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2 "Lactation"
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Original Article
Correlations Among Maternal and Infant Factors, Lead Exposure, and Serum Prolactin Levels During Lactation: A Cross-sectional Study in Indonesia
Linda Ratna Wati, Djanggan Sargowo, Tatit Nurseta, Lilik Zuhriyah, Bambang Rahardjo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):422-430.   Published online August 22, 2023
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Prolactin is vital for breastfeeding and milk production, and its secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment. To date, no study has concurrently investigated the correlation of these factors with serum prolactin levels during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation.
A cross-sectional approach was employed in Surabaya, Indonesia, among 110 exclusively lactating mothers. The mothers’ daily diets were determined using multiple 24-hour recalls, while blood lead levels were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum prolactin levels were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For bivariate analysis, we employed the Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, while for multivariate analysis, we utilized multiple linear regression.
The average serum prolactin level of the lactating mothers was 129.19±88.96 ng/mL. Positive correlations were found between serum prolactin levels and breastfeeding frequency (p < 0.001), protein intake (p < 0.001), and calcium intake (p = 0.011) but had negative correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin B6 intake (p = 0.003). Additionally, prolactin levels were not significantly associated with maternal age; parity; intake of calories, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, folic acid, magnesium, or iron; infant age; or infant sex.
Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Key Message
Prolactin secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment, and this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation. In total 110 exclusively lactating mothers were included, with information on their socio-demographic, daily diet, blood lead level, prolactin level, and infant characteristics. Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Developmental Toxicity by Exposure to Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether during Gestation and Lactation Period in Sprague-dawley Male Rats.
Un jun Hyoung, Yun Jung Yang, Su Kyoung Kwon, Jae Hyoung Yoo, Soon Chul Myoung, Sae Chul Kim, Yeon Pyo Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):155-161.
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  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is the major component in commercial liquid epoxy resins, which are manufactured by co-reacting bisphenol A with epichlorohydrin. This study was performed to show the developmental effects of prenatal and postnatal exposures to BADGE in male rat offspring. METHODS: Mated female rats were divided into four groups, each containing 12 rats. The dosing solutions were prepared by thoroughly mixing BADGE in corn oil at the 0, 375, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg/day concentrations. Mated females were dosed once daily by oral gavage on gestation day (GD) 6 - 20 and postnatal day (PND) 0 - 21. Pregnant female dams were observed general symptoms and body weight. Also, male pups were observed the general symptoms, body weight, developmental parameters (e.g. anogenital distance, pina detachment, incisor eruption, nipple retention, eye opening, testis descent), organ pathologic changes and hormone levels of plasma. RESULTS: Pregnant rats treated with BADGE died at a rate of about 70% in the 1500 mg/kg/day group and all rats treated with 3000 mg/kg/day died. Body weight, for male pups treated with doses of 375 mg/kg/day, was significantly lower than in the control group at PND 42, 56, and 63 (p<0.05). Evaluation of body characteristics including; separation of auricle, eruption of incisor, separation of eyelid, nipple retention, descent of testis, and separation of the prepuce in the BADGE treated group showed no difference in comparisons with the control group. AGD and adjusted AGD (mm/kg) for general developmental items in BADGE 375 mg/kg/day treated pups tended to be longer than in controls, however, these differences were not statistically significant. Relative weights of adrenal gland, lung (p<0.05), brain, epididymis, prostate, and testis (p<0.01) were heavier than in control in measures at PND 9 weeks. There were no significant changes in comparisons of histological findings of these organs. Loss of spermatids was observed in the seminiferous tubule at PND 9 weeks, but no weight changes were observed. The plasma estrogen levels were similar in the control and treatment groups at PND 3, 6 and 9 weeks. The plasma testosterone levels in the control group tended to increase with age. However, in the BADGE 375 mg/kg/day treated male pups it did not tend to increase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that BADGE is a chemical that has developmental effects consistent with it being an endocrine disruptor.


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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health