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Special Article
Introduction to Mediation Analysis and Examples of Its Application to Real-world Data
Sun Jae Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(3):166-172.   Published online May 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.069
  • 8,151 View
  • 392 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Traditional epidemiological assessments, which mainly focused on evaluating the statistical association between two major components-the exposure and outcome-have recently evolved to ascertain the in-between process, which can explain the underlying causal pathway. Mediation analysis has emerged as a compelling method to disentangle the complex nature of these pathways. The statistical method of mediation analysis has evolved from simple regression analysis to causal mediation analysis, and each amendment refined the underlying mathematical theory and required assumptions. This short guide will introduce the basic statistical framework and assumptions of both traditional and modern mediation analyses, providing examples conducted with real-world data.
Summary
Korean summary
본 리뷰에서는 전통적으로 쓰여왔던 회귀분석 기반 매개요인분석방법과 인과적 매개요인분석방법에 대하여 간략히 소개하며, 또한 예시를 들어 설명하고 있다. 매개요인 분석 전에는 필요한 가정들이 맞는 지를 확인하는 것이 중요하다. 또한 분석결과를 올바르게 해석하는 것 또한 요구된다. 이러한 방법은 그동안의 노출-결과만을 다루는 단순 역학연구을 뛰어넘어, 인구집단연구에서 매커니즘을 밝히는 도구로서 유용하게 쓰일 것이다.

Citations

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    Ruoyi Lei, Ling Zhang, Xin Liu, Ce Liu, Ya Xiao, Baode Xue, Zengwu Wang, Jihong Hu, Zhoupeng Ren, Bin Luo
    Environmental Research.2024; 240: 117418.     CrossRef
  • The mediation roles of intermuscular fat and inflammation in muscle mitochondrial associations with cognition and mobility
    Qu Tian, Philip R. Lee, Qi Yang, Anne Z. Moore, Bennett A. Landman, Susan M. Resnick, Luigi Ferrucci
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2024; 15(1): 138.     CrossRef
  • Mediators of the Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review
    Nicholas Grubic, Braeden Hill, Katherine S. Allan, Katerina Maximova, Hailey R. Banack, Marina del Rios, Amer M. Johri
    Canadian Journal of Cardiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Theodore G. Liou, Natalia Argel, Fadi Asfour, Perry S. Brown, Barbara A. Chatfield, David R. Cox, Cori L. Daines, Dixie Durham, Jessica A. Francis, Barbara Glover, My Helms, Theresa Heynekamp, John R. Hoidal, Judy L. Jensen, Christiana Kartsonaki, Ruth Ke
    iScience.2024; 27(3): 108835.     CrossRef
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    Solange M. Saxby, Carlyn Haas, Farnoosh Shemirani, Tyler J. Titcomb, Patrick Ten Eyck, Linda M. Rubenstein, Karin F. Hoth, Linda G. Snetselaar, Terry L. Wahls
    International Journal of MS Care.2024; 26(2): 61.     CrossRef
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    Stephanie Guzman, Robert D. Melara
    Journal of American College Health.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Mixed heavy metals exposure affects the renal function mediated by 8-OHG: A cross-sectional study in rural residents of China
    Xiaoyu Tian, Xiaobing Shan, Li Ma, Chenyang Zhang, Mei Wang, Jie Zheng, Ruoyi Lei, Li He, Jun Yan, Xun Li, Yanjun Bai, Keqin Hu, Sheng Li, Jingping Niu, Bin Luo
    Environmental Pollution.2023; 317: 120727.     CrossRef
  • Association between the overall burden of comorbidity and Ct values among the older patients with Omicron infection: Mediated by inflammation
    Meixia Wang, Hongfei Mi, Na Li, Qingfeng Shi, Wei Sun, Tingjuan He, Jiabing Lin, Wenting Jin, Xiaodong Gao, Bijie Hu, Chenghao Su, Jue Pan
    Frontiers in Immunology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Preferences of Young Polish Renters: Findings from the Mediation Analysis
    Janusz Sobieraj, Marek Bryx, Dominik Metelski
    Buildings.2023; 13(4): 920.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 and mood following the Swank and Wahls elimination dietary interventions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Secondary analysis of the WAVES trial
    Farnoosh Shemirani, Tyler J. Titcomb, Solange M. Saxby, Patrick Ten Eyck, Linda M. Rubenstein, Karin F. Hoth, Linda G. Snetselaar, Terry L. Wahls
    Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.2023; 75: 104743.     CrossRef
  • Mediation Analysis of Maternal Smoking, Gestational Age, and Birth Weight on the Texas–Mexico Border
    Chinodebem Ogbutor, Stephanie M. Mishaw, Zuber D. Mulla
    Southern Medical Journal.2023; 116(6): 478.     CrossRef
  • Individual exposure of ambient particulate matters and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal Polyps: Dose-Response, mediation effects and recurrence prediction
    Jiajia Wang, Shen Shen, Bing Yan, Yunsheng He, Guoji Zhang, Chunguang Shan, Qintai Yang, Long Qin, Zhijian Duan, Luyun Jiang, Xin Wang, Xin Wei, Chengshuo Wang, Rui Chen, Luo Zhang
    Environment International.2023; 177: 108031.     CrossRef
  • The association between lead exposure and crime: A systematic review
    Maria Jose Talayero, C. Rebecca Robbins, Emily R. Smith, Carlos Santos-Burgoa, Naveen Puttaswamy
    PLOS Global Public Health.2023; 3(8): e0002177.     CrossRef
  • Mediation analysis of mental health characteristics linking social needs to life satisfaction among immigrants
    David Adzrago, Faustine Williams
    SSM - Population Health.2023; 24: 101522.     CrossRef
  • Maternal anemia and baby birth size mediate the association between short birth interval and under-five undernutrition in Ethiopia: a generalized structural equation modeling approach
    Desalegn Markos Shifti, Catherine Chojenta, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Deborah Loxton
    BMC Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Elevated Maternal Psychological Distress, Altered Fetal Brain, and Offspring Cognitive and Social-Emotional Outcomes at 18 Months
    Yao Wu, Kristina M. Espinosa, Scott D. Barnett, Anushree Kapse, Jessica Lynn Quistorff, Catherine Lopez, Nickie Andescavage, Subechhya Pradhan, Yuan-Chiao Lu, Kushal Kapse, Diedtra Henderson, Gilbert Vezina, David Wessel, Adré J. du Plessis, Catherine Lim
    JAMA Network Open.2022; 5(4): e229244.     CrossRef
Original Article
Epidemiological Features of Human Cases After Bites/Scratches From Rabies-suspected Animals in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Selma Uzunović, Muhamed Skomorac, Fatima Bašić, Ivona Mijač-Musić
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):170-178.   Published online April 16, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.252
  • 5,561 View
  • 156 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To determine the epidemiological features of patients and animals after bites/scratches from rabies-suspected animals in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Methods
Data from all patients (and the causative animals) admitted to the Antirabies Service of the Institute for Health and Food Safety Zenica in the 2009-2017 period were analyzed, including age, sex, anatomical site of the bite/scratch, animal type (stray/owned/wildlife), veterinary observations of the animal, and whether antirabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was indicated and/or administered.
Results
In total, 1716 patients were admitted. Bites/scratches were most frequently recorded during April and May (n=181, 10.5% and n=163, 9.5%, respectively). The persons admitted were mostly from the Zenica municipality (n=1278, 74.5%; incidence: 11.55/ 1000), which is 66.6% urbanized. Males were more frequently represented (n=1089, 63.6%). The patients were mostly 50-64 and 25-49 years of age (n=425, 24.7% and n=390, 22.7%, respectively). Dog bites were the most common cause (n=1634, 95.1%, of which n=1258, 77.0% were caused by stray dogs). PEP was indicated for 997 (58.1%) patients. Only 340 (19.9%) animals underwent veterinary observations (3.1% of stray and 76.1% of owned animals). The largest number of injuries were presented at lower extremities, 1044 (60.8%) cases.
Conclusions
Zenica-Doboj Canton is a rabies-free region. Due to the high rate of stray animals not undergoing veterinary observations, the non-existence of a unique dog registry, and the consequent lack of information about stray animals in terms of number, vaccination, neutering, and euthanasia, there is an urgent need for improving the prevention and control of rabies within the One Health framework.
Summary

Citations

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  • Dog bites as a zoonotic risk in Ecuador: Need for the implementation of a One Health approach
    G. Joselyn Calderón, Silvia Poveda, Ariana León Sosa, Naomi Mora, Manel López Bejar, Solón Alberto Orlando, Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain
    One Health.2023; 16: 100544.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Dog Bite Incidents in Chile: Factors Related to the Patterns of Human-Dog Relationship
    Carmen Luz Barrios, Carlos Bustos-López, Carlos Pavletic, Alonso Parra, Macarena Vidal, Jonathan Bowen, Jaume Fatjó
    Animals.2021; 11(1): 96.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health