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15 "Smoking cessation"
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Original Article
Factors Associated With Quitting Smoking in Indonesia
Rimawati Aulia Insani Sadarang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):137-144.   Published online March 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.293
  • 4,731 View
  • 240 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with quitting smoking in Indonesia
Methods
Data on 11 115 individuals from the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey were analyzed. Quitting smoking was the main outcome, defined as smoking status based on the answer to the question “do you still habitually (smoke cigarettes/smoke a pipe/use chewing tobacco) or have you totally quit?” Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with successful attempts to quit smoking.
Results
The prevalence of quitting smoking was 12.3%. The odds of successfully quitting smoking were higher among smokers who were female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08 to 3.33), were divorced (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.82 to 3.29), did not chew tobacco (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.08), found it difficult to sacrifice smoking at other times than in the morning (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.46), and not smoke when sick (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.54). About 59% of variance in successful attempts to quit smoking could be explained using a model consisting of those variables.
Conclusions
Female sex, being divorced, not chewing tobacco, and nicotine dependence increased the odds of quitting smoking and were associated with quitting smoking successfully. Regular and integrated attempts to quit smoking based on individuals’ internal characteristics, tobacco use activity, and smoking behavior are needed to quit smoking.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictor of smoking cessation among school-going adolescents in Indonesia: a secondary analysis based on the transtheoretical model of behavioral change
    Omid Dadras
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with quitting smoking among males: Findings from Indonesian national health survey
    Diyan Ermawan Effendi, Irfan Ardani, Sri Handayani, Rozana Ika Agustiya, Arief Priyo Nugroho, Oktriyanto Oktriyanto, Astridya Paramita, Deasy Febriyanty, Risqa Novita, Aris Yulianto
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2024; 28: 101672.     CrossRef
  • Individual-, social- and policy- factors associated with smoking cessation among adult male cigarette smokers in Hanoi, Vietnam: a longitudinal study
    Thi Ngoc Phuong Nguyen, Jesper Love, Monica Hunsberger, Thi Phuong Thao Tran, Thuy Linh Nguyen, Thi Hai Phan, Ngoc Khue Luong, Van Minh Hoang, Nawi Ng
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Quit Smoking Clinic: Factors Associated with Successful Quit Smoking in Besut District, Terengganu State of Malaysia
    Nur Raihan Ismail, Hafizuddin Awang, Nurul Jannah A Rahman, Arfizah Ahmad Daud, Mohd Fariz Zulrushdi, Azmi Zainuddin, Mohd Anuar Abd Rahman, Kasemani Embong
    European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences.2022; 4(6): 6.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Impact of Admission Diagnosis on the Smoking Cessation Rate: A Brief Report From a Multi-centre Inpatient Smoking Cessation Programme in Singapore
Jason Jia Hao See, Kay Choong See
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(5):381-386.   Published online July 17, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.134
  • 3,237 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Few studies have been published regarding the relevance of the admission diagnosis to the smoking cessation rate. We studied smoking cessation rates in relation to admission diagnoses in our inpatient smoking cessation programmes.
Methods
This retrospective study included all patients recruited into our inpatient smoking cessation programmes at 2 institutions in Singapore between June 2008 and December 2016. Patients were given individualized intensive counselling and were followed up via phone interviews for up to 6-month to assess their smoking status. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse potential associations between admission diagnoses and 6-month abstinence.
Results
A total of 7194 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 54.1 years, and 93.2% were male. In total, 1778 patients (24.7%) were abstinent at the 6-month follow-up call. Patients who quit smoking tended to be of Chinese ethnicity, have initiated smoking at a later age, be better educated, and have lower Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence scores. After adjusting for these factors, patients with a cardiovascular admission diagnosis had a significantly higher probability of quitting tobacco use than patients with a respiratory or other diagnosis.
Conclusions
In patients acutely admitted to the hospital, a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease was associated with the highest quit rate. Smoking cessation interventions need to be incorporated into all cardiovascular disease treatment pathways to leverage the patient’s motivation and to improve the quit rate. In addition, patients in groups with lower quit rates may benefit from more intensive programmes to increase the rate of successful cessation.
Summary
Original Article
Factors Related to Smoking Status Among Young Adults: An Analysis of Younger and Older Young Adults in Korea
Yeji Lee, Kang-Sook Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(2):92-100.   Published online January 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.201
  • 7,104 View
  • 267 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Young adulthood represents a critical developmental period during which the use of tobacco may begin or cease. Furthermore, differences in smoking behaviors between younger (aged 18-24 years) and older (aged 25-34 years) young adults may exist. This study aimed to characterize patterns related to current smoking in younger and older young adults.
Methods
This study used data acquired from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2013 to 2014. A total of 2069 subjects were categorized as younger (712 subjects) and older (1357 subjects) young adults. The chi-square test was used to assess the relationships between smoking status and socio-demographic, health-related, and smoking-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the factors affecting current smoking in these age groups.
Results
The current smoking prevalence was 18.3% among the younger young adults and 26.0% among the older young adults. Sex, education level, occupation, perceived health status, alcohol consumption, and electronic cigarette use were related to current smoking in both age groups. Secondhand smoke exposure at home and stress levels showed significant relationships with smoking in younger and older young adults, respectively.
Conclusions
Strong correlations were found between the observed variables and smoking behaviors among young adults. Determining the factors affecting smoking and designing interventions based on these factors are essential for smoking cessation in young adults.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 제 6기 2013-2014년도 자료를 이용하였으며, 대상자 중 청년(18-34세)인 총 2,069명의 자료를 활용하여 전기 청년(18-24세)과 후기 청년(25-34세)인 두 연령 집단(18-24세, 25-34세)으로 나누어서 각 집단의 현재 흡연에 미치는 요인을 분석하고자 하였다. 본 연구 결과, 두 연령 집단 모두에서 성별, 대학교육 여부, 직업, 자가보고 건강수준, 음주, 그리고 평생 전자담배 사용은 현재 흡연과 유의한 관련이 있게 나타났으며, 가정실내 간접흡연 노출은 전기 청년에서만, 스트레스 정도는 후기 청년에서만 유의한 관련이 있었다. 본 연구는 전기 청년과 후기 청년에서 사회경제적 요인, 건강관련 요인, 흡연 관련 요인이 중요한 예측인자로 나타난 것을 알 수 있었으며 이에 따른 맞춤형 금연 프로그램의 적용이 필요할 것으로 시사한다.

Citations

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    Leandro Pinheiro Vieira, Rafael Mesquita Pereira
    EconomiA.2024; 25(1): 53.     CrossRef
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    BMJ Open.2024; 14(4): e082734.     CrossRef
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    Hani Salsabila Deva, Ferry Efendi, Candra Panji Asmoro, Ronal Surya Aditya, Lisa McKenna, Abdullah Saleh Alruwaili
    F1000Research.2024; 13: 410.     CrossRef
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    Karla Paulina Luna-Castillo, Andres López-Quintero, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Iris Monserrat Llamas-Covarrubias, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval
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    Marjan Abbasi-Dokht-Rafsanjani, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Fereidoun Azizi, Davood Khalili
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Seulgi Kim, Sung-il Cho
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(1): e051712.     CrossRef
  • Electronic Cigarette Use and Other Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Thai Undergraduate Students
    Phantara Chulasai, Surarong Chinwong, Purida Vientong, John J. Hall, Dujrudee Chinwong
    Healthcare.2022; 10(2): 240.     CrossRef
  • Association between smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking amount by age
    Jin-Won Noh, Min-Hee Kim, Yejin Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki-Bong Yoo
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Seong Yeon Kim, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Avni Gakkhar , Ashok Mehendale, Shivansh Mehendale
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hee Jin Kim, Bokim Lee, Min Kyung Song, Jinhwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2021; 32(2): 186.     CrossRef
  • A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking in the Brazilian Youth Population
    Emerson Silveira Brito, Marina Bessel, Thayane Dornelles, Flávia Moreno, Gerson Pereira, Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Heather Wipfli, Mahfuzur Rahman Bhuiyan, Xuezheng Qin, Yuliya Gainullina, Erlinda Palaganas, Masamine Jimba, Junko Saito, Karin Ernstrom, Rema Raman, Mellissa Withers
    Addictive Behaviors.2020; 107: 106420.     CrossRef
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    Yongho Jee, Keum Ji Jung, Joung Hwan Back, Sun Mi Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
    Cancer Causes & Control.2020; 31(10): 943.     CrossRef
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    Hye Chong Hong, Young Man Kim, Ari Min
    European Journal of Cancer Care.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Yeji Lee, Kang-Sook Lee, Haena Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(18): 3363.     CrossRef
  • Experience and Current Use of Heated Tobacco Products in Korean Military Personnel
    Eunjoo Kwon, Eun-Hee Nah, Seon Cho, Jieun Chu, Suyoung Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2019; 19(4): 221.     CrossRef
Brief Report
National Trends in Smoking Cessation Medication Prescriptions for Smokers With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States, 2007-2012
Min Ji Kwak, Jongoh Kim, Viraj Bhise, Tong Han Chung, Gabriela Sanchez Petitto
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):257-262.   Published online August 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.119
  • 5,369 View
  • 151 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Smoking cessation decreases morbidity and mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is highly effective. However, the optimal prescription rate of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD has not been systemically studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national prescription rates of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD and to examine any disparities therein.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 2007 to 2012. We estimated the national prescription rate for any smoking cessation medication (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy) each year. Multiple survey logistic regression was performed to characterize the effects of demographic variables and comorbidities on prescriptions.
Results
The average prescription rate of any smoking cessation medication over 5 years was 3.64%. The prescription rate declined each year, except for a slight increase in 2012: 9.91% in 2007, 4.47% in 2008, 2.42% in 2009, 1.88% in 2010, 1.46% in 2011, and 3.67% in 2012. Hispanic race and depression were associated with higher prescription rates (odds ratio [OR], 5.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59 to 16.67 and OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.26 to 5.51, respectively). There were no significant differences according to insurance, location of the physician, or other comorbidities. The high OR among Hispanic population and those with depression was driven by the high prescription rate of bupropion.
Conclusions
The prescription rate of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD remained low throughout the study period. Further studies are necessary to identify barriers and to develop strategies to overcome them.
Summary

Citations

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Special Article
Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation
Sungwon Roh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(1):1-5.   Published online November 29, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.088
  • 7,334 View
  • 282 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.
Summary

Citations

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    Sandra-Milena Carrillo-Sierra, Lorena Cárdenas-Cáceres, John Anderson Cadrazco-Urquijo, Angie Natalia Salazar-Gómez, Diego Rivera-Porras, Valmore Bermúdez
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Original Articles
Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA
Eunjeong Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):251-261.   Published online June 25, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.032
  • 9,145 View
  • 172 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs) on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. Methods: In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. Results: It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO) would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. Conclusions: The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.
Summary

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Social Determinants of Smoking Behavior: The Healthy Twin Study, Korea
Youn Sik Kim, Hansoo Ko, Changgyo Yoon, Dong-Hun Lee, Joohon Sung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(1):29-36.   Published online January 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.1.29
  • 9,901 View
  • 73 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to identify any influence of socioeconomic status on smoking and smoking cessation in a situation where genetic factors are controlled.

Methods

The sample for this study was 2502 members of the twins and families cohort who participated in the Korean Healthy Twins Study from 2005 to 2009. Groups of brothers or sisters, including twins and fraternal twins, were compared in terms of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors according to differences in socioeconomic status and gender.

Results

In a situation with complete control of genetic factors, results showed that the daily smoking amount, cumulative smoking amount, and dependence on nicotine decreased with higher-status occupations, and the rate of smoking and amount of cumulative smoking decreased with higher levels of education. Regarding smoking cessation behavior, a higher level of education was associated with a lower smoking cessation rate, and no significant gender differences were found.

Conclusions

Environmental factors had a stronger influence on smoking behavior than did genetic factors. Genetic factors had greater influence on smoking cessation than did environmental factors; however, this requires verification in further studies.

Summary

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English Abstract
Smoking Relapse and Related Factors Within One Year Among Successes of the Smoking Cessation Clinics of Public Health Centers.
Mi Jag Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(2):84-92.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.2.84
  • 4,952 View
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  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate smoking relapse and the related factors within 1 year after discharge from the smoking cessation clinics (SCCs) of public health centers (PHCs). METHODS: Data were collected with a structured questionnaire from 395 people who success fully stopped smoking at 4 SCCs in Busan between May and June 2009, and this data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The rate of smoking relapse within 1 year after discharge from SCCs was 39.2% and this decreased rapidly over 6 months after discharge. The factors related to smoking relapse within 1 year after discharge from SCCs were being female (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.82), a trial of smoking cessation with any assistants (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.19), more than 7 ppm of exhaled CO2 on the SCCs' registration (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.64), use of pharmacotherapy after discharge from SCCs (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.93), alcohol drinking more than once a week after discharge from SCCs (HR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.15 to 6.78), and a perceived barrier (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.30) after discharge from the SCCs. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, at least 6 months follow-up after discharge from SCCs of public health centers is recommended to reduce the rate smoking relapse. It is also recommended to strengthen the education on how to overcome barriers such as drinking in the course of smoking cessation clinics.
Summary

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Evaluation Studies
The Factors Implicated When an Individual Starts to Smoke Again After a 6 Month Cessation.
Hyo Kyung Son, Un Young Jung, Ki Soo Park, Sin Kam, Sun Kyun Park, Won Kee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):42-48.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.42
  • 4,873 View
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  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine the factors implicated when people start smoking again after a 6 month cessation, and was carried out at the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center. METHODS: The study subjects were 191 males who had attended the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center for 6 months in an attempt to quit smoking. Data was collected, by phone interview, regarding individual smoking habits, if any, over the 6 month study period. The factors which may have caused an individual to smoke again were examined. This study employed a health belief model as it theoretical basis. RESULTS: Following a 6 month cessation, 24.1% of the study group began to smoke again during the 6 month test period. In a simple analysis, the factors related to individuals relapsing and smoking again included barriers of stress reduction, body weight gain and induction of smoking by surroundings among perceived barriers factor of our health belief model (p<0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis for relapsed smoking, significant factors included barriers of stress reduction and induction of smoking by surroundings (p<0.05). The most important reason of for an individual to relapse into smoking was stress (60.9%) and the most likely place for a relapse to occur was a drinking establishment (39.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that both regular consultations and a follow-up management program are important considerations in a public health center program geared towards maintaining smoking cessation.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors Related to Smoking Recurrence within Six-months Smoking Cessation among Employees in Enterprises with Smaller than 300 Workers
    Byung Jun Jin, Chul-Woung Kim, Seung Eun Lee, Hyo-Bin Im, Tae-Yong Lee
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  • Factors related to the smoking relapse of out-of-school adolescents
    Ji Eun Bae, Chul-Woung Kim, Seung Eun Lee, Hyo-Bin Im, In Young Kim, Tae-Yong Lee, Sang-Yi Lee, Myungwha Jang
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2021; 38(3): 13.     CrossRef
  • Re-smoking and related factors of prisoners after release who were in a forced smoking cessation environment for 1 year or more
    Jina Jung, Hae-Sung Nam
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2019; 36(3): 27.     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Smoking Relapse among Military Personnel in Korea: Data from Smoking Cessation Clinics, 2015–2017
    Eunjoo Kwon, Eun-Hee Nah
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2018; 18(3): 138.     CrossRef
  • Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses
    Sol Yu, Wonho Yang, Kiyoung Lee, Sungcheon Kim, Kwonchul Ha, Sungroul Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2015; 12(11): 14034.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Failure in The Continuity of Smoking Cessation Among 6 Month's Smoking Cessation Succeses in the Smoking Cessation Clinic of Public Health Center
    Hyeon-Soon Choi, Hae-Sook Sohn, Yun-Hee Kim, Myeong-Jin Lee
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(10): 4653.     CrossRef
  • Smoking Relapse and Related Factors Within One Year Among Successes of the Smoking Cessation Clinics of Public Health Centers
    Mi Jag Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2011; 44(2): 84.     CrossRef
  • Evidence-based smoking cessation counseling: motivational intervention and relapse prevention
    Soon-Woo Park
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2011; 54(10): 1036.     CrossRef
  • The Patterns and Risk Factors of Smoking Relapse among People Successful in Smoking Cessation at the Smoking Cessation Clinics of Public Health Centers
    Yi Soon Kim, Yun Hee Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2011; 22(4): 365.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Predictors of Stage of Change for Smoking Cessation among Adolescents based on the Transtheoretical Model.
Namhee Park, Jungsoon Kim, Ihnsook Jeong, Byungchul Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):377-382.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictor associated transitions with each stage of smoking cessation based on the Transtheoretical Model, and to provide basic data for smoking cessation programs for adolescents. METHODS: The participants were 297 current and former smokers, obtained from stratified random sampling of 2nd graders from 127 high schools in B cities. The data were collected between April 6th and 16th 2002, using a structured self-report questionnaire, and analyzed using a multiple logistic regression, with the SPSS program for Windows (Version 10.0). RESULTS: The predictors of transition from precontemplation to contemplation were consciousness raising (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.40), coping pros (OR=.84, 95% CI: .70-1.00) and attitude of parents to smoking (OR=2.97, 95% CI: 94-9.24). The predictors of transition from contemplation to preparation were helping relationships (OR=.83, 95% CI: 72-.96), self-liberation (OR=1.15, 95% CI: 99-1.33) and nicotine dependence (OR=.76, 95% CI: 56-1.03). The only predictor of transition from preparation to action was the social pros (OR=.66, 95% CI: .57-.82). The predictors of transition from action to maintenance were self-reevaluation (OR=.81, 95% CI: .71-.92) and negative affective situation (OR=.85, 95% CI: .72-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Adequate examination on the factors for predicting the transitional stages of change for smoking cessation in Koreans are presented in this study. The results of this study will become the pillar of smoking cessation planning and application programs.
Summary
Smoking Status and Smoking Cessation Activity among Physicians in a Community.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Myung Gun Kang, Hyung Cheol Park, Jin Sun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):271-278.
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OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study were to assess the smoking status, knowledge and attitude related to smoking and smoking cessation activity of the physicians in a community, and to identify their predictors of smoking cessation activity. METHOD: All physicians employed by various health facilities in a community were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Of the physicians surveyed, 523 (69.6%) returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS: The smoking rate of physicians was 29.3% (34.2% in males, 3.6% in females) and the knowledge and attitude scores to smoking were 22.5+/-2.4 and 65.4+/-6.9, respectively. The self-efficacy score was 3.4+/-1.0 and the smoking cessation activity score was 65.4+/-6.9. The smoking cessation activity was statistically significant with working place, specialty, knowledge and attitude to smoking and self-efficacy. In stepwise multiple regression, smoking cessation activity was predicted by doctors' working place, specialty, attitudes related to smoking issues, and self-efficacy of counseling knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: Physicians need to participate routinely and actively in smoking cessation activity. For doctors to effectively counsel and intervene in patients regarding smoking cessation, it is essential to integrate education on smoking cessation intervention into curricula in formal education and to offer continuing education including smoking cessation intervention.
Summary
Predictors of Smoking Cessation in Outpatients.
Yune Sik Kang, Jang Rak Kim, Joung Soon Jang, Young Sil Hwang, Dae Yong Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):248-254.
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OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate predictors of smoking cessation in outpatients. METHOD: Subjects were 401 adult smoking patients who saw their doctors in the outpatient setting at a university hospital, regardless of their willingness of otherwise in smoking cessation. Physicians delivered a brief, stop smoking prompt to all patients who smoked one or more cigarettes a day. Then they referred to on-site counselors who provided a brief, nurse assisted intervention with a survey to a randomly assigned intervention group (200 smoking patients), whom the counselors telephoned later to prevent relapse or promote the motivation to quit, or gave only a survey to a control group (201 smoking patients). After at least 5 months, self-reported current smoking cessation was confirmed later using cut-off values of 7 ppm or less in expired alveolar air after breath holding portable CO analyzer. RESULTS: After 5 months, subjects in the intervention group were 1.56 times (95% C.I. 0.89-2.73) more likely to quit smoking than those in the non-intervention group (14.0% vs. 9.0%). Willingness to quit smoking in a month, scheduled admission in a month, self efficacy score and FTND (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) score were all significantly related with smoking cessation. In stepwise multiple logistic regression, previous attempts to quit smoking were significant instead of self efficacy score. In the intervention group who had willingness to quit smoking in a month (132 smoking patients), FTND score, whether quit date was today, and whether quit promise paper was submitting were all significantly related with smoking cessation. In stepwise multiple logistic regression, scheduled admission in a month and whether quit date was today were significant predictor variables. Smoking cessation treatment should be tailored to individual smoking patients considering these predictors.
Summary
Factors Related to the Intention of Participation in a Worksite Smoking Cessation Program.
Jae Hee Son, Sung Ah Kim, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Ki Su Park, Hee Sook Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):297-305.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate factors related to the intention of participation in a worksite smoking cessation program. METHODS: To explain the health behavior of participating intention in a worksite smoking cessation program, the health belief model(HBM) was used as study model, and 144 self-administered questionnaires were completed by electronic company workers. Variables of the health belief model were composed of perceived susceptibility to smokinginduced disease, perceived severity of smoking-induced disease, economical gain as perceived benefit of smoking cessation, and nicotine dependency as perceived barrier of smoking cessation. Variables of sociodemographics, smoking status, knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking, and cues to smoking cessation were used as modifying factors. RESULTS: Perceived severity(POR=1.99, 95%CI: 1.03-3.83), perceived benefit(POR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.07-4.17), and perceived barrier(POR=0.29, 95%CI: 0.11-0.76) were significant variables to the intention of participation in a worksite smoking cessation program in the logistic regression analysis. The perceived severity was significantly affected by knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking(POR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.23-3.84). The perceived barrier was significantly affected by education level(POR=3.66, 95%CI: 1.17-11.44), age to first cigarette (POR=0.32, 95%CI: 0.10-0.98), pack-years(POR=5.47, 95%CI: 2.37-12.61). To the perceived benefit, the model was not fitted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results found that counterplans improving the knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking, preventing early smoking, and decreasing smoking amount should be considered for an effective smoking ban policy.
Summary
English Abstracts
Changes in Smoking Status among Current Male Smokers and Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation Success.
Jin Seok Lee, Yangjung Kim, Won Nyon Kim, Seung Sik Hwang, Yong Ik Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):339-345.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study (a) investigated the rate of smoking cessation sucess for current male smokers, and (b) identified the factors that are associated with the smoking cessation success. METHODS: Data were collected from four follow-up surveys of 700 current male smokers. The follow-up period was from December 2004 to June 2005. Success of smoking cessation was defined as "maintaining a smoking cessation status for six months". The demographic and socioeconomic factors included age, the household income level and, occupation. The smoking behavioral factors were composed of the amount of smoking, the duration of smoking, the age of initiating smoking, the willingness to quit, the frequency of trying to quit smoking and the smoker`s attitude toward the anti-smoking policies. RESULTS: The proportion of quitters increased from 6.6% to 11.0% during the follow-up period. The majority of quitters answered that the increase of tobacco price acted as cue to achieve smoking cessation. The agestandardized experience and success rate of smoking cessation were 16.0% (95% C.I.=13.0% to, 19.0%) and 4.5% (95% C.I.=3.0% to, 6.0%), respectively. On the multivariate analysis, success for smoking cessation was associated with the willingness to quit smoking, low prior tobacco consumption, and agreement on the tobacco price increase. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the recent anti-smoking policies provided an opportunity to quit smoking. The results of this study can be used to establish evidence for further anti-smoking policies.
Summary
Factors Affecting Re-smoking in Male Workers.
Jin Hoon Yang, Hee Sook Ha, Sin Kam, Ji Seun Lim, Yune Sik Kang, Duk Hee Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):208-214.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. METHODS: A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1, 154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. RESULTS: The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (p< 0.05). Of the cues to action variables in the Heath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (p< 0.05). In the multiple logistic regression analysis for re-smoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: From the result of this study, for an effective smoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking cessation.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health