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Special Article
Statin Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Updated Subgroup Meta-analysis Considering Immortal Time Bias
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):424-427.   Published online August 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.209
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
A retrospective record-linkage study (RLS) based on medical records containing drug prescription histories involves immortal time bias (ITB). Thus, it is necessary to control for this bias in the research planning and analysis stages. Furthermore, a summary of a metaanalysis including RLSs that did not control for ITB showed that specific drugs had a preventive effect on the occurrence of the disease. Previous meta-analytic results of three systematic reviews evaluating the association between statin intake and gastric cancer risk showed that the summary hazard ratio (sHR) of the RLSs was lower than 1 and was statistically significant. We should consider the possibility of ITB in the sHR of RLSs and interpret the results carefully.
Summary
Korean summary
이차자료를 활용하여 구축한 코호트 추적연구는 immortal time bias가 개입될 개연성을 염두에 두어야 한다. 이들 연구결과들을 제외한 메타분석 결과 스타닌 복용에 따른 위암발생 위험 감소는 관련성이 없다는 결과를 도출하였다.

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  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors use and the risk of gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Shih-Wei Lai, Bing-Fang Hwang, Yu-Hung Kuo, Chiu-Shong Liu, Kuan-Fu Liao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
A Survival Analysis of Gastric or Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Surgery: Comparison of Capital and a Non-capital City
Nam-Soo Hong, Kyeong Soo Lee, Sin Kam, Gyu Seog Choi, Oh Kyoung Kwon, Dong Hee Ryu, Sang Won Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(5):283-293.   Published online July 3, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.043
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of the present study was to compare prognosis of patients with gastric or colorectal cancer according to places where they received surgeries. Methods: The cancer patients underwent surgeries in sampled hospitals located in Daegu were matched 1:1 to the patients who visited sampled hospitals in Seoul using propensity score method. After the occurrences of death were examined, Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and the log-rank test was performed to compare the survival curves. Results: A total of six out of 291 gastric cancer patients who had surgeries in Daegu died (2.1%) and ten deaths (3.4%) occurred from patients went Seoul hospitals. Out of 84 gastric cancer patients who had chemotherapy after surgeries in Daegu, 13 (15.5%) patients died while 18 (21.4%) deaths occurred among patients underwent surgeries in Seoul. Six deaths (6.9%) out of 87 colorectal cancer patients who had surgeries in Daegu were reported. Five patients (5.7%) died among the patients underwent surgeries in Seoul. Among the colorectal cancer patients with chemotherapy after surgeries, 13 patients (12.4%) who visited hospitals in Daegu and 14 (13.3%) patients who used medical centers in Seoul died. There were no significant differences according to places where patients used medical services. Conclusions: The result of this study is expected to be used as basic data for policy making to resolve centralization problem of cancer patients and to help patients to make rational choices in selection of medical centers.
Summary

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  • Domestic medical travel from non-Seoul regions to Seoul for initial breast cancer treatment: a nationwide cohort study
    Jae Ho Jeong, Jinhong Jung, Hee Jeong Kim, Jong Won Lee, Beom-Seok Ko, Byung Ho Son, Kyung Hae Jung, Il Yong Chung
    Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research.2023; 104(2): 71.     CrossRef
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    Sung-Soo Kim
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Review
Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review
Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(4):197-204.   Published online July 7, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.024
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  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world.
Methods
A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model.
Results
Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC.
Conclusions
Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections.
Summary

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    Min-Su Kim, In Sik Song, Kyoung Ho Oh, Jae-Gu Cho, Seung-Kuk Baek, Jeong-Soo Woo, Kwang-Yoon Jung, Soon Young Kwon
    Ear, Nose & Throat Journal.2022; 101(2): NP50.     CrossRef
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    Seung Joo Kang, Cheol Min Shin, Joohon Sung, Nayoung Kim
    Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.2021; 45(1): 6.     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Oncology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Differences in the Levels of Gastric Cancer Risk Factors Between Nanjing and Minqing Counties, China
Xiang-Quan Xie, Kui-Cheng Zheng, Bing-Shan Wu, Tie-Hui Chen, Shan-Rong Lai, Zai-Sheng Lin, Kazuo Aoki
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(5):281-287.   Published online September 12, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.018
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In Fujian Province, China, gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among all malignant tumors. Nanjing county and Minqing county are located in inland Fujian and have similar general demographics. However, the adjusted mortality rate of gastric cancer in Minqing was found to be much higher than that in Nanjing. We sought to explore factors associated with this increased risk of gastric cancer between the two counties. Methods: We recruited 231 and 224 residents from Nanjing and Minqing, respectively, and analyzed differences between their dietary habits, Helicobacter pylori infection rates, and concentrations of serum pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, gastrin-17, and ratio of pepsinogen I:II. Results: Subjects in Minqing had more first-degree relatives who had been diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal tumor, more unhealthy dietary habits, a higher Helicobacter pylori positive rate, and greater proportion of abnormal serum gastrin-17 than those in Nanjing did. Conclusions: The factors that differed between these two counties might indicate that residents in Minqing have a higher risk for developing gastric cancer than those in Nanjing do.
Summary

Citations

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  • Changing trends of clinicopathologic features and survival duration after surgery for gastric cancer in Northeast China
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Mean Sojourn Time of Preclinical Gastric Cancer in Korean Men: A Retrospective Observational Study
Jong-Myon Bae, Sang Yop Shin, Eun Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(4):201-205.   Published online July 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.4.201
  • 12,839 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the mean sojourn time (MST) of preclinical gastric cancer in Korean men.
Methods
The subjects consisted of voluntary male screenees aged 40 to 69 years who underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies after testing negative at a baseline screening performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A new case was defined if gastric cancer cells were present in the biopsy specimens obtained from gastroscopy. The follow-up period was calculated as the number of person-years between the date of baseline screening gastroscopy and positive findings at a subsequent screening. The MST was calculated using transition rates of gastric cancer to determine the best screening interval.
Results
Of the 171 979 voluntary male screenees, 61 688 (36%) underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies between January 2007 and December 2011. A total of 91 incident cases were found during 19 598 598 person-years of follow-up. The MST of gastric cancer was 2.37 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.92 to 2.96), and those aged 40 to 49 years had a shorter MST than those 50 to 69 years did.
Conclusions
These findings support the 2-year interval of screening recommended by the nationwide gastric cancer screening program in Korea. Further studies for the age-specific MST among women are needed.
Summary

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English Abstract
Prognostic Impact of Charlson Comorbidity Index Obtained from Medical Records and Claims Data on 1-year Mortality and Length of Stay in Gastric Cancer Patients.
Min Ho Kyung, Seok Jun Yoon, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Se min Hwang, Hyun Ju Seo, Kyoung Hoon Kim, Hyeung Keun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):117-122.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.117
  • 5,622 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We tried to evaluate the agreement of the Charlson comorbidity index values (CCI) obtained from different sources (medical records and National Health Insurance claims data) for gastric cancer patients. We also attempted to assess the prognostic value of these data for predicting 1-year mortality and length of the hospital stay (length of stay). METHODS: Medical records of 284 gastric cancer patients were reviewed, and their National Health Insurance claims data and death certificates were also investigated. To evaluate agreement, the kappa coefficient was tested. Multiple logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to evaluate and compare the prognostic power for predicting 1 year mortality and length of stay. RESULTS: The CCI values for each comorbid condition obtained from 2 different data sources appeared to poorly agree (kappa: 0.00-0.59). It was appeared that the CCI values based on both sources were not valid prognostic indicators of 1-year mortality. Only medical record-based CCI was a valid prognostic indicator of length of stay, even after adjustment of covariables (beta = 0.112, 95% CI = [0.017-1.267]). CONCLUSIONS: There was a discrepancy between the data sources with regard to the value of CCI both for the prognostic power and its direction. Therefore, assuming that medical records are the gold standard for the source for CCI measurement, claims data is not an appropriate source for determining the CCI, at least for gastric cancer.
Summary

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Multicenter Study
Cigarette Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Community-based Cohort Study in Korea.
Yeonju Kim, Aesun Shin, Jin Gwack, Jae Kwan Jun, Sue Kyung Park, Daehee Kang, Hai Rim Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):467-474.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.467
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Gastric cancer is the most common incident cancer in Korea. Although Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, cigarette smoking has also been suggested to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 13,785 subjects who had been enrolled in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2002. As of December 2002, 139 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained through the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the National Death Certificate Database. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for gastric cancer were estimated using CoxZs proportional hazard model adjusted for age, education, alcohol drinking status and history of gastritis or ulcer. RESULTS: Significant dose-response relationships were observed between the duration of smoking and the risk of gastric cancer among the male subjects in comparison to non-smokers: men who smoked for 20-39 years had a 2.09- fold (95% CI 1.00-4.38) increase, and those who smoked for more than 40 years had a 3.13-fold (95% CI 1.59-6.17) increase in the risk of gastric cancer (Ptrend<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a longer duration of cigarette smoking may increase the risk of gastric cancer development in a dose-response manner in Korean men. The association between smoking and gastric cancer risk in women should be verified in future studies with a larger number of cases.
Summary

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English Abstract
Factors Influencing the Intention to have Stomach Cancer Screening.
Myung Il Hahm, Kui Son Choi, Su Yeon Kye, Min Son Kwak, Eun Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(3):205-212.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.3.205
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing the intention to have stomach cancer screening using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in Korea. METHODS: For this population-based study, 1,535 adult respondents (aged 40 to 70 years) were recruited using multi-stratified random sampling and a face-to-face administered questionnaire. This study was based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Intentions were divided into three scenarios for fee payment in the next two years: (1) free of charge, (2) co-payment, and (3) full charge. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors influencing the intention to have stomach cancer screening. RESULTS: Perceived behavioral control and attitude toward stomach cancer screening were significant predictors of the intention to have stomach cancer screening. However, subjective norm only influenced the intention to have stomach cancer screening with full charge in the next two years. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that attitude and perceived behavioral control are likely to contribute toward increasing the intention to have stomach cancer screening. Especially, perceived behavioral control is a good predictor. Because the study subjects were nation wide residents, the study results can be generalized.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors Affecting Cancer Screening Intention and Behavior of the Korean Elderly
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    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2014; 15(19): 8461.     CrossRef
  • Regional Factors Associated with Participation in the National Health Screening Program: A Multilevel Analysis Using National Data
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2013; 28(3): 348.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Cancer Screening Intention in Eligible Persons for National Cancer Screening Program
    Rock-Bum Kim, Ki-Soo Park, Dae-Yong Hong, Cheol-Heon Lee, Jang-Rak Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Gastric Cancer Screening of Koreans Based on a Socio-ecological Model
    Sang Soo Bae, Heui Sug Jo, Dong-Hyun Kim, Yong-Jun Choi, Hun Jae Lee, Tae Jin Lee, Hye Jean Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2008; 41(2): 100.     CrossRef
Original Article
The Effect of Screening of Stomach Cancer on Stage Shift.
Jung Wan Koo, Won Chul Lee, Cho Hyun Park, Ji Youn Han, In Sik Chung, Nam Sun Paik, Hoon Kyo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):25-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of stage shift according to screening of stomach cancer. METHODS: Total 840 cases of stomach cancer patients, undergone a surgical operation at Department of Surgery, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from Jan. 1989 to Dec. 1995, were reviewed by stomach cancer working sheet, and classified as asymptomatic and symptomatic group based on the presence of subjective symptoms on their hospital visit. Their histopathologic stages were analysed. We compared the histopathologic stages of asymptomatic stomach cancer patients with those of symptomatic patients. RESULTS: From the total of 840 patients, asymptomatic patients group comprised 28 cases (3.3%). Proportion of asymptomatic patients tended to increase from 1.9% in 1990, 0.9% in 1991 to 8.6% in 1995. Proportions of asymptomatic patients by stages were 78.6% (stage I), 3.6% (stage III), 17.9% (stage IV) and that of symptomatic patients by stages were 38.2% (stage I), 16.5% (stage II), 24.8% (stage III), 19.1% (stage IV). In less than 40 years old, 50.5% of symptomatic patients were diagnosed as stage I. With increment of ages, proportions of stage I were markedly decreased. It was significantly different between proportion of early gastric cancer in asymptomatic patients (60.1%) and that in symptomatic patients (25.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed stage shift according to screening of stomach cancer. And proportion of early gastric cancer in asymptomatic patients was higher than that in symptomatic patients. This results suggest that screening of gastric cancer be important to reduce mortality and it be indirectly started from 40 years old.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health