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Original Article
Reliability of a Newly Developed Tool to Assess and Classify Work-related Stress (TAWS-16) for Indian Workforce
Gautham Melur Sukumar, Runalika Roy, Mariamma Philip, Gururaj Gopalkrishna
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):407-412.   Published online August 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.219
  • 952 View
  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Work stress is associated with non-communicable diseases, increased healthcare costs, and decreased work productivity among employees in the information technology sector. There is a need for regular work-stress screening among employees using valid and reliable tools. The Tool to Assess and Classify Work Stress (TAWS-16) was developed to overcome limitations in existing stress assessment tools in India. This study aimed to test the reliability of TAWS-16 in a sample of managerial-supervisory employees.
Methods
This observational reliability study included data from 62 employees. Test-retest and inter-method reliability were investigated using a TAWS-16 web application and interview by telephone, respectively. Kappa values and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha.
Results
For both test-retest and inter-method reliability, the agreement for both work-related factors and symptoms suggestive of work stress exceeded 80%, and all kappa values were 0.40 or higher. Cronbach’s alpha for test-retest and inter-method reliability was 0.983 and 0.941, respectively.
Conclusions
TAWS-16 demonstrated acceptable reliability. It measured stressors, coping abilities, and psychosomatic symptoms associated with work stress. We recommend using TAWS-16 to holistically identify work stress among employees during periodical health check-ups in India.
Summary
Key Message
The study assessed test-retest and inter-method reliability of Tool to Assess Work Stress (TAWS – 16) developed by Centre for Public Health, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) on 62 employees in Bengaluru, India. Kappa statistics, Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha were calculated. TAWS – 16 demonstrated acceptable reliability, good internal consistency and can be used to identify work stress among employees during periodical health check-ups in Indian setting.
Special Articles
Overview of Noncommunicable Diseases in Korean Children and Adolescents: Focus on Obesity and Its Effect on Metabolic Syndrome
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):173-182.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.173
  • 11,927 View
  • 107 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Obesity during childhood is a dominant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and is itself considered a disease that needs to be treated. Recently, the growth in childhood obesity in Korea has become stagnant; however, two in every ten children are still overweight. In addition, 60% or more of overweight children have at least one metabolic syndrome risk factor. Thus, childhood obesity should be controlled through lifestyle modification. This paper reviews studies of the modifiable risk factors of obesity in Korean children. According to the life-course approach, preschool-aged children (<5 years) are influenced by their parents rather than individual habits because they are under mostly parental care. Elementary school-aged children (6 to 11 years) are affected by overlapping individual and parental effects. This may mean that the establishment of individual behavior patterns begins during this period. The conditions of poor eating habits such as skipping meals, eating out, and high fat intake, along with low physical activity, facilitate increased obesity among adolescents (12 to 18 years). Notably, adolescent girls show high rates of both underweight and obesity, which may lead to the development of NCDs in their offspring. Therefore, the problem of NCDs is no longer limited to adults, but is also prevalent among children. In addition, early intervention offers cost-effective opportunities for preventing NCDs. Thus, children need primary consideration, adequate monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce the burden of NCDs later in adulthood.

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Citations

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Noncommunicable Diseases: Current Status of Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Korea
Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):165-172.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.165
  • 16,254 View
  • 263 Download
  • 79 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society.

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Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases and National Strategies to Control Them in Korea
Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):155-164.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.155
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(5):292
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Several Korean studies have shown that these risk factors play an important role in creating socioeconomic inequalities in NCD mortality and total mortality. Current international discussions on NCD policies in the United Nations and the World Health Organization would provide better opportunities for developing aggressive population-wide policy measures in Korea. Considering the paucity of population-wide policies to control major NCD risk factors in Korea, rigorous population approaches such as taxation and regulation of unhealthy commodities as well as public education and mass campaigns should be further developed in Korea.

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health