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Soung Hoon Chang 15 Articles
Cigarette Smoking and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) Study.
Eun Ha Lee, Sue K Park, Kwang Pil Ko, In Seong Cho, Soung Hoon Chang, Hai Rim Shin, Daehee Kang, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):151-158.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.151
  • 6,737 View
  • 187 Download
  • 30 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality, cancer mortality and other disease mortalities in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 14 161 subjects of the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort who were over 40 years of age and who were cancer-free at baseline enrollment reported their lifestyle factors, including the smoking status. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years. During the follow-up period from 1993 to 2005, we identified 1159 cases of mortality, including 260 cancer mortality cases with a total of 91 987 person-years, by the national death certificate. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of cigarette smoking for total mortality, cancer mortality and disease-specific mortality, as adjusted for age, gender, the geographic area and year of enrollment, the alcohol consumption status, the education level and the body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of total mortality, all-cancer mortality and lung cancer mortality (p-trend, <0.01, <0.01, <0.01, respectively). Compared to non-smoking, current smokers were at a higher risk for mortality [HR (95% CI)=1.3 (1.1-1.5) for total mortality; HR (95% CI)=1.6 (1.1-2.2) for all-cancer mortality; HR (95% CI)=3.9 (1.9-7.7) for lung cancer mortality]. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results suggest that cigarette smoking might be associated with total mortality, all-cancer mortality and especially lung cancer mortality among Korean adults.
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    Woojin Kim, A Ram Kim, Minsu Ock, Young-Jee Jeon, Heun Lee, Daehwan Kim, Minjun Kim, Cheolin Yoo
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Burden of Cancer Due to Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption in Korea
    Yoon-Sun Jung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(6): 3493.     CrossRef
  • Association between body mass index and oesophageal cancer mortality: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies with >800 000 individuals in the Asia Cohort Consortium
    Sangjun Lee, Jieun Jang, Sarah Krull Abe, Shafiur Rahman, Eiko Saito, Rashedul Islam, Prakash C Gupta, Norie Sawada, Akiko Tamakoshi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Atsuko Sadakane, Ichiro Tsuji, Jeongseon Kim, Isao Oze, Chisato Nagata, San-Lin You, Myung-He
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2022; 51(4): 1190.     CrossRef
  • Smoking May Affect Pulmonary Function through DNA Methylation: an Epigenome-Wide Association Study in Korean Men
    So-Young Kwak, Clara Yongjoo Park, Min-Jeong Shin
    Clinical Nutrition Research.2020; 9(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of multidimensional factors in attempts to quit using tobacco by Korean adolescents
    Mi-Jung Kang, Hyunjin Lee, Mirae Jo
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The impact of basic livelihoods condition on the current smoking: Applying the counterfactual model
    Minhyeok Choi
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2019; 36(1): 53.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing.2018; 20(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Association and affecting factor between smoking and suicide idea: Focusing on comparison between district
    Seonhwa Yu, So Young Kim, Bo Ram Park, Mi-na Jo, Siekeyong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2018; 35(3): 1.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between smoking and stroke by general characteristics: using the 6th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey
    Younghee Nam, Hyunjung Jung, Yesoon Kim
    Journal of Digital Contents Society.2018; 19(7): 1323.     CrossRef
  • Gender-related difference in the relationship between smoking status and periodontal diseases: the propensity score matching approach
    Eun-Sil Choi, Hae-Young Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2017; 41(2): 122.     CrossRef
  • The association between smoking or passive smoking and cardiovascular diseases using a Bayesian hierarchical model: based on the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey
    Whanhee Lee, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hayoung Choi, Ho Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017026.     CrossRef
  • Psychosocial Factors Associated With Smoking Intention in Korean Male Middle School Students
    Jin Suk Ra, Yoon Hee Cho
    The Journal of School Nursing.2017; 33(5): 355.     CrossRef
  • Physiological and clinical relevance of anomalous right coronary artery originating from left sinus of Valsalva in adults
    Sang Eun Lee, Cheol Woong Yu, Kyungil Park, Kyung Woo Park, Jung-Won Suh, Young-Seok Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi, Ho-Jun Jang, Jin-Shik Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Hyo-Soo Kim, Ki-Bong Kim, Bon-Kwon Koo
    Heart.2016; 102(2): 114.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Smoking and Physician-Diagnosed Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Male Adults in Korea
    Sounghoon Chang, Hyeongsu Kim, Vitna Kim, Kunsei Lee, Hyoseon Jeong, Jung-Hyun Lee, Soon-Ae Shin, Eunyoung Shin, Minsu Park, Eunjung Ko
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(2): 158.     CrossRef
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    Han Na Sung, Jong Sung Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2016; 33(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
    Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2016; 49(5): 275.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Factors Related to Smoking and Smoking Conditions among College Students in Some Area
    Kyeong-Ah Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(8): 465.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Health Status Between Korean Seniors and Overseas Korean Seniors in China and Japan
    Mi-Kyoung Cho, Ogcheol Lee, Gisoo Shin
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(3): 2079.     CrossRef
  • Combined Influence of Smoking Frequency and Intensity on Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Korean High School Students
    Jin Suk Ra, Yoon Hee Cho, Hye Sun Kim
    Journal of the Korean Society of School Health.2015; 28(3): 168.     CrossRef
  • Factor Analysis of Effect on Cardiovascular Disease of Korean Police Officers
    Jingu Lee, Woojin Jeon, Jaehwan Cho
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2014; 8(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • How Computed Tomography Contrast Media and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Media Affect the Changes of Uptake Counts of201Tl
    Jin-Hyeok Lee, Hae-Kag Lee, Jae-Hwan Cho, Miju Cheon
    Journal of Magnetics.2014; 19(4): 372.     CrossRef
  • Influence of Physical Activity on Smoking Experience and Smoking Intensity in Korean High School Students
    Jin Suk Ra, Yoon Hee Cho
    Journal of the Korean Society of School Health.2014; 27(3): 181.     CrossRef
  • Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea
    Sohee Park, Sun Ha Jee, Hai-Rim Shin, Eun Hye Park, Aesun Shin, Kyu-Won Jung, Seung-Sik Hwang, Eun Shil Cha, Young Ho Yun, Sue Kyung Park, Mathieu Boniol, Paolo Boffetta
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    Sung Suk Chung, Kyoung Hwa Joung
    The Journal of School Nursing.2014; 30(4): 262.     CrossRef
  • Smoking in elderly Koreans: Prevalence and factors associated with smoking cessation
    Shin Kyum Kim, Joon Hyuck Park, Jung Jae Lee, Seok Bum Lee, Tae Hui Kim, Ji Won Han, Jong Chul Youn, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Dong Young Lee, Ki Woong Kim
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2013; 56(1): 214.     CrossRef
  • Less Healthy Dietary Pattern is Associated with Smoking in Korean Men According to Nationally Representative Data
    Sang-Yeon Suh, Ju Hyun Lee, Sang Shin Park, Ah-Ram Seo, Hong-Yup Ahn, Woo Kyung Bae, Yong Joo Lee, Eunji Yim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2013; 28(6): 869.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Smoking, Alcohol Intake, and Low-Salt Diet: Results from the 2008 Community Health Survey
    In-Ae Chun, Jong Park, Mi-Ah Han, Seong-Woo Choi, So-Yeon Ryu
    Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association.2013; 19(3): 223.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Individual and Combined Health Behaviors on All Causes of Premature Mortality Among Middle Aged Men in Korea: The Seoul Male Cohort Study
    Chul Woo Rhee, Ji Young Kim, Byung Joo Park, Zhong Min Li, Yoon-Ok Ahn
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(1): 14.     CrossRef
  • Mortality and Potential Years of Life Lost of lung cancer between Korea and OECD countries before and after the year 2000
    Dong-Seok Kim, Ji-Won Park, Soo-Won Kang
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2011; 12(7): 3138.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Development of Tobacco Control Policies Using Delphi Technique
    Jeong-Min Kim, Young-Su Ju, Yeol Kim, Hong-Gwan Seo
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2011; 2(1): 30.     CrossRef
Cigarette Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Community-based Cohort Study in Korea.
Yeonju Kim, Aesun Shin, Jin Gwack, Jae Kwan Jun, Sue Kyung Park, Daehee Kang, Hai Rim Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):467-474.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.467
  • 5,871 View
  • 97 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Gastric cancer is the most common incident cancer in Korea. Although Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, cigarette smoking has also been suggested to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 13,785 subjects who had been enrolled in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2002. As of December 2002, 139 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained through the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the National Death Certificate Database. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for gastric cancer were estimated using CoxZs proportional hazard model adjusted for age, education, alcohol drinking status and history of gastritis or ulcer. RESULTS: Significant dose-response relationships were observed between the duration of smoking and the risk of gastric cancer among the male subjects in comparison to non-smokers: men who smoked for 20-39 years had a 2.09- fold (95% CI 1.00-4.38) increase, and those who smoked for more than 40 years had a 3.13-fold (95% CI 1.59-6.17) increase in the risk of gastric cancer (Ptrend<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a longer duration of cigarette smoking may increase the risk of gastric cancer development in a dose-response manner in Korean men. The association between smoking and gastric cancer risk in women should be verified in future studies with a larger number of cases.
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Citations

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    Physician's Journal of Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cigarette smoking and gastric cancer in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project
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  • Gender-related difference in the relationship between smoking status and periodontal diseases: the propensity score matching approach
    Eun-Sil Choi, Hae-Young Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2017; 41(2): 122.     CrossRef
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    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2015; 58(3): 183.     CrossRef
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    Inhalation Toxicology.2015; 27(6): 300.     CrossRef
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    In-Seob Lee, Young-Soo Park, Jeong Hoon Lee, Ji Young Park, Hee-Sung Kim, Beom-Su Kim, Jeong-Hwan Yook, Sung-Tae Oh, Byung-Sik Kim
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    Palanisamy Pasupathi, Ganesan Saravanan, Palanisamy Chinnaswamy, Govindaswamy Bakthavathsalam
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology.2009; 28(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • The role of TNFgenetic variants and the interaction with cigarette smoking for gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study
    Jae Jeong Yang, Kwang-Pil Ko, Lisa Y Cho, Aesun Shin, Jin Gwack, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Keun-Young Yoo, Daehee Kang, Sue K Park
    BMC Cancer.2009;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Soybean Product Intake Modifies the Association between Interleukin-10 Genetic Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Risk
    Kwang-Pil Ko, Sue K. Park, Lisa Y. Cho, Jin Gwack, Jae Jeong Yang, Aesun Shin, Cheong Sik Kim, Yeonju Kim, Daehee Kang, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Keun-Young Yoo
    The Journal of Nutrition.2009; 139(5): 1008.     CrossRef
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Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, Tuberculosis and Risk of Lung Cancer: The Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort Study.
Jisuk Bae, Jin Gwack, Sue Kyung Park, Hai Rim Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(4):321-328.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.4.321
  • 5,951 View
  • 118 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, tuberculosis, and their interactions in the risk of lung cancer in a Korean cohort. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 13,150 males and females aged above 20 years old. During the follow up period from 1993 to 2002, 79 lung cancer cases were identified by the central cancer registry and the national death certificate database. Information on cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and the history of physiciandiagnosed tuberculosis was obtained by interview. Indirect chest X-ray findings were also evaluated to ascertain tuberculosis cases. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer [for current smokers, RR = 2.33 (95% CI = 1.23 - 4.42) compared to non-smokers]. After further adjustment for cigarette smoking, both alcohol consumption and tuberculosis showed no statistically significant association with the risk of lung cancer [for current drinkers, RR = 0.80 (95% CI = 0.48 - 1.33) compared to non-drinkers] [for tuberculosis cases, RR = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.58 - 2.36) compared to noncases]. There was no statistically significant interaction between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (pinteraction = 0.38), or cigarette smoking and tuberculosis (p-interaction = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Although cigarette smoking was confirmed as a risk factor of lung cancer in this cohort study, this study suggests that alcohol consumption and tuberculosis may not be associated with the risk of lung cancer.
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Fasting Serum Glucose and Subsequent Liver Cancer Risk in a Korean Prospective Cohort.
Jin Gwack, Seung Sik Hwang, Kwang Pil Ko, Jae Kwan Jun, Sue Kyung Park, Soung Hoon Chang, Hai Rim Shin, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(1):23-28.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.1.23
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  • 82 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Chronic infections with hepatitis B or C and alcoholic cirrhosis are three well-known major risk factors for liver cancer. Diabetes has also been suggested as a potential risk factor. However, the findings of previous studies have been controversial in terms of the causal association. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum glucose levels and liver cancer development in a Korean cohort. METHODS: Thirty-six liver cancer cases were identified in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC). Baseline information on lifestyle characteristics was obtained via questionnaire. Serum glucose levels were measured at the study's enrollment. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. The adjusting variables included age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity. RESULTS: The RRs of serum glucose for liver caner were 1.20 (95% CI=0.48-2.99) for the category of 100 to 125 mg/dL of serum glucose and 2.77 (95% CI=1.24-6.18) for the >126 mg/dL serum glucose category (both compared to the <100 mg/dL category). In a subgroup analysis, the RR of serum glucose among those who were both HBsAg seronegative and non-drinkers was 4.46 (95% CI=1.09-18.28) for those with glucose levels >100 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a high level of serum glucose can increase liver cancer risk independently of hepatitis infection and drinking history in Koreans. This study implies that glucose intolerance may be an independent risk factor for liver cancer.
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Fasting Serum Glucose Level and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Nested Case-control Study.
Jae Kwan Jun, Jin Gwack, Sue Kyung Park, Yun Hee Choi, Yeonju Kim, Aesun Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Hai Rim Shin, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(6):493-498.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Diabetes has been reported as a risk factor for several cancers. However, the association between diabetes and gastric cancer has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the fasting serum glucose level and gastric cancer risk in Korea. METHODS: Among the members of the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) from 1993 to 2004, a total of 100 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained until December 31, 2002 and 400 controls were matched according to age, sex, and year and area of enrollment. Of the eligible subjects, those without fasting serum glucose level information were excluded, with a total of 64 cases and 236 controls finally selected. On enrollment, all subjects completed a baseline demographic and lifestyle characteristics questionnaire, and had their fasting serum glucose level measured. The Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by an immunoblot assay using longterm stored serum. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for the H. pylori infection status, smoking, drinking, education, follow-up period and matching variables. RESULTS: The ORs for risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level were 1.33 [95% CI=0.50-3.53] and 1.66 [95% CI=0.55-5.02] for the categories of 100-125 and 126 mg/dL or greater, respectively, compared to the category of less than 100 mg/dL. No increased risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level was found (p-trend=0.337). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence for an association of the serum glucose level with gastric cancer.
Summary
A Study on Polymorphism Affecting Excretion of Urinary Methylhippuric Acid due to Xylene Exposure.
Cheong Sik Kim, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeongsu Kim, Sue Kyung Park, Soung Hoon Chang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):321-328.   Published online November 30, 2004
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) on the xylene metabolism. METHODS: Among 247 workers, 116 were occupationally exposed to xylene and 131 were not. Workers exposed to xylene had different work such as spray, touch-up, mix & assist, and pre-treat. Questionnaire variables were age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, previous night's drinking and work duration. The urinary methylhippuric acid was measured in the urine collected in the afternoon and corrected by urinary creatinine concentration. The genotypes of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 were investigated by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) methods with DNA extracted from venous blood. RESULTS: 1. The urinary concentrations of o-, m-, and pmethylhippuric acid and total methylhippuric acid in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the non-exposed group (p< 0.001). 2. In multiple regression analysis, the urinary methylhippuric acid concentration was significantly influenced by exposure grade (Job-exposure matrixes), smoking, drug use and kind of protective equipment (p< 0.1). 3. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 did not affect urinary methylhippuric acid level in the exposed group (p> 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure grade, smoking, drug use and kind of protective equipment affected urinary methylhippuric acid level, whereas genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 did not. However, further investigation for the effect of genetic polymorphism on the metabolism of xylene with a larger sample size is needed.
Summary
Assessment of DNA Viability in Long Term-Stored Buffy Coat Species for the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort.
Mihi Yang, Jihyun Yoo, Cheong Sik Kim, Aesun Shin, Daehee Kang, Soung Hoon Chang, Sue Kyung Park, Hai Rim Shin, Keun Young Yoo
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):373-376.
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OBJECTIVES
Peripheral blood-buffy coat fractions (N = 14, 956) have been stored at -70degrees C in the headquarter of the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC), since 1993. To study the future molecular etiology of cancers using specimens of the cohort, properly stored specimens are necessary. Therefore, the DNA-viability of the buffy coat samples was investigated. METHODS: Buffy coat fraction samples were randomly selected from various collection areas and years (N = 100). The DNA viability was evaluate from the UV-absorbent ratios at 260/280nm and the PCR for beta-globin was performed with genomic DNA isolated from the buffy coat. RESULTS: PCR products were obtained from 85 and 98% of the C and H area-samples, respectively, using 50 or 100mul of the buffy coat. There were significant differences in the yields of the PCR-amplifications from the C and H areas (p < 0.05), which was due to differences in the homogenization of the buffy coat fractions available as aliquots. The PCR-products were obtained from all of the samples (N = 7) stored at the C area-local center, but the other aliquots stored at the headquarter were not PCR-amplified. Therefore, the PCR products in almost all the samples, even including the DNA-degraded samples, were obtained. In addition, an improvement in the DNA isolation, i.e. approx. 1.6 fold, was found after using extra RBC lysis buffer. CONCLUSIONS: PCR products for beta-globin were obtained from nearly all of the samples. The regional differences in the PCR amplifications were thought to have originated from the different sample-preparation and homogenization performance. Therefore, the long term-stored buffy coat species at the KMCC can be used for future molecular studies.
Summary
A Neurobehavioral Performance Assessment in Lacunar Infarction Case-control Study.
Ham Gyum Kim, Soung Hoon Chang, Sue Kyung Park, Kun Sei Lee, Hyeong Su Kim, Wha Sun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):255-262.
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OBJECTIVES
We carried out tests for neurobehavior by using WHO-NCTB (neurobehavioral core test battery) and Perdue pegboard score test to identify differences between lacunar infarction cases and controls. METHODS: Among the subjects who underwent MRI between February 2001 and March 2002 in a university hospital located in Seoul and who were diagnosed only as lacunar infarction without any intracranial disease, 46 patients were selected as cases (male: 21, female: 25). Controls were selected who had no cerebrovascular disease on MRI by matching age (5 years), gender, and education (2 years) in a ratio of 1: 1. Among WHO-NCTB, the following 5 tests and Perdue pegboard score test were used to categorize the study subjects: digit and symbol matching, simple reaction time, Benton visual retention, digit span, and Pursuit aiming test. RESULTS: Among the above 6 tests of neurobehavior, lacunar infarction cases showed lower score than controls except for the simple reaction time test. As the controlling variables of multivariate analysis in the stepwise regression analysis, the followings were selected due to their significant association: age, education, BMI, gender, drinking, exercise, and systolic blood pressure. From multivariate regression analysis, there was significant difference (p< 0.05) between lacunar infarction cases and controls in digit and symbol matching, Benton visual retention, digit span, pursuit aiming, and Perdue pegboard score test, but not in the score of simple reaction time test. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the above 5 tests for neurobehavior, with the exception of the simple reaction time test, might be used as the basis for recommendation of further treatment and other neurological tests by the earlier detection for neurological abnormality in lacunar infarction.
Summary
The Exposure Status and Biomarkers of Bisphenol A in Shipyard Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Cheong Sik Kim, Jun Ho Park, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Heon Kim, Soung Hoon Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):93-100.
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OBJECTIVES
Because shipyard workers are involved with various manufacturing process, they are exposed to many kinds of hazardous materials. Welders especially, are exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the welding and flame cutting of coated steel. This study was conducted to assess the exposure status of the endocrine disruptor based on the job-exposure matrix. The effects of the genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic enzyme metabolisms involved in the metabolism of BPA on the levels of urinary metabolite were investigated. METHODS: The study population was recruited from a shipyard company in the K province. A total of 84 shipbuilding workers 47 and 37 in the exposed and control groups, respectively, were recruited for this study. The questionnaire variables included, age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, drinking and work duration. The urinary metabolite was collected in the afternoon and correction made for the urinary creatinine concentration. The of the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and UGT1A6 genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with the DNA extracted from venous blood. RESULTS: The urinary BPA level in the welders group was significantly higher than in the control group (p< 0.05). The urinary BPA concentration with the wild type UGT1A6 was higher than the other UGT1A6 genotypes, but with no statistical significant. From themultiple regression analysis of the urinary BPA, the regression coefficient for job grade was statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The grade of exposure to BPA affected the urinary BPA concentration was statistically significant. However, the genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotics enzyme metabolism were not statistically significant. Further investigation of the genetic polymorphisms with a larger sample size is needed.
Summary
Cancer Screening Rate and Related Factors in Rural Area.
Kun Sei Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Won Jin Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):364-372.
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OBJECTIVES
Cancer is the second most frequent cause of death in Korea. Cancer screening tests can save lives through early detection. Enhancing the cancer screening rate is an important strategy for reducing cancer mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the screening rate and related factors in a rural area. The study investigated relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, several preventive behaviors, and the experience of several cancer screening behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was recruited voluntarily from the three rural areas(Myen) in Chungju city. The participants completed structured questionnaire from July 21, 1998 to July 26, 1998. RESULTS: The proportions of the study population who had previously received stomach, liver, breast, or cervix cancer screening tests were 24.5%, 18.5%, 27.0%, 59.2% respectively. The 1-year screening rates of stomach, liver, breast, and cervix cancer were 7.4%, 6.8%, 8.6%, 15.6% respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, some sociodemographic variables, preventive behaviors, or psychological variables were significantly associated with several cancer screening tests. Those who had previously received a stomach cancer screening test were significantly associated with the presence of chronic disease, physician? recommendation, use of alcohol family history of cancer, or previous liver cancer screening test. Those who had previously received a liver cancer screening test were associated with education level, physician? recommendation and previous stomach cancer screening test. Those who had received a cervix cancer screening test were significantly associated with education level, presence of a transportation vehicle, physician? recommendation use of alcohol and previous breast cancer screening test. And those who had received a previous breast cancer screening test were significantly associated with age, marital status, and earlier cervix cancer screening test. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study a strategy to promote cancer screening and health objectives at the district level can be made.
Summary
The Relationship Between Hippuric Acid in Blood Plasma and Toluene Concentration in the Air of Workplace.
Cheon Hyun Hwang, Won Jin Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Hyoung Ah Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):45-50.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was undertaken to evaluate correlation between the levels of hippuric acid in blood plasma (HAP) and those of toluene concentration in the workplace air. METHODS: Study subjects were composed of two groups; 21 workers who were occupationally exposed to toluene and 25 rural-area residents who were not exposed to any known occupational toluene source, as an exposed group and a reference group, respectively. Mean age and work duration of the exposed was 42 years and five years, respectively. Mean age of the reference was 42 years. To determine toluene concentrations in the workplace air, air sampling has been conducted for more than six hours using a personal sampler, and analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Concentrations of hippuric acid in biological samples were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector. RESULTS: Geometric mean(geometric standard deviation) of HAP and hippuric acid in urine(HAU) for the exposed was 1.39(2.21) mg/L and 2.77(1.46) g/L, respectively, which were significantly different from those of the reference [HAP, 0.45(2.94); HAU, 0.37(0.45)]. Toluene concentration in the workplace air was 86.92(range: 45.18~151.23) ppm. The level of HAP or HAU was significantly correlated (r=0.70 and r=0.63, respectively) with that of toluene in the workplace air. The estimated regression equation was logHAP(mg/L)=-3.60+1.93 log(toluene, ppm) or logHAU(g/L)=-0.85+0.67 log(toluene, ppm). The magnitude of correlation was further enhanced when analyzing relationship between toluene concentrations lower than 100 ppm and its corresponding HAP levels. CONCLUSION: Overall, plasma hippuric acid levels were well correlated with toluene concentrations in the workplace air, and a statistically significant correlation was observed for the samples with toluene concentration lower than 100 ppm.
Summary
Immunotoxicity among Farmers Exposed to Pesticides.
Wonjin Lee, Chae Sung Lim, Kun Sei Lee, Soung Hoon Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):347-354.
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OBJECTIVE
This paper examines the possible toxicity to immune system in farmers chronically exposed to pesticides. METHODS: We compared 43 male farmers exposed to pesticides with 29 male residents who had neither past nor current pesticides exposure. The selected variables for studying immunotoxicity were WBC, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56, IgG, IgA, IgM, and IL-2. As part of the baseline questionnaires for the immunotoxicity, subjects were asked about kinds of farming, pesticides exposure and medical history. RESULTS: None of the variables for studying immunotoxicity showed statistically significant difference between the two groups. Although the results were not statistically significant, CD4 and the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased and CD8 increased. These effects showed a dose response change with exposure level. In the exposed group, the values of CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 and CD19 decreased and those of the CD8 and CD56 increased compared to the non-exposed group. Also there was higher prevalence of self-reported disease in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistically significant differences in indices of immunotoxicity in farmers exposed to pesticides were not shown, the results suggest that pesticides may decrease immune function. More advanced test methods for immunotoxicity need to be developed and tested in larger population to detect immunotoxic effects of pesticides.
Summary
Factors Associated with the Use of Pap Test in a Rural Area.
Kun Sei Lee, Hye Won Koo, Won Jin Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):147-154.
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OBJECTIVES
To construct basic data to develop strategies for achieving higher Pap test coverage rate by evaluating factors associated with the use of Pap test through population-based survey. METHODS: 16.4%(671) of the 4,090 women, who were eligible population for this study, in 3 Myens of Chung-ju City participated in this study voluntarily from July 21 to 26, 1997. After basic physical examination by trained doctors, they were interviewed with structured questionnaire by well-educated interviewers. RESULTS: It shows that only 54.3% of study participants experienced Pap test. The strongest factor which is related with the use of Pap test was the history of having breast screening tests(aOR=8.71, 95% CI=4.25-17.84). Probability of ever having Pap test was also higher in married women(aOR of single=0.46, 95% CI=0.29-0.72), younger(Ptrend<0.05), more educated (Ptrend<0.001), non-smoker (aOR of smoker=0.26, 95% CI=0.12-0.55), women of ever having hepatitis test(aOR=2.60, 95% CI=1.73-3.88) in multiple linear logistic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several factors significantly associated with the use of Pap test, and especially, high-risk population for cervical cancer such as women of older ages, less educated, living alone are less likely to have the Pap test. We should concentrate on encouraging high-risk women in the use of Pap test to improve Pap test coverage rate.
Summary
Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidants in Workers Exposed to Lead.
Won Jin Lee, Cheon Hyun Hwang, Cheong Sik Kim, Soung Hoon Chang, Yang Ho Kim, Hae Joon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):449-459.
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This study was started to find out if plasma malondialdehyde(MDA), alpha-tocopherol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposed to lead in workers. Blood samples were randomly obtained from lead -exposed workers(n=29), CO2 welders(n=60) and office workers(n=60). We used whole blood to analyse blood lead with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocyte was measured with spetrophotometer. MDA and alpha-tocopherol in plasma were measured with high performance liquid chromatography. Lead-exposed workers was significantly high in blood lead concentration(29.37 ng/dl) compared with welders(6.42 ng/dl) and office workers(5.01 ng/dl). The level of plasma MDA was significantly higher in the lead-exposed workers(1.87 nmol/g cholesterol) than the welders(1.41 nmol/g cholesterol) and office workers(1.41 nmol/g cholesterol). Erythrocyte SOD activity in lead-exposed workers(56.80 U/g Hb) was significantly increased than those of welders(37.63 U/g Hb) and office workers(20.47 U/g Hb). The plasma alpha-tocopherol level of lead-exposed workers(4.93 ng/g cholesterol) was statistically different from welders(4.25 ng/g cholesterol) and office workers(4.28 ng/g cholesterol). Neither age nor smoking was related to SOD or MDA level. Blood lead was significantly correlated with erythrocyte SOD activity(r=0.405), plasma MDA(r=0.296) and alpha-tocopherol(r=0.207). Plasma MDA was also significantly correlated with SOD (r=0.217). In multiple regression analysis, the change of MDA and SOD activity level related to the blood lead concentration. These results suggested that the increase of plasma MDA and erythrocyte SOD activity in lead-exposed workers had a close relationship with the oxidative stress induced by lead.
Summary
A Study on the Effect of Improvement in Work Environment and of Segregation in a Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturing Factory.
Soung Hoon Chang, Kwang Jong Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):474-479.
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This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of improvement in work environment and of segregation in a fluorescent lamp manufacturing factory. Among the total of 80 workers, 8 workers whose mercury concentration in urine reached a hazardous level (200-299 microgram/l) were moved to mercury free workplace. The follow-up examination for their mercury concentration in urine was done three times; on May 3, 1988, September 1, 1988 and April 3, 1989. The results were as follows: 1. Mercury concentration in the air was reduced from 0.140 to 0.107 mg/m3 in 4 months, and to 0.087 mg/m3 in one year after environmental improvement in workplace. However the level still exceeded the Threshold Limit Value. 2. The geometric mean of urinary mercury concentration among 80 workers was 173.0 microgram/l (5.1~458.6 microgram/l). The distribution of workers according to urinary mercury concentration showed that 9 workers (11.2%) were above the mercury poisoning level (300 microgram/l), 24 workers (30.0%) were 200-299 microgram/l, 35 workers (43.8%) were 50-199 microgram/l, and 12 workers (15.0%) were below 50 microgram/l. 3. Among the 24 workers whose urinary mercury concentration was 200-299 microgram/l, 8 were able to be followed up. Their mean urinary mercury concentration before segregation was 244.9 microgram/l, but decreased to 151.4 microgram/l in four months, 128.8 microgram/l in six months, and 46.8 microgram/l in one year after segregation.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health