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3 "Urinary tract symptoms"
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Original Article
Non-linear Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Males
Chang Kyun Choi, Sun A Kim, Ji-An Jeong, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):147-153.   Published online March 29, 2019
  • 9,938 View
  • 186 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Korean males.
This study was conducted on males aged ≥50 years who participated in the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. LUTS severity was assessed using the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and was dichotomized as severe (IPSS >19) and non-severe (IPSS ≤19). BMI was divided into 6 categories: <18.5, 18.5-22.9, 23.0-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2. To evaluate the relationship between BMI and LUTS, a survey-weighted multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, educational level, household income, and comorbidities were adjusted for in the multivariate model.
A U-shaped relationship was detected between BMI and severe LUTS. Compared with a BMI of 23.0-24.9 kg/m2, the PRR for a BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 2.02), that for a BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.44), that for a BMI of 25.0-27.4 kg/m2 was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.45), that for a BMI of 27.5-29.9 kg/m2 was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.47), and that for a BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2 was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.88).
This study showed that both high and low BMI were associated with severe LUTS.
Korean summary
이 연구는 2011 지역사회건강조사를 기반으로 하였다. 한국인 남성에서 체질량지수와 하부요로증상 간에는 U자형 관련성이 있었으며, 저체중과 비만 모두 높은 하부요로증상 유병률을 보였다. 따라서 전립선 질환의 건강서비스 제공에 있어서 비만 뿐만 아니라 저체중 또한 위험인자로 함께 고려할 필요가 있다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Metabolic syndrome and male lower urinary tract symptoms
    Gallus B. INEICHEN, Fiona C. BURKHARD
    Panminerva Medica.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Report
Is Caffeine Intake Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Japanese Adults?
Fumi Hirayama, Andy H. Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):204-208.   Published online May 31, 2012
  • 9,030 View
  • 78 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults.


A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form.


Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively.


No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clinical Guidelines for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (second edition)
    Satoru Takahashi, Mineo Takei, Hirotaka Asakura, Momokazu Gotoh, Osamu Ishizuka, Kumiko Kato, Masayasu Koyama, Masami Takeyama, Hikaru Tomoe, Tomonori Yamanishi, Osamu Yokoyama, Masaki Yoshida, Yasukuni Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa
    International Journal of Urology.2021; 28(5): 474.     CrossRef
  • Caffeine as a Factor Influencing the Functioning of the Human Body—Friend or Foe?
    Kamil Rodak, Izabela Kokot, Ewa Maria Kratz
    Nutrients.2021; 13(9): 3088.     CrossRef
  • Coffee intake, health-related quality of life, and associated factors of overactive bladder in older Korean women living in rural South Korea
    Jeongok Park, Young Joo Lee, Kyunghwa Lee, SoMi Park
    Journal of Women & Aging.2019; 31(5): 367.     CrossRef
  • Harninkontinenz bei geriatrischen Patienten, Diagnostik und Therapie

    Aktuelle Urologie.2019; 50(S 01): s11.     CrossRef
  • Prospective study on the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on urinary symptoms in young and healthy volunteers
    Andrea Staack, Brian Distelberg, Amy Schlaifer, Joan Sabaté
    Neurourology and Urodynamics.2017; 36(2): 432.     CrossRef
  • No Association of Caffeinated Beverage or Caffeine Intake with Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence Among Middle-Aged Japanese Women: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
    Masafumi Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hitomi Suga, Jun Kobayashi, Satoshi Sasaki, the Three-Generation Study of Women
    Journal of Women's Health.2017; 26(8): 860.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Caffeine on Overactive Bladder Symptoms
    Imari-Ashley F. Palma, Andrea Staack
    Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports.2016; 11(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Coffee and caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of observational studies
    Shenyou Sun, Dongbin Liu, Ziyao Jiao
    BMC Urology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Jong Min Baek, Jae Yen Song, Sung Jong Lee, Eun Kyung Park, In Cheul Jeung, Chan Joo Kim, Yong Seok Lee, Jayoung Kim
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(2): e0149311.     CrossRef
  • Caffeine Intake and its Association with Urinary Incontinence in United States Men: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–2006 and 2007–2008
    Nicole J. Davis, Camille P. Vaughan, Theodore M. Johnson, Patricia S. Goode, Kathryn L. Burgio, David T. Redden, Alayne D. Markland
    Journal of Urology.2013; 189(6): 2170.     CrossRef
  • Selected Literature Watch

    Journal of Caffeine Research.2012; 2(2): 99.     CrossRef
English Abstract
Relationship of Socioeconomic Factors with Medical Utilization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a South Korean Community.
Han Hae Kim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Hun Jae Lee, Hana Yoon, Bo Eun Lee, Ok Ryun Moon, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(2):141-148.
  • 2,150 View
  • 43 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We wanted to evaluate the medical underutilization for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean elderly men and we wanted to determine their associated factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on 239 men with LUTS and 116 men with BPH who were compatible with the diagnostic criteria from a total of 641 participants. These participants were over 50 years old and they were randomly chosen in a community-based study for estimating the prevalence of BPH. Using a self-reported questionnaire, we surveyed the sociodemographics, health status, quality of life, lower urinary tract symptoms, medical utilization and reasons for not seeking treatment. RESULTS: Only 27.6% of the men with LUTS and 31.0% of the men with BPH reported having visited a doctor for urinary symptoms. The reasons for not visiting a doctor were, in order of responses from the group with LUTS: 'considered the symptoms as a part of the normal ageing process', 'not enough time to visit a doctor', 'financial difficulty' and 'the symptoms were not severe or bothersome'. Regarding BPH, the responses were the same as those of the group with LUTS however, 'financial difficulty' placed second. Among the men with experience of visiting a doctor for urinary symptoms, 33.3% of those with LUTS and 28.1% of those with BPH were not treated. The most common reason in both groups was 'the symptoms were not severe to be treated'. On a multiple logistic regression analysis, the larger size household (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.40-6.54) and an unsatisfactory quality of life related with urinary symptoms (OR 2.98, 95% CI=1.23-7.21) were associated with medical utilization in the group of LUTS. For BPH, the current employment status was related with the medical utilization (OR 2.80, 95% CI=1.10-7.11), in addition to the larger size household (OR 3.24, 95% CI=1.14-9.21). CONCLUSIONS: Many men with urinary symptoms do not visit a doctor. This medical underutilization for people with LUTS and BPH may be associated with economic status in Korea.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health