Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
25 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Volume 21(2); November 1988
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Maternal Factors Associated with the Premature Rupture of Membrane in the Low Birth Weight Infant Deliveries.
Kang Sook Lee, Won Chul Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Choong Hoon Lee, Soo Pyung Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):207-216.
  • 1,860 View
  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Premature rupture of membrane is the most frequent cause of low birth weight infant delivery which increase the maternal and fetal morbidity and perinatal mortality. A retrospective case-control study was performed on 315 mothers who delivered low birth weight infants(< or = 2.5kg) with premature rupture of membrane and as control group 546 mothers who delivered normal birth weight infants(2.9-3.7kg) without premature rupture of membrane were chosen. The results obtained from this study were as follows: 1. The proportion of low birth weight infants due to premature rupture of membrane among all low birth weight infant deliveries was 14.5%, and this is equivalent to 1.1% among all deliveries. 2. The most significant maternal risk factor of low birth weight infant deliveries with premature rupture of membrane was infections on vagina, cervix and uterus during pregnancy. Compared with control, adjusted odds ratio was 7.61(95% confidence interval(CI) 1.88-30.88, p=0.004). Other significant maternal risk factors were the history of induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, and the experience of premature delivery. The risk ratios were 1.82, 2.07, 4.42, respectively. 3. Breech presentation did increase the risk of low birth weight infant delivery with infant delivery with premature rupture of membrane against control(Adjusted odds ratio=2.66, 95% CI 1.35-5.26, p=0.005). 4. Mothers who had not taken antenatal care were having higher risk of low birth weight infant delivery with premature rupture of membrane against control(Adjusted odds ratio=1.73, 95% CI 1.35-5.26, p=0.004). These study results show that maternal factors such as the infection of genital organs during pregnancy, the history of induced abortion and breech presentation are significantly associated with the premature rupture of membrane in the low birth weight deliveries, and that most of these risk factors are controllable ones through proper antenatal cares.
Summary
Cross-sectional Survey for Prevalence Rate of Scoliosis in Primary, Middle and High School Boys in Pusan City.
Bok Yong Kim, Jung Han Park, Poong Taek Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):217-223.
  • 1,817 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of scoliosis in elementary, middle and high school boys in May 1988. The study population included 1,393 male students in Pusan ; 463 students of 4th grade in two elementary schools, 543 students of 1st grade in one middle school and 387 students of 1st grade in one high school. The students of elementary school were screened with inspection by two physicians at the same time and the students of middle and high schools were screened with both inspection by the same physicians and 70mm chest X-ray. Positive students in any one of the two screening tests were measured for height and body weight and asked for the shoulder side on which he carries the school bag. The angle of curvature on X-ray film was measured by Cobb's method. The number of positive students in any one of the two tests were 15(3.2%) in elementary schools, 174(32.0%) in middle school and 92(23.8%) in high school. However, positive rates in both tests were only 2.2% for the middle school students and 2.6% for the high school students and among these students 1.1% out of total middle school students and 2.3% of high school students had a curvature equal to or greater than 5 degrees of Cobb's angle on 70mm chest X-ray film. There was a statistically significant association between the direction of spinal curve and the shoulder side on which one carries school bag among positive students in both screening tests (p<0.05). Mean height and body weight of 281 positive students in any one of two screening tests were compared with the Korean standard for the same age. Mean weight of elementary school students was nearly the same as the standard weight but the height was slightly shorter than the standard. However, both mean height and weight of the middle school students were lower than the standard while those of the high school students were higher. The prevalence rate of scoliosis for the 2nd 3rd grades of high school is presumed to be higher than that of the 1st grade of high school and the rate for girls will be even higher than the rate for boys of the same age. Thus, scoliosis seems to be an important school health problem. To prevent scoliosis, it is recommended to reduce the weight of school bag, educate the students to keep a right posture and exercise periodically.
Summary
Causes of Childhood Injuries Observed at the Emergency Rooms of Five Hospitals in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Yeong Sook Bae
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):224-237.
  • 1,642 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine the causes of and related factors to childhood injuries, the emergency room records and inpatient medical records were reviewed for 4,849 injured children out of 15,790 pediatric patients(<15 years old) who visited the emergency rooms of 3 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals in Taegu from 1 January to 31 December 1987. Out of total injured children, 54.6% were 3-8 years old and the male to female ratio of the total injured children was about 2 : 1. The leading causes of injury were falls and slips (29.1%) and traffic accident(28.2%). The frequency of injury was higher in May-October than the rest of months and 51.6% of the injuries occurred between 15 and 20 o'clock. Falls and slips took place most frequently at the stairway(25.7%). The most common interpersonal violence was inflicted injuries(85.6%) and there were 11 child rapes. Dog bites accounted for 67.6% of all biting injuries and it occurred 2.9 times more in male than in female. CO intoxication was the most common cause of poisoning (45.3%) and scalding accounted for 85.2% of all burns. Common places of drownings were river (32.2%), swimming pool (22.6%) and construction site(19.3%). To prevent childhood injuries, it is recommended to eliminate the hazardous environmental factors, to provide safe playgrounds, to educate the children for safety from kindergarten and the general public through mass communication, to establish a strict safety standard for houses, public buildings and facilities, and playgrounds.
Summary
Causes of Burn and Emergency Care on the Spot for the Patients Admitted to Three Hospitals in Taegu.
Min Chu, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):238-244.
  • 1,686 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to investigate the causes of burn and emergency cares taken on the spot for the burn patient. study population included 161 burn patients admitted to 2 university hospitals and 1 general hospital in Taegu from November 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. Patients or guardians were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Out of 161 burn patients 111(69.8%) were males and 50(31.1%) females. Preschool children of 1-4 years old accounted for 29.8% of the total patients. Burns of children under 15 years of age took place at home in 91.0%, while 48.3% of burns of adult (15 years and over) males occurred at the working place, and 68.0% of adult females occurred at the home. Out of total burns occurred at home 39.8% took place at kitchen/dining room and 24.1% in the room. The most common cause of burns in children was the boiling water or hot food (74.3%). In adults the common causes were electrical burn(22.4%), hot water or food(19.0%) and explosion(12.1%) for males, and hot water or food(32.0%) and explosion(20.0%) for females. Common emergency cares for the burn taken on the spot were undressing(64.6%), pouring Soju(liquor)(13.7%), and pouring cold water(5.0%). There were a few cases who applied ash, soy or salt. To prevent burn, it is recommended to remodel the traditional kitchen and coal-briquet hole, to strengthen the safety control of LP Gas and LN Gas supply, to educate the public for the handling method for such gases, to strengthen the occupational safety control, to improve the safety device for the electric wire and socket, and to limit the temperature of hot water at home and public baths.
Summary
Change of FVC, FEV1 after Discontinuance of Bronchodilator in Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Patients.
Yong Hee Cheon
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):245-250.
  • 2,111 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
For the evaluation of change of FVC and FEV1 after discontinuance of bronchodilator in the coal workers' pneumoconiosis patients, 17 pairs of patients were selected. They were matched by the age(+/-5 y.o.) and the type of ventilatory impairment. Pulmonary function was measured 2 times bimonthly before and after the drug discontinuance discontinued after measurement of PFT for 2 times. In case group the bronchodilator was discontinued after measurement of PFT for 2 times. In control group there was no interruption of medication. FVC, FEV1 decreased in both group as measurement progress. Simple linear regression coefficients against the month of measurement were calculated in both group and tested for parallelism between two groups. The results of test revealed that both regression coefficients were parallel. So in conclusively, discontinuance of medication of bronchodilator for coal workers pneumoconiosis patients has no effect on the decreasing rate of FVC, FEV1.
Summary
Coal Miners' Recognition and Attitude toward Pneumoconiosis in Kangneung Area.
Ho Keun Chung, Kyung Yong Rhee
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):251-266.
  • 1,711 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was planned in order to investigate coal miners' recognition and attitude toward pneumoconiosis, and its relationship with related behavior for prevention of pneumoconiosis. Study object was coal miners in Kangneung area, sampled by multistage random proportional sampling, Sample size was 13% of total coal miners in Kangneung area. The results were divided into three parts: (1) descriptive results presented percent distribution, (2) reclassification of knowledge, experiences, and attitude by factor analysis, (3) prediction of health behavior for prevention of pneumoconiosis by discriminant analysis. Knowledge, experiences, and attitude toward pneumoconiosis were classified into nine factors. Knowledge about pneumoconiosis were broken down to two factors and attitude to four factors, and valence, perceived severity were classified into each one factor. According to demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and factors of knowledge, experiences, attitude about pneumoconiosis, about 62% of behavior of wearing respiratory protector was correctly discriminated. And by the same methods, about 81% of behavior of hospital visit at respiratory symptoms; cough, sputum, chest pain etc. was discriminated correctly.
Summary
Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second and ECG Sign of Cor Pulmonale in Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis .
Yong Hee Cheon
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):267-270.
  • 1,826 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The medical record of ECG and pulmonary function test of 297 cases who were dead at hospital or admitted as coal workers' pneumonociosis were used for the study of the relationship between forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1.0) and ECG sign of pulmonale. The incidence of T wave inversion in V1 lead was significantly increased as FEV1.0 decrease. The incidence of T wave inversion in V1 lead was over the half in the group of FEV1.0 less than 0.7 liter.
Summary
Quantitative Analysis of Quartz, Mica, and Feldspar in Respirable Coalmine Dust in Taebaek Area by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry.
Ho Chun Choi, Yong Hee Cheon, Hae Jeong Kim, Jeong Joo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):271-283.
  • 1,838 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of quartz, mica(sericite) and feldspar(potassium feldspar) in respirable dust in Taebaek area. The results were as follows; 1) The concentration of minerals were determined from the intensity of absorption peak of quartz at 799 cm-1, sericite at 539 cm-1, and potassium feldspar at 648 cm-1 respectively. 2) The precision(C. V. %) for the quartz determination was 7.70+/-2.68 % from 10 to 200 microgram of quartz. 3) The precision for the sericite determination was 16.34+/-6.82 % from 30 to 500 microgram of serictite. 4) The precision for the potassium feldspar determination was 5.28+/-1.74 % from 30 to 500 microgram of potassium feldspar. 5) The concentration of respirable dust in Taebaek area was 4.90+/-3.29 mg/m3(0.4-93.7%), percent quartz was 1.80+/-4.14% (0.01-20.56%), percent sericite was 11.37+/-6.43% (0.00-29.69%), percent potassium feldspar was 8.15 % (n=7, 3.41-19.70%). 6) The difference of respirable coal dust, quartz, and sericite concentration in drilling, coal cutting, hauling and separating was significant respectively (p<0.05).
Summary
Mutagenic Activity of Organic Pollutans in Drinking Water in Seoul.
Dong Chun Shin, Jae Yeon Jang, Seong Joon Jo, Yong Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):284-294.
  • 1,736 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To measure the mutagenic activity of micro-organic pollutants in drinking water, mutagenic test was conducted using Salmnella typhimurium TA 98 strain on the water sample taken from three water supply station and six tap water in Seoul in July and November 1987. The results were as follows : 1. The average amounts of organic matters in raw, treated, and tap water sampled in July were 0.38mg/l, 0.28mg/l, and 0.45mg/l, respectively, and sampled in November were 0.34mg/l, 0.24mg/l, and 0.22mg/l, respectively. The amount of organic matters of tap water sampled in November did not increase while that of tap water sampled in July increased compare to those of raw or treated water. 2. The amount of organic matters is the highest in neutral fraction compare to acidic and basic fractions. 3. In the five out of six tap water and raw water of Paldang and Kuui station sampled in July, the mutagenic ratios were greater than two (both direct and indirect mutagenicity). 4. In the three out six tap water and raw and treated water of Kuui station sampled in November, the mutagenic ratios were greater than two. 5. While mutagenic were low in acidic and basic fraction, they were high in neutral fraction. The samples which had high mutagenic activity in the total amount also showed high mutagenic activity in neutral fraction. 6. While mutagenic activity was decreased after the treatment of water, it was increased in tap water as the distance from the water supply station increases.
Summary
Dose-Response Relationship between Catalase and Superoxide dismutase Activity in Testes of Acutely Intoxicated Rats by Cadmium.
Bo Young Park, Jung Duck Park, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):295-306.
  • 1,700 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Dose-response relationship among blood cadmium concentrations, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were studied with acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium. The Sprague-Dawley male rats to which single dose of 1-32 mg/kg CdCl2 were administered into peritoneal cavity were sacrificed by decapitation at 3-36 hours after the administration. Cadmium concentrations in blood increased significantly with dose of CdCl2 administered and reached peak level at 3 hours later. Catalase activities in rats' tests were not correlated with exposure time elapsed after the administration in rats to which 1-2 mg/kg of CdCl2 were administered, but they showed linear relationship with time in groups to which 4-32 mg/kg of CdCl2 were administered. Cu, Zn-SOD activities in tests of acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium were not altered either by dosage or by time elapsed after the administration. Mn-SOD activities in the tests were also not influenced by dosage of 1-2 mg/kg CdCl2, but remarkably inactivated by dosage of 4-32 mg/kg CdCl2 with time elapsed after the administration. Neither catalase, Cu, Zn-SOD nor Mn-SOD activities of tests were correlated with blood cadmium concentrations in acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium.
Summary
Contents of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in Bone, Muscle and Fin of Carassius carassius from Middle Stream of Nakdong River, Korea.
Doohie Kim, Yong Gu Kim, Bong Ki Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):307-319.
  • 1,701 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to determine the contents of lead, cadmium and zinc, the tissues of the crussian carp, Carassius carassius, collected from the middle streams of the Nakdong river were examined. During the dry season from 8 to 15, March, 1987, six loci were selected to sample the fish and river water; five of them were the midstreams of the Nakdong river i.e., the vicinities of the Andong dam, the Nakdong bridge, the Waegwan bridge, Gangjung and Gaepori, the other one was the Kumho river around the Paldal bridge(see Fig.1). The microanalyses of lead and cadmium contents were undertaken by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer(Model IL-551) connected with CTF-IL 655, while that of zinc by the flame method with IL-551 only. The contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori distant from about 30km downward from the junction with the Kumho river were about 1.5 times higher than those from Gangjung distant about 0.5km upward from the junction, and the content of zinc from Gaepori was slightly higher than that from Gangjung. However, the contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori were three fifth of those from the vicinity of Paldal bridge far about 2km upperward from the junction. In the other words, the contents of lead and cadmium in the samples from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge were about 2.5 to 3 times higher than those from the Gangjung and 5 times higher than those from the Andong dam. The contents of the heavy metals in the tissues of Carassius carassius were relatively consistent to those of the aquatic environments were the fish were collected, with higher contents in the tissues of the crussian carp collected from the vicinity of Gaepori and the Paldal bridge which were so much polluted than in those from other loci in upper stream from the junction. And the contents of lead and cadmium in tissues were positively correlated with the age of the fish, however, that zinc was not. The contents of lead in bone of crussian carp from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge in the group of 0-1 year old fish were similar to those of 4-5 years old fish from Gaepori, and higher than those of 3-4 years old fish collected from the upper stream of the junction. It is likely that fishing from Gaepori and the paldal bridge is not recommended, and all the industrial producers have to pay intensive attention to the water pollution due to the sewage disposal.
Summary
A Study on the Heavy Metal Contents of Soil and Rice in the Kum River Basin.
Young Oh Kim, Hyung Yul Yoo, Jae Hyung Lee, No Suk Ki, In Dam Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):320-328.
  • 2,066 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal contents and their correlations between paddy soil and brown rice near the Kum-River area. In this study, eighty soil samples and forty brown rice samples were taken from the paddy soil. The contents of heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were as follows: 1. The average contents of soluble heavy metals in surface soil were Cd 0.19, Cu 15.31, Zn 18.10 and Pb 9.08 ppm. The average contents of soluble heavy metals in subsurface soil were Cd 0.19, Cu 14.52, Zn 17.75 and Pb8.11 ppm. There wan no statistically significant difference between the two layers. 2. The contents of Cu, Zn and Pb of Taejeon(S6) and Cd of Sinbyung(S5) in surface soil were higher than those of other areas. The contents of Cd and Cu of Taejeon(S6) and Zn and Pb of Kumnam(S3) in brown rice were higher than those of other areas and four heavy metals in soil and brown rice of Simchon(S7) were lower than those of other areas. 3. The ratio of soluble contents(Cd : Cu : Zn : Pb) in surface soil was 1 : 79 : 93 : 47, that of soluble contents in subsurface soil was 1 : 79 : 94 : 43, and that of total contents in brown rice was 1 : 84 : 294 : 12. 4. The correlations of the content between soluble heavy metals in surface(0-15 cm depth) soil total heavy metals in brown rice was found to be order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb. The correlations of the content between soluble heavy metals in subsurface(20-30 cm depth) soil and total heavy metals in brown rice was found to be order of Cu>Cd>Zn>Pb.
Summary
Effect of Drinking and Smoking on AST and ALT Activities.
Doohie Kim, Seol Seo
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):329-339.
  • 1,928 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The study is carried out to investigate the effect of drinking and smoking for the activities of aspartate aminotransferse(AST, or GOT) and alanine amintransferse(ALT or GPT), from December 25, 1986 to April 30, 1987. The male physical examinees for employment, 900 who had visited to the Taegu Medical Center were subjected. And the positive cases of HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs and skin test for Clonorchis sinensis were excluded. The general characters of drinking and smoking pattern were introduced by interview with questionnaire provided for. In drinking cases, the longer duration was significantly effected the higher rate of abnormality in AST and ALT level. But the amount and the frequency were not. It was not appeared effects by mackgulri which is a Korean traditional wine and small amount of beers. In smoking cases, also same pattern. The age was related in all cases. By the way, when the effect is related the positive results with other factors; HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs, skin test for clonorchiasis and harmful occupational history, it is higher abnormal rate of AST and ALT in the duplicated cases with two factors or more. Particularly in HBs-Ag positive cases, those who had smoking was the highest in rate of abnormality, and drinking was the follows. In correlation matrix among seven factors; HBs-Ag, age, drinking amount, drinking period, drinking frequency, smoking amount and smoking period, correlation coefficient was significant between the abnormal rate and to with age, drinking period, smoking period, and smoking amount.
Summary
Effect of Dietary Calcium, Casein, and Suet on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.
Kyu Sang Jung, Doohie Kim, Kyung Dong Jung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):340-350.
  • 1,812 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of dietary calcium, casein, and suet on the accumulation of cadmium in mice. It was performed for 30 days, from April 11 to May 10 1988. 90 mice were divided into 4 experimental groups and control group with 6 mice each dietary group, and measured survival rate, body weight, and weight ratio of organ to body. The contents of cadmium in liver, kidney, spleen, muscle and skin with hair, and faces were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer after sacrifice by anesthesia. After 30 days, the survival rate of control group was 100%, but 66.7% in group IV(basal+Cd+Ca) with single dose of 100 microgram cadmium and with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium, and group V(basal diet+Cd+suet) with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. The rate of weight gain in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium was highest in group IV as 42.3% and lowest in group V as 26.0%, whereas in the cases of free intake group IV was highest as 24.0% and group II(basal diet+Cd) was lowest as 11.6%. The body weight, in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium showed no increase until 5th day after acute poisoning. But in the case of free intake group, it showed very increase through all the breeding period. The weight ratio of organ to body were lowest in the liver of group II in both occasions. The most of cadmium administered were excreted through feces within 2 days after single dose of 100 microgram cadmium. The contents of cadmium in each group were significantly higher than those of control group. In the liver, kidney, spleen and muscle, group II showed the highest level in both occasions of 100 microgram single dose and free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. In the skin with hair, group II of the occasion with single dose of 100 microgram and group V with free intake showed the highest level. And the contents of cadmium in tissue were markedly higher in the occasion of free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. From the above results I would conclude that the addition of casein and calcium are effective in the inhibition of intension absorption of cadmium esp. by calcium.
Summary
A Study on the Serum Nickel Concentration During Delivery.
Kee Ho Ko, Jin Hee Lee, Gwang Wook Lee, Jin Su Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):351-356.
  • 1,742 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the possible functional role of serum during the process of parturition, 15 serum samples were collected and analyzed for the nickel concentrations in each 3 groups(Group 1 for the period during parturition, Group 2 for the period from delivery of fetus to delivery of placenta, and Group 3 for the period after delivery of placenta) of normal, uncomplicated full term vaginal delivery and one control group composed of healthy unmarried women in 3rd decades of age. Data revealed that average serum nickel concentration of Group 2(26.6 microgram/l) and Group 1(22.2 microgram/l) were significantly higher than that of Control group(13.7 microgram/l), but Group 3's(13.8 microgram/l) was almost same as Control group's. There were significant negative correlation between age and serum nickel concentration in group 2, and a tendency of higher nickel concentration in women who have no previous experiences of pregnancy than who have previous experiences of pregnancy, although it was not significant. These result could be indicative of close causal relationship between serum nickel concentration and the entire process of parturition.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health