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Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;35(2): 123-128.
Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol and Cancer Mortality in Men: The Kangwha Cohort Study.
Sang Gyu Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Sang Wook Yi, Hee Chul Ohrr
1Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Korea.
2Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Korea.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol and cancer mortality in men in the Kangwha cohort after 12 years and 10 months of follow up. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 2,681 men in the Kangwha cohort aged over 55 in 1985. Number of deaths and the time to death from all cancers and other cause were measured and the data for the smoking and drinking habits were obtained from the baseline survey data in 1985. All subjects were categorized into four groups according to their smoking habits: non-smokers, ex-smokers, moderate-smokers (1-19 cigarettes per day), heavy-smokers (> or =20 cigarettes per day). In addition, they were also categorized according to their drinking habits: non-drinkers, light-drinkers (< or =1 drink per week), moderate-drinkers (<3 drinks per day), heavy-drinkers (> or =3 drinks per day). The cancer specific death rates were calculated according to their smoking and drinking status. The adjusted risk ratio for all cancer deaths according to their smoking and drinking status were estimated using the Cox's proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Using nonsmokers as the reference category, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer deaths were 1.573(95% CI=1.003-2.468) for heavy-smokers. For lung cancer deaths, the adjusted risk ratios were 3.540(95% CI=1.251-10.018) for moderate-smoker and 4.114(95% CI=1.275-13.271) for heavy-smokers. Compared to non-drinkers, the adjusted risk ratio for stomach cancer was 2.204(95% CI=1.114-4.361) for light-drinkers. CONCLUSION: Smoking is the most significant risk factor for cancer deaths particularly lung cancer.
Key words: Smoking; Alcohols; Neoplasms; Mortality; Cohort studies
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