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Volume 7(1); October 1974
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Original Articles
A Study on Nutritional Status of Young Children in Rural Korea.
Kyoung Sik Kim, Pang Ji Kim, Sang Ok Nam, Jung Shin Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):1-28.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The writers have conducted the investigation to assess the nutritional status of young rural Korean children aged form 0 to 4 years old in August 1971. The survey areas were Kaejong-myon, Daeya-myon, Okku-gun, Jeonra-bukdo, Korea. These survey areas were typical agriculture plain areas. The total numbers of children examined were 2,706 comprising 1,394 male and 1,312 female. the weight, height, and chest circumference of children were measured and means and standard deviations were calculated for each measurement. In addition, the nutritional status of each child was classified by the four levels of malnutrition and the Gomez classification. The examination of red blood cell count, haematocrit value, and intestinal parasite infection were carried out at the same time. In general, recent work tend to suggest that environment influences, especially nutrition, are of great importance than genetic background or other biological factors for physical growth and development. Certainly the physical dimensions of the body are much influenced by nutrition, particularly in the rapidly growing period of early childhood. Selected body measurements can therefore give valuable information concerning protein-calory malnutrition. Growth can also be affected by bacterial, viral, and parasite infection. For the field workers in a developing country, therefore, nutritional anthropometry appears to be of greatest value in the assessment of growth failure and undernutrition, principally from lack of protein and calories. In order to compare and evaluate the data obtained, the optimal data of growth from the offspring of the true well-fed, medically and socially protected are needed, So-called "Standards" that have been compiled for preschool children in Korea, However, are based on measurement of children from middle or lower socio-economic groups, sho are in fact, usually undernourished from six months of age onwards and continuously exposed to a succession of infective and parasitic diseases. So that, the Harvard Standards which os one of the international reference standards was used as the reference standards in this study. Findings of the survey were as follows: A. Anthropometric data: 1) Comparing the mean values for body weight obtained with the Korean standard weight of the same age, the rural Korean children were slightly haevier than the Korean standard values in both sexes. Comparing with the Japanese children values, the rural Koran children were slightly haevier in male and in the infant period of female but lighter in female of the period of 1 to 4 years old than Japanese children. 2) Comparing the mean values for height obtained with the Korean standard height of the same age, the rural Korean children were taller than the Korean standard values except the second half of infant period in both sexes. Comparing with the Japanese children, the rural Korean children were slightly smaller than Japanese children except the first half of infant period in both sexes. 3)Mean values of chest circumference of rural Korean children obtained were less than the Korean standard values of the same ages in birth sexes. B. Prevalence of Protein-Calory Malnutrition: Children examined were divided into two groups, i. e. , infant (up to the first birthday) and toddler (1 to $ years old). 1) Percentage of four levels of malnutrition: a) when the nutritional status of each child was classified (1) by body weight value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 52.8%(infant 83.3%, toddler 44.4%) and 39.7%(infant 74.5%, toddler 30.5%), the first level of malnutrition were 31.9% (infant 13.7%,toddler 36.9%) and 31.7%(infant 15.3%, toddler 36.0%), the second level of malnutrition were 12.3%(infant 1.7%, toddler 15.3%) and 23.3% (infant 7.7%, toddler 27.5%), the third level of malnutrition were 2.7%(infant 0.7%, toddler 3.2%) and 4.6%(infant 1.8%, toddler 5.3%) the fourth level of malnutrition were 0.3% (infant 0.7%, toddler 0.2%) and 0.7%(0.7% for infant and toddler) respectively. (2)by height value, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 80.3%(infant 97.3%, toddler 75.6%) and 75.1%(infant 96.4%, toddler 69.5%), the first levels of malnutrition were 17.9%(infant 2.0%, toddler 22.3%) and 23.6%(infant 3.6%, toddler 28.8%), the second level of malnutrition were 1.2%(infant 0.3%, toddler 1.5%) and 1.1%(infant 0%, toddler 1.4%), the third level of malnutrition were 0.4%(infant 0.3%, toddler 0.5%) and 0.2%(infant 0%, toddler 0.3%), the fourth level of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%) and 0% respectively. (3) By body weight in relation to height, the percentages for male and female of children attained standard growth were 87.9%(infant 77.6%, toddler 87.9%) and 78.2%(infant 77.4%, toddler 78.2%), the first level if malnutrition were 12.2%(infant 18.4%, toddler 10.6%) and 18.2%(infant 17.9%, toddler 18.3%), the second level of malnutrition were 1.9%(infant 3.3%, toddler 1.5%) and 3.0%(infant 3.3%, toddler 2.9%), the third level of malnutrition of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0.7%, toddler 0%)and 0.3%(infant 1.5%, toddler 0%) respectively. b) When the nutritional status of each child according to the mother's aged mother (31 to 40 years old) and old aged mother (41 years of above) was classified. (1) By body weight, among infants and toddlers, at each year of age, with increasing the mother's age, there was an increase in percentage of subjects underweight. This tendency of increasing percentage f underweight was more significant in the infant period than the toddler period. (2) By height value, no significant differences between each mother's age group were found. c) When the nutritional status of each child according to the birth rank, i. e. , lower birth rank(first to third) an higher birth rank(fourth of above) was classified. (1) By weight value, children of higher birth rank were slightly more often underweight than those of lower birth rank, but not significant. (2) By height value, no differences were found between children of lower and higher birth rank. 2) Gomez Classification: When the nutritional status of each child was classified a) By body weight value, the percentages for male and female of children, attained standard growth were 53.1%(infant 82.6%, toddler 44.9%) and 39.2%(infant 73.4%, toddler 30.1%), the first degree of malnutrition were 39.4%(infant 14.7%, toddler 46.2%) and 47.1%(infant 21.9%, toddler 53.8%), the second degree of malnutrition were 7.3%(infant 2.3%, toddler 8.6%) and 12.9%(infant 4.0%, toddler 15.2%), and the third degree of malnutrition were 0.2%(infant 0.3%, toddler 0.2%) and 0.8%(infant 0.7%, toddler 0.9%) respectively. b)By body weight value, the percentages for male and female of children, attained standard growth were 80.8%(infant 97.0%, toddler 76.3%) and 73.8%(infant 95.6%, toddler 68.0%), the first degree of malnutrition were 18.5%(infant 2.7%, toddler 22.9%) and 24.6%(infant 4.4%, toddler 30.0%), the second degree of malnutrition were 0.6%(infant 0.3%, toddler 0.7%) and 0.5%(infant 0.1%, toddler 0.7%), and the third degree of malnutrition were 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%) and 1.1%(infant 0%, toddler 1.3%) respectively. C. Results of clinical laboratory examination: 1) Red blood cells: The range of mean red blood counts for male and female were 3,538,000/m3 to 4,483,000/m3 respectively. The lowest red cell counts were seen at the age of 0-3 months for male and 1-2 months for female. 2) Haematocrit value: The ranges of haematocrit value of male and female were 35.1% to 38.8% and 34.7% to 38.8% respectively. The lowest haematocrit values were seen at the age of 2-3 months for male and 1-2months for female. 3)The prevalence rates of intestinal parasites for male and female children with Ascaris lumbricoides were 34.1%(infant 18.8%, toddler 38.1%) and 36.0%(infant 18.4%, toddler 40.7%), with Trichocephalus trichiuris were 6.8%(infant 2.9%, toddler 7.9%) and 9.0%(infant 3.0%, toddler 10.6%), with Hookworm were 0.3%(infant 0.5%, toddler 0.2%)and 0.3%(infant 0.5%, toddler 0.3%), with Clonorchis sinensis were 0.4%(infant 0%, toddler 0.5%) and 0.1%(infant 0%, toddler 0.1%)respectively.
Summary
A Study Concerning Health Needs in Rural Korea.
Sung Kwan Lee, Doo Hie Kim, Jong Hak Jung, Keuk Soo Chung, Sang Bin Park, Chung Hun Choi, Sun Ho Hong, Jin Hoon Rah
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):29-94.
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Today most developed countries provide modern medical care for most of the population. The rural area is the more neglected area in the medical and health field. In public health, the philosophy is that medical care for in maintenance of health is a basic right of man; it should not be discriminated against racial, environmental or financial situations. The deficiency of the medical care system, cultural bias, economic development, and ignorance of the residents about health care brought about the shortage of medical personnel and facilities on the rural areas. Moreover, medical students and physicians have been taught less about rural health care than about urban health care. Medical care, therefore, is insufficient in terms of health care personnel and facilities in rural areas. Under such a situation, there is growing concern about the health problems among the rural population. the findings presented in this report are useful measures of the major health problems an even more important, as a guide to planning for improves medical care systems. It is hoped that findings from this study will be useful to those responsible for improving the delivery of health service for the rural population. Objectives: -to determine the health status of the residents in the rural area. -to assess the rural population's needs in terms of health and medial care. -to make recommendations concerning improvement in the delivery of health and medical care for the rural population. Procedures: For the sampling design, the ideal would be to sample according to the proportion of the composition age-groups. As the health problems would be different by group , the sample was divided into 10 different age-groups. If the sample were allocated by proportion of composition of each age group, some age groups would be too small to estimate the health problem. The sample size of each age-group population was 100 people/age-groups. Personal interviews were conducted by specially trained medical students. The interviews dealt at length with current health status, medical care problems, utilization of medical services, medical cost paid for medical care and attitudes toward health. In addition, more information was gained from the public health field, including environmental sanitation, maternal and child health, family planning, tuberculosis control, and dental health. The sample: Sample size was one fourth of total population: 1,438. The aged 10-14 years showed the largest number of 254 and the aged under one year was the smallest number of 81. Participation in examination. Examination sessions usually were held in the morning every Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday for 3 hours at each session at the Namchun Health station. In general, the rate of participation in medical examination was low especially in ages between 10-19 years old. The highest rate of participation among are groups was the under one year age-group by 100 percent. The lowest use rate as low as 3% of those in the age-groups 10-19 years who are attending junior and senior hgh school in Taegu city so the time was not convenient for them to receive examinations. Among the over 20 years old group, the rate of participation of female was higher than that of males. The results are as follows: A. Public health problems. Population: The number of pre-school age group who required child health was 724, among them infants numbered 96. Number of eligible women aged 15-44 years was 1,279, and women with husband who need maternal health numbered 700. The age-group of 65 years of older was 201 needed more health care and 65 of them had disabilities (table 2). Environmental sanitation: Seventy-nine percent of the residents relied upon well water as a primary source of drinking. More than 90% of latrines were unhygienic, in structure design and sanitation (Table 15). Maternal and child health: Maternal health. Average number of pregnancies of eligible women was 4 times. There was almost no pre-and post-natal care. Pregnancy wastage. Still births was 33 per 1,000 live births. Spontaneous abortion was 156 per 1,000 live births. Induced abortion was 137 per 1,000 live births. Delivery Condition. More than 90 percent of deliveries were conducted at home. Attendants at last delivery were laymen by 76% and delivery without attendants was 14%. The rate of difficult delivery counted for 3%. Maternal death rate estimate about 35 per 10,000 live births. Child health. Consultation rate for child health was almost non existent. In general, vaccination rate of children was low; vaccination rates for children but the rate of the complete three injections were as low as 5 and 3% respectively. The number of dead children was 280 per 1,000 living children. Infants death rate was 45 per 1,000 live births (Table 16). Family planning: Approval rate of married women for family planning was as high as 86%. The rate of experiences of contraception in the past was 51%. The current rate of contraception was 37%. Willingness to use contraception in the future was as high as 86% (Table 17). Tuberculosis control: Number of registration patients at the health center currently was 25. The number indicates one eight of estimate number of tuberculosis in the area. Number of discharged cases in the pat accounted for 79 which showed 50% of active cases when discharged time. Rate of complete treatment among reasons of discharge on the past as low as 28%. There needs to be a follow up observation of the discharged cases (Table 18). Dental Problems: More than 50% of the total population have lest one or more dental problems. (Table 19) B. Medical care Problems. Incidence rate: 1. In one month. Incidence rate of medical care problems during one month was 19.6% percent. Among these health problems which required rest at home were 11.8 percent. The estimated number of patients in the total population is 1,206. The health problems reported most frequently in interviews during one month are: GI trouble, respiratory disease, neuralgia, skin disease, and communicable disease-n the order. The rate of health problems by age groups was highest in the 1-4 age group and in the 60 years of over age group, the lowest rate was the 10-14 year age group. In general, 0-29 year age group except the 1-4 year age group was low incidence rate. After 30 years old th rate of health problems increases gradually with aging. Eighty-three percent of health problems that occurred during one month were solved by primary medical care procedures. Seventeen percent of health problems needed secondary care. Days rested at those because of illness during one month were 1.7days per interviewee and 8days per patient and it accounts for 2,161 days for the total productive population in the area. (Table 20) 2. In a year. The incidence rate of medical care problems during a year was 7.8%, among them health problems which required rest at those was 37 percent. Estimated number of patients in the total population during a year was 4,600. The health problems that occurred most frequently among the interviewees during a year were: Cold (30%), GI trouble (18), respiratory disease (11), anemia (10) ,diarrhea (10), neuralgia (10), parasite disease (9), ENT (7), skin (7), headache (7), trauma (4), communicable disease (3), and circulatory disease (3)-in that order. The rate of health problems by age groups was highest in the infants group, thereafter the rate decreased gradually until the age group which showed the lowest, and then the rate increased gradually with aging. Eighty-seven percent of health problems during a year were 16 days per interviewee and 4 days per patient and it accounted for 57,335 days lost among productive age group in the area (Table 21). Among those given medical examination, the conditions observed most frequency were respiratory disease, GI trouble, parasite disease, neuralgia, skin disease, trauma, tuberculosis, anemia, chronic obstructive lung disease, eye disorders-in that order (Table 22). The main health problems required secondary medical care are as follows:(previous page). Utilization of medical care (treatment) by various medical for all health problems during one month was 73 percent. The rate of receiving of medical care of those who have health problems which required rest at home was 82% while the rate of those who have health problems which did not required rest was 61percent (Table 23). The rate of receiving of medical care for all health problems during a year was 67 percent. The rate of receiving of medical care of those who have health problems which required rest at home was 82 percent while the rate of those who have health problems which did not required rest was as low as 53 percent (Table 24). Types of medical facilitated used were as follows: Hospital and clinics: 32-35%. Herb clinics: 9-10%. Drugstore: 53-58%. Hospitalization. Rate of hospitalization was 1.7% and the estimate number of hospitalization among the total population during a year will be 107 persons (Table 25). Medical cost: Average medical cost per person during one month and a year were 171 and 2,800 won respectively. Average medical cost per patient during one month and a year were 1,1109 and 3,740 won respectively. Average cost per household during a year was 15,800 won (Table 26, 27).Solution measures for health and medical care problems in rural area: A. Health problems which could be solved by paramedical workers such as nurses, midwives and aid nurses etc. are as follows: 1. Improvement of environmental sanitation. 2. MCH except medical care problems. 3. Family planning except surgical intervention. 4. Tuberculosis control except diagnosis and prescription. 5. Dental care except operational intervention. 6. Health education for residents for improvement of utilization of medical facilities and early diagnosis etc. b. Medical care problems. 1. Eighty-five percent of health problems could be solved by primary care procedures by general practitioners. 2. Fifteen percent of health problems need secondary medical procedures by a specialist. C. Medical cost. Considering the economic situation in rural area the amount of 2,062 won per residents during a year will be burdensome, so financial assistance is need government to solve health and medical care problems for rural people.
Summary
Attitude of Urban Salary Earners on Smoking and Drinking.
Dae Min Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):95-100.
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Attitude on smoking and drinking among group of salary earners comprised of 400 primary, middle, and highschool teachers, bankers and public servants who serviced in Kwang Ju city area, was studied during the period of a month may to June 1969. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. 144 persons (36.0%) out of 400 salary earner were smoking cigarettes, and, in sex, 0.7%(1 out of 137) was shown in female and 54.3%(143 out of 263) was in male. 2. more than half of the smokers(59.0%) smoked 11-20 pieces of cigarettes a day, and 36.8% did less than 10 pieces, 1.4% did 21-30 pieces a day. 3. 175 persons (43.7%) out of 400 total interviews liked to drink, and in sex 63.8% for male and 2.7% for female. 4. On the quantity of drinking Makkuli (special Korean alcoholic beverage, containing 2-4% alcohol) 114 persons (65.1%) showed less than 5 Hop and 37 persons (21.1%) showed 6-10 Hop, and 10.3% showed 11-20 Hop, and 2.9% liked to drink more than 20 Hop.
Summary
A Microbiological Study on the Public Wells in Iri City.
Kyu Song Han
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):101-105.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A study was carried out for purpose of grasping the status of bacteriological contamination of the public wells in Iri city, during the period from 1 to 15 August, 1974. Coliform groups were detected by membrane filter method and physical conditions of the well were checked. 1. The households which used the piped water occupied 70.8 per cent (11,907 households) out of total households Iri city. 2. Temperature of the well water was 38 out of 50 samples (72.0%) with 12.1 to 16.0 degrees C and 9 wells with 10.1 to 12.0 degrees C. 3. The pH values range of the well water was 6.0 to 7.9, 11 cases of 22.0 per cent less than 6.5 and 8 cases of 16.0 per cent more than 7.5. 4. The residual chlorine was found at 15 samples (30.0%) contained 0.1 to 0.5ppm, 9 samples (18.0%), 0.6 to 1.0 ppm after 24 hours of chlorination. 5. Coliform groups were found at 49 out of 50 samples (98.0%) before chlorination when 100ml well waters was tested by membrane filter technique and 15 wells(30.0%) were potable for drinking within 24 hours after chlorination. 6. Coliform groups positive were 23 out of 26 samples (88.5%) with no residual chlorine, 12 out of 16 samples (80.0%) with 0.1 to 0.5ppm and none out of 9 with 0.6 to 1.0ppm.
Summary
Effect of External Factors on Diastase Activity in Water.
Bock Sang Yoon, Ho Sup Hyun, Nam Won Paek
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):107-113.
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Many factors exert an influence on enzyme activity and thus on the rate of reactions that they catalyse. The most important of these factors are pH, temperature, substrate concentration, and the concentration of some inhibitors present. A solution of the enzyme diastase, which breaks down molecules of the polysaccharide starch to the disaccharide maltose by hydrolysis, was provided. Activity of these enzyme was measured by the rate at which starch was removed from the reaction mixture. These experiments were designed to study this reaction rate under varying conditions and the following results were obtained. 1. The range of optimum pH for this enzyme at room temperature was 4.0-7.0 and the optimum pH was 5.0. 2. The range of optimum temperatures for this enzyme at pH 7.0 was 30-50 degrees C and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C. 3. The relationship between the enzyme activity and substrate concentration could be expressed by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The limiting velocity of these enzyme at room temperature and pH 7.0 was 415 microgram starch removed/ml of reaction mixture/min and Km, Michaelis constant, was 343 microgram/ml. 4. Inhibitors NaCl and HgCl2 blocked this enzyme activity completely at 1% and 0.01% respectively.
Summary
Alterations of Blood Cholinesterase Activity and Urinary Para-nitrophenol Excretion After Exposure to Organophorus Insecticides.
Byung Kook Lee, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):115-121.
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In order to evaluate the health hazard due to organ orphosphorus insecticides, we measured the blood cholinesterase activity and urinary para-nitrophenol among 56 exposed subjects. They are orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers. The clinical symptoms were also checked by physicians. We also measured the blood cholinesterase activity and urinary para-nitrophenol excretion of 20 urban people and 15 rural people who had never been exposed to organophosphorus insecticides in order to compare them according to age, sex and geographical differences. And these results were also compared with those of exposed groups. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The normal plasma cholinesterase activity and cell cholinesterase activity were 0.861+/-0.148 delta pH/hr and 0.822+/-0.154 delta pH/hr. And normal para-nitrophenol in urine was 1.21+/-0.52 mg/liter. 2. No significant difference was existed in blood cholinesterase activities and urinary para-nitrophenol excretion according to sex, age and geographical difference. 3. The plasma cholinesterase activity and cell cholinesterase activity of orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers were 0.682+/-0.189 delta pH/hr, 0.775+/-0.160 delta pH/hr, 0.754+/-0.123 delta pH/hr and 0.691+/-0.082 delta pH/hr, 0.756+/-0.117delta pH/hr. And significant decreases in blood cholinesterase activities were existed among orchard workers and smithion factory workers compared with control group. 4. The urinary para-nitrophenol excretions of orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers were 1.33+/-0.66 mg/liter, 1.19+/-0.88mg/liter and 1.37+/-0.67mg/liter and there were no significant difference between exposed groups and control group. 5. The clinical symptoms complained during and after organophosphorus insecticides exposure were frequently ranked by headache (67.7%) and vertigo (64.5%) and muscular ataxia and weakness (51.6%).
Summary
A Follow-up Survey on the Socio-medical Status of the Drop-out Cases of Tuberculosis in Jeonju Health Center.
Jong Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):123-130.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A socio-medical survey was carried out on 1,108 cases of pulmonatory tuberculosis who had registered and 220 cases unregistered at Jeonju Health center in 1973, during from June 1 to July 31, 1974. As the results of this survey, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. Of the total 1,108 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there were 708 new cases, while remaining 400 were old cases and rate of registration was 4.0 per thousand person. 2. The highest rate of registration of the newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis could be found in bacteriological examination while 54.4 percent in X-ray examination. 3. As for the educational status of the tuberculosis patients, primary school graduates constituted the greatest proportion of 64.6 percent, middle school graduates 13.6 percent. high school graduates 6.8 percent and college graduates only 0.7 percent. 4. By age group of the cases, at age of 20 to 29 years occupied 23.6 percent (262 out of 1,108 cases), 17.9 percent at age of 40 to 49 years. 5. The greatest proportion of 38.4 percent of the cases had no occupation. 6. The living standard of the patient's household, low class constituted 60.6 percent of the total house olds. 7. By distribution of residential area, farming area was 5.0 per thousand person, 4.0 in downtown and suburban areas. 8. The greatest proportion of 70.0 percent of positive cases in X-ray examination was unregistered in August, 63.6 percent in July 1973. 9. 220 out of 1,108 cases(19.9%) were unregistered pulmonary tuberculosis in X-ray and bacteriological examinations. 10. For age groups of unregistered cases, most prevalent age group was 30 to 39. 11. Regarding on the cases of unregistration, 'indifference for disease', 'occupied highest rate with 31.9 percent' and 'private secret' with 15.7 percent. 12. Of the total 457 cases drop-outed, there were 78 complete held cases while remaining 207 inactive.
Summary
A Study on Physical Growth and Morbidity of the Children under Christian Children's Fund Inc. Programme.
Young Hum Paek
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):131-138.
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The author has conducted survey on the status of physical growth and morbidity of the children for christian children's fund programme, as a means of collecting basic data for the anticipated establishment of a health planning. A total 345 children ages 9 to 16 underwent C.C.F. programme while as a control, a total of 480 children of same ages from the middle-class school children in Jeonju area was also studied. As results of survey conducted for a period of one month (form July 1 to 31, 1974) on a total 429 children in 347 households living in Jeonju area. I. Socio-economic background. 1. By educational status of the children, 39.9 percent of the total children was attending at primary school, 33.8 percent in middle school and 15.6 percent in high school. 2. The greatest proportion of 28.8 percent of the household head were engaged in labor, 17.9 percent in peddler and 13.2 percent in retail. 3. As for the living standard of the households, low class constituted 90.1 percent, middle and high classes only 9.9 percent. 4. 39.5 percent of the households had their own house, 39.1 percent lived in rent deposit house of rooms and 14.6 percent in monthly rented house and rooms. II. Physical growth and nutritional status. 1. The growth of children for C.C.F. programme in terms of height was found to be slightly smaller than the school children. The ages from 9 to 16 correspond to the "secondary growth and replenishment period and this period was regarded to be the one most affected by environmental and nutritional factors of all the other periods of growth and development. 2. The body weight of the children for C.C.F. presented a quite different pattern from that of the school children. The above findings appeared thin-and-long stature from the families with higher living standard while those from the household with low standard of living had a short-and-plump one. 3. According to the values of Rohrer's index, the children of C.C.F. carried a higher degree of 'replenishment' than the children in Jeonju area and adolescence comes later for the girls under C.C.F. programme. III. Morbidity. 1. The monthly prevalence rate was 110.0 per thousand persons for the children under C.C.F. programme. 2. The total number of case was classified by timing of the incidence as follows: 40.0 percent was constituted by diseases carried over from the previous month an d60.0 percent by new incidences. 3. The diseases were broken down by W.H.O. disease classification into the greatest proportion of 39.1 per thousand person constituted by disease f the digestive system.
Summary
Attitude of Urban Employees on Hobby, Recreation and Practical Use of Holiday.
Dac Min Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):139-145.
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Attitude on hobby, recreation an practical use of holiday among group of employees comprised of 400 primary, middle, high school teachers, bankers and public servants who serviced in Kwangju city area, was studied during the period of two months from April to May 1974. The results obtained were concluded as follows; 1. Age distribution: 2933 age group came first with 26% while last with 0.3%. Average was 31.5. 2. Sex distribution: Male 94.0%, female 35.3% and noteworthy was the fact that in primary school female occupied 74.0%. 3. Hobby and recreation of entertainments; Cinema 24.0%; badook 24.5%;athletics 18.5%;Chinese chess 13.5%. Among primary school teachers cinema came first 37.0%, while among the administrative officials badook came first with 34.0%. 4. How they spent the previous Saturday afternoon; 25.0% of subjects helped household affairs, this rate reached 35.0% among primary school teachers. Sunday: 19.0% helped household affairs and again primary school teachers ranked top. During the vacation of last year, 52.1% of total subjects traveled and 61.0% of bank employees traveled.
Summary
Socio-medical Survey on the Environment Workers in Jeonju Area.
Young Joon Yu
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):147-152.
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The author has conducted survey on the socio-medical status of th e157 entertainers (male:25, female:132) in Jeonju area, during 1 to 15 July 1974. As results of this survey, following conclusions were obtained. 1. The age distribution was revealed the peak in the age group of 20 to 24 years with 44.5 percent. Average age of male entertainers was 28.0 years and female entertainer with 23.9 years. 2. By the educational background of the entertainers, the greatest proportion or 45.9 percent was middle school, 28.7 percent in primary school. 3. Most of the entertainers had no their parents, rather of mother while the ones who had parents were 21.0 percent. 4. The average age of menarche of the female entertainers was 14.2+/-0.87 years. 5. Regarding the marital status of the entertainers, the unmarried were 81.5 percent and present status of marriage, 79.3 percent were separated. 6. The average of the first marriage was 24.4 years in male, and 22.6 years in female. 7. Regarding the working duration of the entertainers, 79.1 percent worked less than 1 year. 8. Regarding the sex experiences before marriage, 76.0 percent of the male and 91.7 percent of the female reported had such experiences. 9. Induced abortions were found to have been experienced 88.6 percent of the female entertainers. 10.Point prevalence rate for gonorrhea including non-specific arthritics of the entertainers were found 16.0 percent of the male and 17.4 percent of the female.
Summary
An Investigation to the General Characteristics of Doctors in Busan Area.
Joon Yun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):153-162.
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To find a basic study for manpower of physicians and medical care systems in Busan, author has studied towards 1,069 doctors who had taken the regular report in 1973, residing in Busan City. The survey was conducted from July 1 to August 31, 1973 and the findings & results obtained through the study for distributions, characteristics, employment of doctors and some medical systems were summarized as follows; 1. The ratio between doctor and populations in Busan City was 1:1,887. 2. The doctors who graduated from Busan Medical College were 438 as the most proportion(40.9%). 3. Sex distribution of doctors revealed male 970, female 99 and those belonging to the 30-39 age group were as the most proportion(41.0%). 4. The doctors who had faith in Christianity were the highest (22.3%). 5. By the opening year of clinics, there was increasing tendency after 1950, especially during 1970-1973. 6. At that time of investigation, the doctors who had private clinics were 673(67.3%) and nonemployees were 27 (2.5%). 7. The total Medical Specialists in Busan were 519, and among them the Internal Medicine Specialists were the highest proportion (16.2%). 8. The clinics employing the disqualified nurse-aids were 237 (22.2%). 9. Most of doctors (81.8%) had opposed attitude to the establishment of new medical colleges. 10. More than half of the doctors (59.8%) agreed to the functional division between Physicians and Pharmacists. 11. The ratio of agreement to the practical application of public medical insurances was 68.7%. 12. The opinion by opening hospital-clinics at Myeon for administrative measures for doctorless rural area was the highest proportion. 13. The doctors who replied as low state of confidence of the citizens to the doctors-themselves were 691 (64.6%).
Summary
A study on the Health Care of Ewha Womans University Staff, Faculty and Families.
Ji Yong Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):163-173.
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A study on the health care of Ewha Woman's University staff, faculty and families was conducted during the period from March 1973 to August 1974 using designed questionnaire. The response rates were 96.0%. The results and findings obtained from the study are summarized as follow. 1. The sex ration of the members the faculty and the staff shows 83.2% and the singles are 37.2% of the total. Their mean family size being 4.6 periods per capita, each family has mean number of 2.3 children. 2. The median monthly income of a member of faculty amounts won114,000 and that of a staff won43,077. It amounts won79,333 when the median monthly income of both the members of the faculty and the staff are taken. Consequently, it amounts won91,727 per family (Assumed mean). 3. 71.4% of the total hold the house of their own. A spouses of 59.4% of them are working for the additional income of the family. 4. Their health condition is rated fair, i.e. 92.3% of them enjoy good health. Out of total members faculty and the staff, 20.6% are cared by family physician. 36.2% of them feel that they are burdened by heavy medical expense. 5. 76.7% of them have affirmatively responded that they would purchase medical insurance policy when they were offered. It reaches 84.0% of the total who consider buying the policy for their dependents. 74.0% of them desire to purchase the policy for their spouse's parents. 6. The monthly prevalence rate reaches 17.0% and the hospital admission rate 4.7%. 12.3% of them affirmatively responded that they had chronic disease. The number of sick call per capita counts 0.2 per month and the hospital admission rate 0.05. 7. To examine the nature of their disease, the respiratory disease is rated to be the top and the gastro-intestinal disease comes to the next. As far as chronic disease is concerned, the gastro-intestinal disease is predominant. 8. As to their treatment, 65.4% of them get the physician's treatment and 17.0% treatment of drug purchasing and 7.7% prefer Chinese drug. 6.6% of them gets no medical treatment at all. 9. The treatment ratio, including drug purchasing and other means, reaches 93.4%. 60.7% of them affirmatively responded that they did not or could not get physician's treatment at least once even though they thought they had to. It is disclosed that 29.4% of them are caused by economical reason. 10. Average medical expense per case amounts won7,116 and monthly medical expense per capita won1,345. Consequently, average monthly medical expense per family amounts won6,185. 11. The medical expense of a family is rated 7.7% of total earnings of the same period.
Summary
Studiedies on the Pollution Bacteria in the River Water of Baek Ma.
Yang Won Park, Hyung Suk Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):175-176.
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The purpose of this study was to survey bacteria which was known as a fecal bacteria living in the human and animal gastro and intestinal tract. The colony density of the fecal coliform and fecal streptococci was 280 and 130 in 100ml sample amounts respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is usually exist in swimming pool and was known as indicator of the pool water contamination was detected.
Summary
Noise-Induced Hearing Disturbance Textile Weavers by Individual Pure Tone Threshold Determination Test in Taegu City.
Hong Chin Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):177-183.
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It is generally recognized that the environmental noise of the various working places thought to be the cause of hearing disturbance. This survey was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of noise-induced occupational hearing loss among the weavers of 39 textile industries in Taegu, Korea. For this survey, 432 male workers and 2,023 female workers were examined their hearing acuity by individual pure tone threshold determination test(air conduction), from November, 1972, to January, 1973. Main findings were as follows: 1. The mean of noise intensity of the 54 weaving rooms was, in over all, 95.6+/-4.2dB (A), 95.9+/-4.0dB (B) and 96.2+/-3.9dB (C). 2. The mean hearing threshold levels by service years in the 4,000 Hz were intensively increased from 1st to 3rd year and slightly decreased, than that of 3rd year, from after 3rd to 5th year, after 5th year that increased slightly. 3.The mean hearing threshold levels by frequencies were highest in the 4,000Hz(male:25.0+/-11.3dB, female:22.0+/-10.2dB) and followed by 6,000, 8,000 and 3,000Hz. 4. The mean hearing threshold level of the 6,000Hz(male:17.0dB, female:17.9dB)was higher than that of 4,000Hz(male:16.4dB, female:17.1dB) in the 1st service year. 5. The mean hearing loss of examinees was 16.2+/-8.0dB in male and 15.4+/-7.8dB in female.
Summary
Study on Tuberculosis Control of Those Patients who Registered at Health Center.
Sun Ho Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):185-190.
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The purpose of this study was to obtain available data concerning tuberculosis control at health center and to recommend more effective measures to government and antituberculosis agencies. The study showed following results: It is necessary that those patients who have not response to drugs should be treated by secondary drugs. Control measure should be applied to those patients who discharged from health center in the past because more than 50 percent of them were still active situation. Meaningless amass X-ray survey should be abandoned and limited to family-contacts.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health