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Household Overcrowding in Iran, a Low-middle-income Country: How Major of a Public Health Concern Is It?
Leila Jansar Hosseini, Ali Hussein Samadi, Abraha Woldemichael, Masoumeh Najaf Gharebelagh, Satar Rezaei, Enayatollah Homaie Rad
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):73-80.   Published online January 11, 2021
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  • 116 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Household overcrowding (HC) can contribute to both physical and mental disorders among the members of overcrowded households. This study aimed to measure the status of HC and its main determinants across the provinces of Iran.
Data from 39 864 households from the 2016 Iranian Household Income and Expenditures Survey were used in this study. The Equivalized Crowding Index (ECI) and HC index were applied to measure the overcrowding of households. Regression models were estimated to show the relationships between different variables and the ECI.
The overall, urban, and rural prevalence of HC was 8.2%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively. The highest prevalence of HC was found in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (28.7%), while the lowest was found in Guilan Province (1.8%). The number of men in the household, rural residency, the average age of household members, yearly income, and the household wealth index were identified as the main determinants of the ECI and HC.
The study demonstrated that the ECI and HC were higher in regions near the borders of Iran than in other regions. Therefore, health promotion and empowerment strategies are required to avoid the negative consequences of HC, and screening programs are needed to identify at-risk families.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Social determinants of health and diabetes: Results from a cohort study in Iran
    SeyedJalal Hashemi, Mehrnoosh Jasemzadeh, Nader Saki, Bahman Cheraghian, Sara Sarvandian, Ali Montazeri, Maedeh Raeisizadeh, Marzieh Araban
    Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior.2023; 6(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • Inadequate housing and pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Namhee Kwon, Ga-yeon Goo, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Impact of an Emergency Fee Increase on the Composition of Patients Visiting Emergency Departments
Hyemin Jung, Young Kyung Do, Yoon Kim, Junsoo Ro
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(6):309-316.   Published online November 24, 2014
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  • 110 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study aimed to test our hypothesis that a raise in the emergency fee implemented on March 1, 2013 has increased the proportion of patients with emergent symptoms by discouraging non-urgent emergency department visits.
We conducted an analysis of 728 736 patients registered in the National Emergency Department Information System who visited level 1 and level 2 emergency medical institutes in the two-month time period from February 1, 2013, one month before the raise in the emergency fee, to March 31, 2013, one month after the raise. A difference-in-difference method was used to estimate the net effects of a raise in the emergency fee on the probability that an emergency visit is for urgent conditions.
The percentage of emergency department visits in urgent or equivalent patients increased by 2.4% points, from 74.2% before to 76.6% after the policy implementation. In a group of patients transferred using public transport or ambulance, who were assumed to be least conscious of cost, the change in the proportion of urgent patients was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the probability that a group of patients directly presenting to the emergency department by private transport, assumed to be most conscious of cost, showed a 2.4% point increase in urgent conditions (p<0.001). This trend appeared to be consistent across the level 1 and level 2 emergency medical institutes.
A raise in the emergency fee implemented on March 1, 2013 increased the proportion of urgent patients in the total emergency visits by reducing emergency department visits by non-urgent patients.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health