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Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea
Gum Ryeong Park, Inseo Son, Seung-Sup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):301-307.   Published online August 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.041
  • 9,288 View
  • 172 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional study of 4141 biethnic adolescents using data from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Perceived ethnic discrimination was measured using the question “Have you ever been discriminated against or ignored because either of your parents is not a Korean?” with an assessment of depressive symptoms over the past 12 months. Logistic regression was applied to examine potential associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms.
Results
Among 4141 biethnic adolescents, 558 (13.5%) reported having experienced ethnic discrimination. The most common discriminatory perpetrators were friends (n=241, 5.8%), followed by strangers (n=67, 1.6%). Depressive symptoms were related to experience of ethnic discrimination (odds ratio [OR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.89 to 4.98) after adjusting for potential confounders. In an analysis focusing on the perpetrators of discrimination, depressive symptoms were found to be associated with perceived ethnic discrimination from friends (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.75 to 5.68), teachers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.16 to 9.51), family members and relatives (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.48), neighbors (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.38), and strangers (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.30 to 4.79). Furthermore, the OR for depressive symptoms among those exposed to 1, 2, or 3 or more discriminatory perpetrators were 3.61 (95% CI, 2.49 to 5.24), 3.61 (95% CI, 1.68 to 7.74), and 6.69 (95% CI, 2.94 to 15.22), respectively.
Conclusions
According to our findings, friends were the most common perpetrators of discrimination and the experience of ethnic discrimination was associated with depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults: A prospective population-based cohort study
    Yaping Wang, Jiaojiao Liao, Hongguang Chen, Liyuan Tao, Jue Liu
    Heliyon.2024; 10(1): e23843.     CrossRef
  • Ethnic discrimination, asking for fair treatment, and poor self-rated health: a gender stratified analysis of 13,443 Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea
    Hayoung Lee, Ji-Hwan Kim, Garin Lee, Hyelin Lee, Mita Huq, Delanjathan Devakumar, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The changes in biethnic acceptance across daily settings and biethnic adolescents' psychological well‐being during middle school transition
    Sung Hee Hong, Jiyeon Lee, Grace H. Chung
    Journal of Adolescence.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Historical Representations and Psychological Distress Among Africans in Europe: The Mediation Role of Perceived Discrimination
    Raymond Agyenim-Boateng, Francis Adams
    Community Mental Health Journal.2023; 59(7): 1422.     CrossRef
  • Perceived Discrimination as a Critical Factor Affecting Self-Esteem, Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Depression of Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Korea
    Hyemee Kim, Kwanghyun Han, Seojin Won
    Behavioral Sciences.2023; 13(4): 343.     CrossRef
  • Target Congruence as a Means of Understanding the Risk of Bullying Victimization among Multicultural Family Youth in South Korea
    Jaeyong Choi, Nathan Kruis, Julak Lee
    Crime & Delinquency.2022; 68(13-14): 2395.     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms Among Multicultural Adolescents in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Joung, Sung Suk Chung
    The Journal of School Nursing.2022; 38(2): 138.     CrossRef
  • Mother-Child Social Cognition Among Multicultural Families in South Korea
    Joohee Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Depression Mediates Association Between Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Elevated Blood Glucose Levels Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Australia
    P. I. Bilal, C. K. Y. Chan, S. M. Somerset
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2021; 23(2): 199.     CrossRef
  • Analyzing Gender Differences in Factors Affecting Depression among Multicultural Adolescents in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Eun Jee Lee, Sookyung Jeong
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3683.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination in Korea: a machine learning approach
    Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021099.     CrossRef
  • Factors affecting the self-rated health of immigrant women married to native men and raising children in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Bookyoung Kim, Kyung-Bok Son
    BMC Women's Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Ethnic Identity on the Relationship Between Mental Health and Perceived Discrimination Among Ethnic Return Migrants: The Case of Korean Chinese Return-Migrated to South Korea
    Jihyung Hong
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2019; 21(3): 522.     CrossRef
  • The Mental Health of Ethnic Minority Youths in South Korea and Its Related Environmental Factors: A Literature Review
    Yeeun Lee, Minji Lee, Subin Park
    Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2019; 30(3): 88.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study of Mental Health States Among Adolescents in Multicultural Versus Monocultural Families, Using the 13th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2017
    Hae Jeong Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Intae Han, Sung Hoon Kim
    Iranian Journal of Pediatrics.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Discrimination by whom? : Unraveling the effect of experiences of discrimination on depression of multi-ethnic children and adolescents in Korea
    Hyemee Kim, Seojin Won
    Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development.2019; 29(4): 307.     CrossRef
  • Taekwondo Training Improves Mood and Sociability in Children from Multicultural Families in South Korea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
    Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(4): 757.     CrossRef
  • Health risk behaviors and psychological problems among South Korean, North Korean, and other multicultural family adolescents (2011–2016)
    Subin Park, Minji Lee, Se Jin Park, Min Geu Lee
    Psychiatry Research.2018; 268: 373.     CrossRef
  • Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems
    Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(5): 541.     CrossRef
School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea
Ji-Hwan Kim, Ja Young Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(1):61-68.   Published online January 21, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.060
  • 12,253 View
  • 162 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea.
Methods
We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately.
Results
In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28).
Conclusions
This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Meta-analysis of the relationship between bullying and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents
    Zixiang Ye, Dongmei Wu, Xiaoyan He, Qin Ma, Jianyan Peng, Guoju Mao, Lanling Feng, Yuhao Tong
    BMC Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Akran Şiddetine Maruz Kalma ve Öğrenmede Öz Düzenleme Değişkenleri Açısından Okul Öncesinde Okula Uyum
    Hülya GÜLAY OGELMAN, Seda SARAC, Döne KAHVECİ, Selay AKDOĞAN
    Ulusal Eğitim Akademisi Dergisi.2022; 6(1): 102.     CrossRef
  • The Moderating Effect of Help-Seeking on the Relationship between Experience of School Violence and Internalizing Behaviors
    Seon Ok Son, Hyunyong Park
    STRESS.2022; 30(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • The prevalence of sexual violence against female children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xianguo Qu, Xin Shen, Ruihong Xia, Ji Wu, Yilei Lao, Min Chen, Yong Gan, Chunming Jiang
    Child Abuse & Neglect.2022; 131: 105764.     CrossRef
  • Association between parents’ country of birth and smoking risks in South Korean adolescents
    Minah Park, Seung Hoon Kim, Fatima Nari, Bich Na Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Perceived friend support buffers against symptoms of depression in peer victimized adolescents: Evidence from a population-based cohort in South Korea
    L.C. Perret, M. Ki, M. Commisso, D. Chon, S. Scardera, W. Kim, R. Fuhrer, G. Gariépy, I. Ouellet-Morin, M-C. Geoffroy
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2021; 291: 24.     CrossRef
  • The mediating role of willingness to seek help on the relationship between peer victimization and mental health outcomes
    Anne Williford, Julia L. Sharp, Alex Fout, Casey Schafer, Xiaosong Shi, Debbie Isen
    Children and Youth Services Review.2021; 128: 106161.     CrossRef
  • An Investigation into Causes of Violence at Secondary Schools in Da Nang, Vietnam
    Phuong Thi Hang Nguyen, Dung My Le, Loan Thi Phuong Le
    International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Research And Allied Sciences.2021; 10(3): 112.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination in Korea: a machine learning approach
    Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021099.     CrossRef
  • Sexual Violence against Children and Adolescents Taking Place in Schools: An Integrative Review
    Charlene de Oliveira Pereira, Renata Macedo Martins Pimentel, Francisco Naildo Cardoso Leitão, Sandra Dircinha Texeira de Araújo Moraes, Paula Christianne Gomes Gouveia Souto Maia, Everson Vagner de Lucena Santos, Maria Nathallya Rodrigues de Freitas, Gil
    Children.2020; 7(12): 258.     CrossRef
  • Associations between peer victimization and school climate: The impact of form and the moderating role of gender
    Anne Williford, Paula J. Fite, Debbie Isen, Jonathan Poquiz
    Psychology in the Schools.2019; 56(8): 1301.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study of Mental Health States Among Adolescents in Multicultural Versus Monocultural Families, Using the 13th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2017
    Hae Jeong Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Intae Han, Sung Hoon Kim
    Iranian Journal of Pediatrics.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Parents' Country of Birth and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: the Early Stages of Multicultural Society
    Jieun Jang, Eun-Cheol Park, Sang Ah Lee, Young Choi, Yoon Soo Choy, Woorim Kim, Sung-In Jang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Taekwondo Training Improves Mood and Sociability in Children from Multicultural Families in South Korea: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
    Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(4): 757.     CrossRef
  • Health risk behaviors and psychological problems among South Korean, North Korean, and other multicultural family adolescents (2011–2016)
    Subin Park, Minji Lee, Se Jin Park, Min Geu Lee
    Psychiatry Research.2018; 268: 373.     CrossRef
  • School violence, perceptions of safety and school attendance: results from a cross-sectional study in Rwanda and Uganda
    Sarah R Meyer, Gary Yu, Sabrina Hermosilla, Lindsay Stark
    Journal of Global Health Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations of multicultural status with depressive mood and suicidality among Korean adolescents: the roles of parental country of birth and socioeconomic position
    Jinwook Bahk, Agnus M. Kim, Young-Ho Khang
    BMC Public Health.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems
    Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(5): 541.     CrossRef
  • Don’t ask for fair treatment? A gender analysis of ethnic discrimination, response to discrimination, and self-rated health among marriage migrants in South Korea
    Yugyun Kim, Inseo Son, Dainn Wie, Carles Muntaner, Hyunwoo Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health