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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Volume 25(4); December 1992
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Original Articles
Minimum Optimal Scale of the Self-Employed Health insurance Programs in Korea.
Gang Won Park, Jung Un Lee, Hae Kyung Kim, Ok Ryun Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):333-342.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to estimate the minimum optimal scale(MOS) of the self-employed health insurance associations. Considering the high proportion of operating expenses, the author have selected 254 regional health insurance associations from the 1990 Finance Report of the self-employed health insurance programs. both a quadratic function and a hyperbolic function were chosen for the analysis. The dependent variables are the average maintenance cost per insured person and per household, and the independent variables are the number of insured members and of household. The minimum optimal scale was obtained from the differentiation of the quadratic function. Major findings are summarized as follows: 1. The M.O.S. was calculated as 166,174 members (27,442 households) for the rural self-employed health insurance associations and 258,462 members (75,446 households) for the urban. Providing that both the rural and urban health insurance associations would e integrated, the M.O.S. be found to become 231,687 members (68,101 households) 2. Compared with the optimal minimum scale, the magnitude of the current health insurance association found to be much smaller, less than half of the optimal scale. 3. In order to reduce the operating cost, it is necessary to enlarge the operational scale of self-employed health insurance associations.
Summary
A Study on the Status of Seeking Intervention among the Workers with Health Problems Identified by the Workers' Periodic Health Examination.
Hee Kwan Cheong, Joung Soon Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Hyun Sul Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):343-356.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Authors studied the workers' knowledge about the health problems detected through the previous workers' periodic health examination, content of follow-up management and actions taken for their health problem detected on previous health examination. From June to September 1992, workers' periodic health examination was performed on workers employed in 10 companies located in 2 middle-sized Korean cities. A questionnaire survey was done for 150 workers who reported to have D2 result of either hypertension or liver disorder at the previous workers' periodic health examination done in 1991. The results are as follows; 1. Of 160 workers who had D2 result of either hypertension or liver disorder in previous examination one year before, only 85 workers(51.3%, 43 workers with hypertension, 38 workers with live disorder) responded that they have such disorders. The other 65 workers responded to questionnaire were all those with C results. Respondents' knowledge about their diagnoses was relatively precise (95.2% in hypertension group, 94.6% in liver disorder group) but knowledge about classification of diseases was poor. 2. The main efforts to solve the health problem was self management (26 spells, 55.3%), visiting clinic or hospital (6 spells, 12.8%), use of herb medicine (2 spells, 4.3%) and use of drug store (2 spells, 4.3%) in hypertension group. In liver disorder group, 30 spells (71.4%) relied on self management, 6 spells (14.3%) on hospital or clinic and 9 spells (21.4%) had no effort to improve the health problem. Content of self management was low salt diet, quit smoking, regular exercise and quit alcohol drinking in order. Avoidance of salt in diet was high in hypertension group and quitting alcohol drinking was high in liver disorder group. In those with self management, 80.7% of hypertension group and 83.3% of liver disorder group continued previous effort. Those, however, who utilized clinic or hospital, only 16.7% and 50.0% were still visiting hospital or clinic. 3. Fifty seven percent of hypertension group and 64.3% of liver disorder group was presently smoking, 8.5% and 11.9% reduced smoking and 21.3% and 14.3% stopped smoking. Forty nine percent of hypertension group and 28.6% of liver disorder group was presently drinking. Reduced alcohol intake was reported in 29.8% and 40.5%, 12.8% and 23.8% stopped alcohol drinking. Sixty six percent of hypertension group and 73.8% of liver disorder group did no regular exercise, but 12.8% and 11.9% of each group increased their physical exercise for last one year. Forty three percent of hypertension group and 38.1% of liver disorder group was overweight (defined by bodymass index greater or equal than 25). Reduced body weight was reported in 17.2% and 16.7% of each group. Reduced dietary salt intake was high in hypertension group (51.5%). The study results suggest that follow-up management after workers' periodic health examination is not satisfactory. In order to improve this situation, adequate information on the result of the workers' periodic health examination should be distributed to each worker group with health education and counselling.
Summary
Changes and Trends in the Newly Established Clinics in Korea.
Byung Soon Choi, Ok Ryun Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):357-373.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
After medical insurance came into effect in Korea, health care system has undergone tremendous changes. Changing patterns of newly established clinics is one of them. To investigate changes and trends, a total of 10,184 clinics which were newly established from 1981 to 1990 were analysed. Data were obtained from the file of contracting medical facilities of the Federation of Medical Insurance Societies. The proportion of newly establishied clinics has increased gradually, so that they amount to 13% of the total medical facilities in Korea. Meanwhile, the number of newly established medium-size hospitals and general hospitals have decreased. The number of newly established clinics per 100, 000 populations has increased in the all areas, but the rate of increase has decreased in the cities except in 6 major cities in 1990. The rate of increase in newly established clinics surpasses that of population increase. This study has identified the trend of young physicians' early driving into their solo medical practice than before. This indicates chance of the medical specialty training nowadays toughen due to the limited openings in residency programs. However, the sex ratio of physicians at newly established clinics has not changed. The decreasing tendency to open medical practice without beds and the increasing size of clinics are found in this study(The size has been measured in terms of medical manpower, of beds, and of medical equipment in this study). Two thirds of general practitioners have opened their clinics without beds, although such trend has been less in the case of specialists. All three indicators show increasing size, especially in the case of rural clinics. However, among them, the number of medical equipments has increased most significantly from 8.9 items in 1981 to 12.9 in 1990.
Summary
Comparison of Subjective Symptoms of Workers in Rapidly and Weekly Rotating Shift Systems.
Young Yeon Jung, Gwang Seo Choi, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Gu Wung Han
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):374-385.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Some circadian rhythms can become disorganized due to rotating shift work. This lack of organization, termed desynchronization, can produce a group of symptoms such as insomnia, GI disturbance and fatigue among many rotating shift workers. The magnitude of these symptoms are influenced by personal and environmental factors and the patterns of shift work. This study was carried out to investigate the subjective symptoms related to rotational schedules of shift work after personal and environmental factors adjusted. 182 male workers in rapidly rotating shift system and 86 male workers in weekly rotating shift system were conducted the questionnaire on personal factors and subjective sleep, GI and fatigue symptoms. Major findings obtained from this study are as follows: 1. The symptoms of 'feeling tired at work' and 'being irritable' were more frequent in weekly rotating shift workers(P<0.05), and the mean of symptom score was significantly higher in weekly rotating shift workers(P<0.01). 2. According to 6 hours of sleeping which is a definite elevation point of fatigue, there was not a significant difference between two groups in sleeping hours. Among workers in rapidly rotating shift system, the mean of symptom score was significantly higher in workers of less than 6 hours of sleeping(P<0.05), but it was not different among weekly rotating shift workers. 3. The symptoms of GI disturbance were more frequent in weekly rotating shift workers but statistically mot significant. 4. The positive rate of mental and physical fatigue symptoms were significantly higher in weekly rotating shift workers(P<0.01) and mental and physical fatigue symptoms were more frequent in them(P<0.01). 5. After the effect of the factors that were significantly different between two groups by X2-test were controlled, the mean score of sleep disturbance was significantly higher in weekly rotating shift workers(P<0.01) and mental physical fatigue symptoms were more frequent in them(P<0.01). Based on these study results, subjective symptoms were more common in the weekly rotating shift workers. In future, medical examination and laboratory test will be also administered to evaluate a more accurate health outcomes and the review of current shift schedules will be required.
Summary
A Study of The Relationship between Alcohol Intake, Smoking, Relative Weight and Serum Lipids Level in Young Adult Male Workers.
Ji Ho Lee, Byung Mann Cho, Soo Ill Lee, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):386-398.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to study the relationship between life-style and serum lipids level in young adults, the author measured the concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and investigated age, relative weight, weekly alcohol intake and daily cigarette smoking through questionnaire in 310 male workers aged 20 to 39, in Ulsan area. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the factors being able to influence serum lipids level there was negative correlation between age and alcohol intake, and the positive corrrelation between age and relative weight, alcohol intake and relative weight, alcohol intake and smoking with the strongest correlation between alcohol intake and smoking. 2. In univariate analysis, mean total cholesterol concentration were significantly different according to age, smoking and relative weight; mean triglyceride concentration were significantly different according to relative weight only; mean HDL-C concentration were significantly different according to alcohol intake alone. 3. In non-drinkers, HDL-C concentration of smokers were significantly lower than that of nonsmokers but triglyceride concentration of smokers were significant higher. And in drinkers, total cholesterol concentration of smokers was significantly higher than that of non-smokers. 4. In multiple regression analysis, significant independent variables were relative weight, age and smoking in the total cholesterol concentration, and relative weight, age and alcohol intake in the triglyceride concentration, and alcohol intake, relative weight and smoking in the HDL-C concentration. By these independent variables, total variation in each dependent variable was explained 7.9%, 17.6% and 7.4% respectively.
Summary
An Analysis on Factors Relating to Fiscal Deficit for Regional Health Insurance Program in Korea.
Han Joong Kim, Woo Hyun Cho, Sun Hee Lee, Hyung Kon Kang, Yang Kyun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):399-412.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was designed to investigate factors relating to fiscal deficit for regional health insurance. The financial statements for the fiscal year 1990 of nationwide 254 regional medical insurance societies were analyzed. Important findings are summarized below: 1. There were differences in the main reason for the financial deficit among regions when deficit and surplus societies were compared by regions. The total revenue per enrollee, especially revenue from the premium contribution of a deficit society was significantly smaller than that of a surplus society in large cities and counties. On the other hand, the total expenditure per enrollee of a deficit society was larger than that of a surplus society in small cities. 2. Both low premium irate at the beginning of health insurance program and less effort to increase the premium rate were main factors for the smaller revenue from the contribution of a deficit society in large cities and counties. 3. Larger expenditures per covered person of a deficit society in small cities were explained with larger medical expenditures especially for out-patients services rather than larger administrative expenses. 4. A regression analysis showed that utilization rates in out-patient services were significantly associated with income and numbers of total medical care institution per capita within a region where a health insurance society located. Also expenses paid by insurer per visit were associated with the proportion of utilization for tertiary care hospitals as well as the proportion of utilization of public health centers.
Summary
An Appropriateness Evaluation of Cesarean Section, Cholecystectomy, and Admission in Pediatric Pneumonia.
Chang Yup Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Young Seong Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):413-428.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of some kinds of surgery and admission, such as cesarean section (C/S), cholecystectomy, and pediatric pneumonia. For appropriateness evaluation, we ourselves developed some criteria, which were included in the category of explicit and linear criteria, with the assistance of specialists of relevant clinical field. The evaluation of appropriateness was performed by two family physicians. The major findings were as follows: 1. For ceserean section, 77.6% of deliveries were determined to be 'appropriate', but the level of appropriateness was not significantly different among hospitals between hospital groups by size. The most frequent indication of C/S was repeated operation, followed by cephalopelvic disproportion(CPD). The labor trials for vaginal delivery among repeated C/S and CPD cases were performed in 24.5% of pertinent deliveries. 2. About 73.8% of cholecystectomy cases was appropriate to one of the surgical indications, without significant differences among hospitals. Of surgical indications, 'sufficiently frequent and intense symptom recurrence' was the most frequent, and 'confirmed acute cholecystitis' was the second. 3. Of children admitted due to pneumonia, only 57.4% of cases satisfied admission criteria, and the level of appropriateness of admission was different among hospitals. The common reasons for admission were 'failure to initial treatment', 'suspected bacterial pnermonia', 'young infant', etc. We could find that there were differences of quality among hospitals in some procedures, especially in the pediatric pneumonia and labor trial before C/S, which suggested that the implementation of quality assurance activities would be necessary in this country. In this study, we used some simple and primitive research tools and the numbers of subjects and tracer procedures were limited. So advanced studies with plentiful subjects and more representative diseases or procedures should be tried.
Summary
Social support and phychosocial distress among white-collar workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):429-447.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The effects and roles of social support and stressors (stressful life events and chronic strains) on psychosocial distress were examined in a model with data from a sample of the white-collar workers (N = 416) in Korea. The findings of this study present that mean levels of psychosocial distress were higher' in the female, youth, unmarried and divorced, and low economic status (monthly income). The analysis also shows that, as expected, stressful life and chronic strains as stressors are positively related to occurrence of psychosocial distress, and social support is negatively related to psychosocial distress. Further, the contribution of social support to predicting psychosocial distress is greater in magnitude than that of stressful events, chronic strains, and sociodemographic variables. There is no evidence that social support buffers the impacts of stressors on psychosocial distress, rather social support takes a role of main or direct effects on psychosocial distress. Therefore, the strength of the social support is an important and meaningful strategy to prevent from stress and mental, physical illness.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health