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Heeran Chun 5 Articles
Trends in Gender-based Health Inequality in a Transitional Society: A Historical Analysis of South Korea
Heeran Chun, Sung-Il Cho, Young-Ho Khang, Minah Kang, Il-Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):113-121.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.113
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  • 95 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study examined the trends in gender disparity in the self-rated health of people aged 25 to 64 in South Korea, a rapidly changing society, with specific attention to socio-structural inequality.

Methods

Representative sample data were obtained from six successive, nationwide Social Statistics Surveys of the Korean National Statistical Office performed during 1992 to 2010.

Results

The results showed a convergent trend in poor self-rated health between genders since 1992, with a sharper decline in gender disparity observed in younger adults (aged 25 to 44) than in older adults (aged 45 to 64). The diminishing gender gap seemed to be attributable to an increase in women's educational attainment levels and to their higher status in the labor market.

Conclusions

The study indicated the importance of equitable social opportunities for both genders for understanding the historical trends in the gender gap in the self-reported health data from South Korea.

Summary

Citations

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    Gyu Ri Kim, Chung Mo Nam, C. Mary Schooling
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(12): e0190143.     CrossRef
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    FELICIA V. WHEATON, EILEEN M. CRIMMINS
    Ageing and Society.2016; 36(06): 1136.     CrossRef
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    Shibba Takkar Chhabra, Sarbjit Masson, Tripat Kaur, Rajiv Gupta, Sarit Sharma, Abishek Goyal, Bhupinder Singh, Rohit Tandon, Naved Aslam, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander
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    Hsin-Chieh Chang
    Journal of Family Issues.2016; 37(14): 1994.     CrossRef
  • Factors of change and cumulative factors in self-rated health trajectories: A systematic review
    Stéphane Cullati, Emmanuel Rousseaux, Alexis Gabadinho, Delphine S. Courvoisier, Claudine Burton-Jeangros
    Advances in Life Course Research.2014; 19: 14.     CrossRef
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    A. Mastekaasa
    The European Journal of Public Health.2014; 24(4): 656.     CrossRef
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    R. Khera, S. Jain, R. Lodha, S. Ramakrishnan
    Archives of Disease in Childhood.2014; 99(4): 369.     CrossRef
Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.
Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):22-31.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.22
  • 5,847 View
  • 101 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. METHODS: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. RESULTS: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.
Summary

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    Virginia Gunn, Bertina Kreshpaj, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Emilia F. Vignola, David H. Wegman, Christer Hogstedt, Emily Q. Ahonen, Theo Bodin, Cecilia Orellana, Sherry Baron, Carles Muntaner, Patricia O’Campo, Maria Albin, Carin Håkansta
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 2232.     CrossRef
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    Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.2021; 63(4): 663.     CrossRef
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    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2019; 62(8): 701.     CrossRef
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    Jaeouk Ahn, Nam-Soo Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jungsun Park, Yangho Kim
    Safety and Health at Work.2019; 10(4): 504.     CrossRef
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    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Jun-Mo Kim, Shaun O’Leary
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    Vladimir S. Gordeev, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler, Bayard Roberts
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    BMJ Open.2016; 6(4): e009538.     CrossRef
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    Courtney McNamara
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    Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Yu-Mi Kim
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    J.H. Park, K.S. Lee
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Employment and Married Women's Health in Korea; Beneficial or Harmful?.
Il Ho Kim, Heeran Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):323-330.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.323
  • 4,773 View
  • 49 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate whether working married women in different occupational classes affected diverse health outcomes. METHODS: We used data for married women aged 25-59 (N=2,273) from the 2005 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Outcome measures included physical/mental and subjective/objective indicators (self-rated poor health, chronic diseases, depression, and suicidal ideation from reported results; metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia from health examination results). Age-standardized prevalence and logistic regression were employed to assess health status according to three types of working groups (housewives, married women in manual jobs, married women in non-manual jobs). Sociodemographic factors (age, numbers of children under 7, education, household income) and health behaviors (health examination, sleep, rest, exercise, smoking, drinking) and a psychological factor (stress) were considered as covariates. RESULTS: Non-manual married female workers in Korea showed better health status in all five health outcomes than housewives. The positive health effect for the non-manual group persisted in absolute (age-adjusted prevalence) and relative (odds ratio) measures, but multivariate analyses showed an insignificant association of the non-manual group with dyslipidemia. Manual female workers showed significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of almost all health outcomes than housewives except chronic disease, but the associations disappeared after further adjustment for covariates regarding sleep, rest, and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that examining the health impact of work on married women requires the consideration of occupational class.
Summary

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    Ji-won Kang, Soong-nang Jang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(4): 1249.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-Aged Women in Their 50s: Based on National Health Screening Data
    HyungSeon Kim, YeonHee Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(9): 3008.     CrossRef
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    Jeong Mi Seo, Nam-Kyoo Lim, Joong Yeon Lim, Hyun-Young Park
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2016; 25(4): 247.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Health Services.2013; 43(3): 483.     CrossRef
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    Ki-Woong Kim, Yong Lim Won, Kyung Sun Ko, Kyung-Hwa Heo, Yong Hyun Chung
    Toxicological Research.2012; 28(4): 269.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2012; 42(4): 496.     CrossRef
  • Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea
    Il-Ho Kim, Young-Ho Khang, Sung-Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2011; 44(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • The Association Between Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Lipid Profiles in Healthy Woman Workers
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    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(3): 213.     CrossRef
Trends in Sex Ratio at Birth according to Parental Social Positions: Results from Vital Statistics Birth, 1981-2004 in Korea.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):143-150.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.143
  • 5,057 View
  • 51 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
South Korea has experienced unprecedented ups and downs in the sex ratio at birth (SRB), which has been a unique phenomenon in the last two decades. However, little is known about socioeconomic factors that influence the SRB. Employing the diffusion theory by Rogers, this study was undertaken to examine the trends in social variations in the SRB from 1981 to 2004 in Korea. METHODS: The data was taken from Vital Birth Statistics for the period from 1981-2004. We computed the annual male proportion of live births according to the parental education (university, middle/high school, primary) and occupation (non-manual, manual, others). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios of male birth according to social position for the equidistant three time periods (1981-1984, 1991-1994, and 2001-2004). RESULTS: An increased SRB was detected among parents with higher social position before the mid 1980s. Since then, however, a greater SRB was found for the less educated and manual jobholders. The inverse social gradient for the SRB was most prominent in early 1990s, but the gap has narrowed since the late 1990s. The mother's socioeconomic position could be a sensitive indicator of the social variations in the sex ratio at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the relationship of parental social position with the SRB were detected during the 1980-2004 in Korea. This Korean experience may well be explained by diffusion theory, suggesting there have been socioeconomic differences in the adoption and spread of sex-detection technology.
Summary

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Socioeconomic Inequalities in Preventive Services among the Elderly: Results from Medical Checkup, Cancer Check, and BP Check.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):404-410.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.404
  • 4,422 View
  • 48 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Due to the assumptions of homogeneity as well as challenges in the socioeconomic position of the elderly, they have been relatively neglected in studies of health inequalities. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the social inequalities in preventive services among elderly men and women. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 342 men and 525 women aged 65 and over collected during the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age adjusted proportions and logistic regression were used to identify the social patterning of preventive services among elderly Koreans using various social position indicators. RESULTS: The findings of this study generally supported the presence of social gradients in preventive services among the Korean elderly. The likelihood of using the service becomes progressively higher with social position. Educational level, income, and self-rated living status were significantly associated with increased medical checkups and cancer checks. In addition, logistic regression detected educational inequalities only among older women receiving BP checks. After being stratified based on health status and chronic disease status, social disparities still existed when educational level and self-rated living status were considered. Among unhealthy individuals, place of residence was observed as a barrier to medical checkups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated strong and consistent associations between socioeconomic position and preventive services among the elderly in Korea. The results indicate that public health strategies should be developed to reduce the barriers to preventive services encountered by the elderly.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health