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Volume 46(3); May 2013
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Special Articles
Overview of the Burden of Diseases in North Korea
Yo Han Lee, Seok-Jun Yoon, Young Ae Kim, Ji Won Yeom, In-Hwan Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):111-117.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.111
  • 21,087 View
  • 162 Download
  • 19 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Possible Impact of Nationwide Vaccination on Outcomes of the COVID-19 Epidemic in North Korea: A Modelling Study
    Sung-mok Jung, Jaehun Jung
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends and patterns of North Korea’s disease burden from 1990 to 2019: Results from Global Burden of Disease study 2019
    Eun Hae Lee, Minjae Choi, Joshua Kirabo Sempungu, Yo Han Lee, Negar Rezaei
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(11): e0277335.     CrossRef
  • Non-Communicable Diseases and Transitioning Health System in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea during COVID-19 Lockdown
    Jin-Won Noh, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Ha-Eun Jang, Min-Hee Heo, Young-Jin Kim, Jiho Cha
    Healthcare.2022; 10(10): 2095.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of cardiovascular diseases mortality- and disability-adjusted life-years attributed to modifiable dietary risk factors from 1990 to 2030 among East Asian countries and the world
    Nawsherwan, Wang Bin, Zhang Le, Sumaira Mubarik, Guo Fu, Yan Wang
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trend of Disease Burden of North Korean Defectors in South Korea Using Disability-adjusted Life Years from 2010 to 2018
    Keun A Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Chae-Bong Kim, Ki-Beom Kim, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Global estimated Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) of diarrheal diseases: A systematic analysis of data from 28 years of the global burden of disease study
    Natacha U. Karambizi, Christopher S. McMahan, Carl N. Blue, Lesly A. Temesvari, Srinivas Goli
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(10): e0259077.     CrossRef
  • Surgical Diseases in North Korea: An Overview of North Korean Medical Journals
    Sejin Choi, Taehoon Kim, Soyoung Choi, Hee Young Shin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(24): 9346.     CrossRef
  • Perceptions of the Osteopathic Profession in New York City's Korean Communities
    Justin Chin, DO, Haeinn Woo, OMS-IV, Diane Choi, OMS-III, Emily Dube, MS, Mikhail Volokitin, MD, DO, Christine Lomiguen, MD
    Osteopathic Family Physician.2020; 13(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology survey of infectious diseases in North Korean travelers, 2015–2017
    Pengyu Han, Yanxia Teng, Xiuxin Bi, Jinge Li, Dianxing Sun
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Underestimated Burden: Non-Communicable Diseases in North Korea
    Shin Ha, Yo Han Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2019; 60(5): 481.     CrossRef
  • Frequently covered diseases in North Korean internal medicine journal Internal Medicine [Naegwa]—Secondary publication
    Shin Ha, Yo Han Lee
    Science Editing.2019; 6(2): 99.     CrossRef
  • Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea
    Hiroshi Nishiura, Hyojung Lee, Baoyin Yuan, Akira Endo, Andrei R. Akhmetzhanov, Gerardo Chowell
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2018; 66: 22.     CrossRef
  • The life expectancy gap between North and South Korea from 1993 to 2008
    Jinwook Bahk, Majid Ezzati, Young-Ho Khang
    European Journal of Public Health.2018; 28(5): 830.     CrossRef
  • The Status and Distinct Characteristics of Endocrine Diseases in North Korean Articles Published between 2006 and 2015
    Kyeong Jin Kim, Shin Ha, Yo Han Lee, Jung Hyun Noh, Sin Gon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2018; 33(2): 268.     CrossRef
  • A Program to Treat Hepatitis B in North Korea: A Model of Antiviral Therapy in a Resource-Poor Setting
    Alice Unah Lee, Heidi Linton, Marcia Kilsby, David C. Hilmers
    Gut and Liver.2018; 12(6): 615.     CrossRef
  • Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy
    Markus Unnewehr, August Stich
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(11): 1584.     CrossRef
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    John Grundy, Elizabeth Hoban, Steve Allender
    Health Systems.2015; 4(2): 124.     CrossRef
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    John Grundy, Beverley-Ann Biggs, David B. Hipgrave
    PLOS Medicine.2015; 12(12): e1001929.     CrossRef
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    Espen Bjertness, Ahmed Ali Madar
    The Lancet.2014; 383(9926): 1381.     CrossRef
The Role of Major Donors in Health Aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Haewon Lee, Deborah Y. Ahn, Soyoung Choi, Youngchan Kim, Hyunju Choi, Sang Min Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):118-126.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.118
  • 9,663 View
  • 104 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predicting the impact of control strategies on the tuberculosis burden in South and North Korea using a mathematical model
    Hyunwoo Cho, Youngmok Park, Jeongjoo Seok, Joon Sup Yeom, Jun Yong Choi, Hee Jin Kim, Young Ae Kang, Jeehyun Lee
    BMJ Global Health.2021; 6(10): e005953.     CrossRef
  • Towards Understanding Tuberculosis-Related Issues in North Korea: A Narrative Review of North Korean Literature
    Chang-Jun Lee, Sungwhan Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Young Ae Kang
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.2020; 83(3): 201.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology survey of infectious diseases in North Korean travelers, 2015–2017
    Pengyu Han, Yanxia Teng, Xiuxin Bi, Jinge Li, Dianxing Sun
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: A perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity
    Hani Kim, Florian Marks, Uros Novakovic, Peter J. Hotez, Robert E. Black
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2016; 21(8): 965.     CrossRef
  • Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy
    Markus Unnewehr, August Stich
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(11): 1584.     CrossRef
Lessons From Unified Germany and Their Implications for Healthcare in the Unification of the Korean Peninsula
Gun-Chun Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):127-133.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.127
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(4):210
  • 8,437 View
  • 94 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

This study investigated the German experience in the transition to a unified health care system and suggests the following implications for Korea. First, Germany could have made use of the unification process better if there had been a good road map. Therefore Korea must develop a well prepared road map that considers all possible situations. Second, Germany saw an opportunity for the improvement of the health care system in the early stage of unification but could not take advantage of it because the situation changed dramatically and they had not sufficiently prepared for it. Korea should take into account the opportunity for improvement of the present health care system, such as the roles of public health and traditional medicine. Thirdly, the conditions f North Korea seem to be far worse than those of former East Germany and also worse than even those of other transition countries. Therefore Korea should design a long-term road map taking as many variables into account as possible, including the different rigid way of thinking and the interrelationship among the social sectors. Fourthly, during the German reunification unexpected factors changed the direction of the events. Korea should have a separate plan for the unexpected factors.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What Lessons Does the Political Transition in 1989 Central and Eastern Europe Offer for Health System Reform in a Changed North Korea?
    Martin McKee
    Journal of Global Health Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Systematic review of evidence on public health in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    John J Park, Ah-Young Lim, Hyung-Soon Ahn, Andrew I Kim, Soyoung Choi, David HW Oh, Owen Lee-Park, Sharon Y Kim, Sun Jae Jung, Jesse B Bump, Rifat Atun, Hee Young Shin, Kee B Park
    BMJ Global Health.2019; 4(2): e001133.     CrossRef
  • Quality of websites of obstetrics and gynecology departments: a cross-sectional study
    Günther A Rezniczek, Laura Küppers, Hubertus Heuer, Lukas A Hefler, Bernd Buerkle, Clemens B Tempfer
    BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
A Strategy Toward Reconstructing the Healthcare System of a Unified Korea
Yo Han Lee, Seok-Jun Yoon, Seok Hyang Kim, Hyun-Woung Shin, Jin Yong Lee, Beomsoo Kim, Young Ae Kim, Jangho Yoon, Young Seok Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):134-138.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.134
  • 7,734 View
  • 107 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

This road map aims to establish a stable and integrated healthcare system for the Korean Peninsula by improving health conditions and building a foundation for healthcare in North Korea through a series of effective healthcare programs. With a basic time frame extending from the present in stages towards unification, the roadmap is composed of four successive phases. The first and second phases, each expected to last five years, respectively, focus on disease treatment and nutritional treatment. These phases would thereby safeguard the health of the most vulnerable populations in North Korea, while fulfilling the basic health needs of other groups by modernizing existing medical facilities. Based on the gains of the first two phases, the third phase, for ten years, would prepare for unification of the Koreas by promoting the health of all the North Korean people and improving basic infrastructural elements such as health workforce capacity and medical institutions. The fourth phase, assuming that unification will take place, provides fundamental principles and directions for establishing an integrated healthcare system across the Korean Peninsula. We are hoping to increase the consistency of the program and overcome several existing concerns of the current program with this roadmap.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Non-Communicable Diseases and Transitioning Health System in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea during COVID-19 Lockdown
    Jin-Won Noh, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Ha-Eun Jang, Min-Hee Heo, Young-Jin Kim, Jiho Cha
    Healthcare.2022; 10(10): 2095.     CrossRef
  • Systematic review of evidence on public health in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    John J Park, Ah-Young Lim, Hyung-Soon Ahn, Andrew I Kim, Soyoung Choi, David HW Oh, Owen Lee-Park, Sharon Y Kim, Sun Jae Jung, Jesse B Bump, Rifat Atun, Hee Young Shin, Kee B Park
    BMJ Global Health.2019; 4(2): e001133.     CrossRef
  • Awareness of Korean Unification and Health Care in Healthcare Professional Students
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Original Articles
Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea
Nam Soo Hong, Sin Kam, Keon Yeop Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):139-146.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.139
  • 9,454 View
  • 103 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas.

Methods

The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year.

Results

A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance.

Conclusions

Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea.

Summary

Citations

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Medical Care Utilization During 1 Year Prior to Death in Suicides Motivated by Physical Illnesses
Jaelim Cho, Won Joon Lee, Ki Tae Moon, Mina Suh, Jungwoo Sohn, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin, Sang Hyuk Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):147-154.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.147
  • 8,669 View
  • 92 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Many epidemiological studies have suggested that a variety of medical illnesses are associated with suicide. Investigating the time-varying pattern of medical care utilization prior to death in suicides motivated by physical illnesses would be helpful for developing suicide prevention programs for patients with physical illnesses.

Methods

Suicides motivated by physical illnesses were identified by the investigator's note from the National Police Agency, which was linked to the data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment. We investigated the time-varying patterns of medical care utilization during 1 year prior to suicide using repeated-measures data analysis after adjustment for age, gender, area of residence, and socioeconomic status.

Results

Among 1994 suicides for physical illness, 1893 (94.9%) suicides contacted any medical care services and 445 (22.3%) suicides contacted mental health care during 1 year prior to suicide. The number of medical care visits and individual medical expenditures increased as the date of suicide approached (p<0.001). The number of medical care visits for psychiatric disorders prior to suicide significantly increased only in 40- to 64-year-old men (p=0.002), women <40 years old (p=0.011) and women 40 to 64 years old (p=0.021) after adjustment for residence, socioeconomic status, and morbidity.

Conclusions

Most of the suicides motivated by physical illnesses contacted medical care during 1 year prior to suicide, but many of them did not undergo psychiatric evaluation. This underscores the need for programs to provide psychosocial support to patients with physical illnesses.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health