through the 2 year samples. With the above result, air pollution concerned with public health could be evaluated and the control measures also are suggested.
Summary
An Assessment of Air Pollution using Pollutant Standards Index (PSI): 1983~1984 in Seoul.
Yong Chung, Jae Yeon Jang, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):65-75.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to assess the general health effect due to air pollution and to determine the critical pollutant which is meant by the worst effect to health among various pollutants in Seoul, air quality measurements at 10 sites during 1983~1984 were analyzed using Pollutant Standards Index (PSI): This index has been ultimately proposed to describe the comprehensive degree of the air pollution by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) since 1976. Total average of PSI in Seoul during the two years was 139 that is described in "unhealthful". The highest PSI appeared in Winter 183 through the 2 years, the lowest in Summer 99, and Spring 129 and Fall 150 respectively. PSI in Deungchon dong and Seongsu dong which are industrial areas were very high in terms of "very unhealthful", while Shinlim dong was shown in low in terms of "good". TSP was a priority pollutant in Seoul as the most frequently occurring critical pollutant. Its frequency was 76.4% in Spring, 86.0% in Summer, 78.0% in Fall and 44.2% in Winter during the 2 years. In Winter, TSP X SO2 was an important term as the critical pollutant in Seoul. Oxidant was the most frequently occurring critical pollutant in Kwangwhamoon through the whole seasons. It was recommended that the PSI could be used to assess the air pollution administratively and legally in context with public health.
Summary
A Study on the Emission and Dispersion of Particulate Mather from a Cement Plant.
Man Ik Chang, Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):67-77.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the an air pollution by particulate matter and its dispersion, a cement plant producing portland cement 600,000ton/year and its vicinity were surveyed from October, 1980 to April, 1983. The survey was mainly focused on main stack emission rate of the cement plant and particle size distribution in the dust, dustfall and total suspended particulate concentration in the area by month and distance from the stack. The results of the study were as follows; 1. The main stack emission rate was surveyed before and after the spray tower was additionally installed to the original E.P. and bag filter. Before the spray tower installed, the main stack emission rate was higher(0.64g/Nm3) than the emission standard of Korean Environmental Preservation Law's(0.5g/Nm3, amended to 0.4g/Nm3 on April 1983), but after the spray tower was installed, its main stack emission rate was markedly decreased to the standard (0.43g/Nm3). 2. 2~3 micrometer of the particle size was the largest portion(20.8%) of the dust particulate from the main stack and 50% of the frequency distribution was 1.5 micrometer of the size. Most particle size was below 10 micrometer. 3. The spray tower reduced the dustfall to 37.81~9.76ton/km2/month while dustfall appeared at 45.29-15.45ton/km2/month, in the vicinity of plant before spray tower installed. 4. Mean concentrations of total suspended particulate for 24 hours of the various stations were determined in 20.6-200.0 microgram/m3, 3 stations of them were higher than the value of Harry and William's arithmetic average standard 130 microgram/m3. 5. Linear regression between dustfall[X] and total suspended particulate[X] concentration was an equation, Y=4.024X+11.479.[r=0.91]. 6. During the whole seasons in the opposite area 100m apart from the emission source the prevailing wind direction was with estimated more than 30ton/km2/month, and the concentration of total suspended particulate for 24 hours averaging time was more than 140 microgram/m3 in the same area and direction. 7. Assuming the wind direction were constant through the day dustfalls for a day were estimated at 13.40ton/km2/day, 10.79ton/km2/day and 4.55ton/km2/day at various distances of 100m, 500m and 1,500m from the emission source respectively. 8. In the simutalion of dustfall and suspended dust by area, Gaussian dispersion model modified by size distribution of particulate matter was not applicated since the emission of dust were from multi sources other them stack. From the above results, it could be applied that the dispersion of dust from the cement plant is estimated and regulated for the purpose of environmental protection.
Summary
A Study on Antibody Producing by Intoxication of Cadmium Chloride or Lead Acetate in Rat.
Yong Chung, Sung Kun Jung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1982;15(1):89-94.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Among the environmental pollutants, cadmium and lead compounds may impair human health. These compounds may inhibit the biological metabolic function of bum.an body and may furthermore cause the disease directly or indirectly. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the immune response by intoxication of cadmium chloride and chloride acetate. Cadmium chloride (8.8 mg/kg, in saline 10 ml) and lead acetate (15 mg/kg, in saline 10 ml) were administered by lntraperitoneal injection. After 3 weeks, the rats were intoxicated with the above chemicals and immunized with sheep RBC. After 4 weeks, the immune response of rat spleen cells was measured by the Jerne's technique. The results were obtained as follows; 1. There was no change in leukocyte counts by the intoxication of cadmium chloride or lead acetate. 2. Cadmium chloride or lead acetate reduced hemoglobin contents for most intoxicated and immunized groups. 3. Hematocrits were decreased by the intoxication of cadmium chloride or lead acetate significantly. 4. It was determined that total protein, A/G (Albumin/Globulin), alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulins in rat serum were not changed. 5. Intoxication by cadmium chloride or lead acetate reduced the number of hemolytic plaque to the sheep RBC in rat spleen cells. Therefore, antibody producing of rat spleen cells was suppressed by the intoxication of cadmium chloride and lead acetate.
Summary
Heavy Metals of the Suspended Particulate in Atmosphere of Seoul City.
Sook Pyo Kwon, Yong Chung, Dong Koo Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 1979;12(1):49-55.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to investigate air pollution by heavy metals in Seoul city, the suspended particulates in the atmosphere were sampled with high volume air sampler in industrial area(Ku Ro Dong), commercial(Kwang Hwa Moon) and residential(Shin Chon Dong) from January to November, 1977. The sampled suspended particulates were digested and extracted from suspended particulates with the acidic solution by reflux-extraction technique, and were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. And Mercury was measured by mercury analyzer applying the reducing sublimation technique. Among heavy metals analyzed, the iron was identified at th highest level in the suspended particulates and the chromium was the least. Through the surveyed area, the concentration of heavy metals of the industrial area was comparatively high among others and the commercial was the second. It was detected that lead was the most concentrated in the suspended particulate of the commercial area, that might be caused of the traffic emissions. The seasonal variations were analyzed and the correlations among heavy metals and total suspended particulate were also calculated. Especially, the iron was highly correlated with total suspended particulate in all the surveyed areas.
Summary
Studies on Benzo(a)pyrene of the Suspended Particulate in Atmosphere of Seoul City.
Sook Pyo Kwon, Yong Chung, Dong Koo Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 1978;11(1):65-75.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to investigate air pollution by total suspended particulate(T.S.P.), benzene soluble matter and benzo(a)pyrene in Seoul city. The sampling areas were divided into commercial(Kwang Hwa Moon), industrial(Ku Ro Dong) and residential area(Shin Chon). Sampling was undertaken by High Volume Air Sampler for four seasons from January 1977 to November 1977. The T.S.P. was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus by benzene and benzo(a)pyrene was separated by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene were measured by means of fluorophotometer, and following results were obtained. 1. Arithmetic average concentration for 1-day averaging time of total suspended particulate were 275.6 microgram/m3 in Kwang Hwa moon, 325.9 microgram/m3 in Ku Ro Dong and 193.0 microgram/m3 in Shin Chon. 2. The seasonal variance of total suspended particulate at Ku Ro Dong and Shin Chon were 102.7 microgram/m3 99.6 microgram/m3 respectively and at Kwang Hwa Moon 39.9 microgram/m3. And the concentration of autumn is higher than of that spring at Ku Ro Dong and at Shin Chon, but at Kwang Hwa Moon, the seasonal variance is very little. 3. The concentrations of 50% frequency from geometric mean for 1-day averaging time were 264 microgram/m3 and 178 microgram/m3 at Kwang Hwa Moon, Ku Ro Dong and Shin Chon. And geometric standard deviation were 1.27, 1.38 and 1.41 respectively. 4. The concentrations of benzene soluble mater were 26.9 microgram/m3 Kwang Hwa Moon, 22.7 microgram/m3 at Ku Ro Dong and 15.5 microgram/m3 at Shin Chon, and the ratios to the T.S.P. were 9.8%(range 5.6-14.8%), 7.0%(range 2.4-14.4%) and 8.0%(range 5.5-22.1%) respectively. 5. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene were 8.5 microgram/m3 (range 0.8-29.9 microgram/m3 ) at Kwang Hwa Moon 10.9 microgram/m3 (range 1.1-52.0 microgram/m3 ) at Ku Ro Dong and 5.8 microgram/m3 (range 1.5-11.4 microgram/m3) at Shin Chon. 6. The results of this investigation were relatively high in compared with the recommended standards of suspended particulate in air of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and observed levels of Benzo(a)-pyrene in U.S. city.
Summary
Effect of Various Fungi on the Aflatoxin Productivity in the Culture of Asp. Flavus.
En Ju Kim, Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1976;9(1):77-86.
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This study was attempted to know that the interactions of various fungi, and methionine and MgSO4 introduced as the substrate of culture media for fungi were affected to produce aflatoxins by Asp. flavus. 5 different fungi were isolated from the fermented soybean mash and were cultured in Chemically Defined medium (C.D. media) and soybean mash at 25 degrees for 10 days. (1) It was confirmed that Asp. flavus produced aflatoxins in the C.D. medium and soybean mash, but that Asp. niger, Asp. oryzae, Asp. awamori and Asp. terreus did not produced them respectively. (2) Asp. flavus cultured with Asp. niger did not produce aflatoxins in C.D. medium, but produced in soybean mash, in other hand, Asp. flavus with other fungi except Asp. niger produced aflatoxins in C.D. medium and soybean mash. (3) The growth of fungi were more prosperous in the separate culture than in the mixed culture. (4) In the C.D. medium added 20% of cultured medium of Asp. niger, Asp. flavus did not produce aflatoxins but other cultured medium did not prohibit the production of aflatoxins by Asp. flavus. (5) On the contrary, MgSO4 increasing the productivity of aflatoxins by Asp. flavus in the C.D. medium methionine known as one of precurser of aflatoxins did not affected the increasing productivity with significance.
Summary
Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Lactic Dehydrogenase-Isozyme.
Yong Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1970;3(1):111-119.
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Alteration of H-and M-isozymfs of Lactic Dehydrogenase(LDH) were observed in the various tissues after exposing the rats to 50ppm and 250ppm of sulfur dioxide. These isozymes of the respective tissue were separated by Diethlaminoethyl(DEAE)-cellulose from tile tissue homogenates of brain, lung and muscle, presenting the activities by rate of reduction of nicot inamids-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD+). Pure LDH and the coenzyme NAD (NAD) were directly treated with sulfur dioxide in vitro order to find out the direct to sulfur dioxide on LDH and NAD+ and the results were as follow. 1. In the normal tissues, the H-isozyme activity was dominant in the brain and heart, and tole M-isozyme in the muscle. 2. In the lung tissue of normal rats, there was no different between tole activity of H-and M-type of LDH. 3 When rats inhale sulfur dioxide gas in concentration of 50ppm and 230ppm, it appeared that the H-type tend to be suppressed in aerobic tissues and the M-type in anaerobic tissues. 4. In the lung tissue exposed to sulfur dioxide, both the LDH activities were suppressed. 5. It seems that LDH and the coenzyme (NAD ) are not directly affected by exposing in sulfur dioxide gas.
Summary
Study on Aflatoxins in Korean Fermented Foodstuffs.
Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):1-4.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
35 samples of Korean fermented foodstuffs were tested to isolate and to identify for aflatoxins. Aflatoxin G1 was detected in samples of soybean and Kanjang (Soybean sauce), are aflatoxins G1 & G2 in Meju (fermented soybean mass) are Dwenjang (fermented soybean paste). In the culture media of Aspergillus flavus aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were also isolate and identified. Aflatoxins were confirmed by the thin layer chromatography with methancl : chroroform (5:95v/v) developer and the ultra violet absorption spectrum.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health