Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health


Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Author index
Heeran Chun 5 Articles
Trends in Gender-based Health Inequality in a Transitional Society: A Historical Analysis of South Korea
Heeran Chun, Sung-Il Cho, Young-Ho Khang, Minah Kang, Il-Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):113-121.   Published online March 31, 2012
  • 9,715 View
  • 96 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

This study examined the trends in gender disparity in the self-rated health of people aged 25 to 64 in South Korea, a rapidly changing society, with specific attention to socio-structural inequality.


Representative sample data were obtained from six successive, nationwide Social Statistics Surveys of the Korean National Statistical Office performed during 1992 to 2010.


The results showed a convergent trend in poor self-rated health between genders since 1992, with a sharper decline in gender disparity observed in younger adults (aged 25 to 44) than in older adults (aged 45 to 64). The diminishing gender gap seemed to be attributable to an increase in women's educational attainment levels and to their higher status in the labor market.


The study indicated the importance of equitable social opportunities for both genders for understanding the historical trends in the gender gap in the self-reported health data from South Korea.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Temporal trends in educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Korea, 2007-2015
    Gyu Ri Kim, Chung Mo Nam, C. Mary Schooling
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(12): e0190143.     CrossRef
  • Female disability disadvantage: a global perspective on sex differences in physical function and disability
    Ageing and Society.2016; 36(06): 1136.     CrossRef
  • Gender bias in cardiovascular healthcare of a tertiary care centre of North India
    Shibba Takkar Chhabra, Sarbjit Masson, Tripat Kaur, Rajiv Gupta, Sarit Sharma, Abishek Goyal, Bhupinder Singh, Rohit Tandon, Naved Aslam, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander
    Heart Asia.2016; 8(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Marital Power Dynamics and Well-Being of Marriage Migrants
    Hsin-Chieh Chang
    Journal of Family Issues.2016; 37(14): 1994.     CrossRef
  • Factors of change and cumulative factors in self-rated health trajectories: A systematic review
    Stéphane Cullati, Emmanuel Rousseaux, Alexis Gabadinho, Delphine S. Courvoisier, Claudine Burton-Jeangros
    Advances in Life Course Research.2014; 19: 14.     CrossRef
  • The gender gap in sickness absence: long-term trends in eight European countries
    A. Mastekaasa
    The European Journal of Public Health.2014; 24(4): 656.     CrossRef
  • Gender bias in child care and child health: global patterns
    R. Khera, S. Jain, R. Lodha, S. Ramakrishnan
    Archives of Disease in Childhood.2014; 99(4): 369.     CrossRef
Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.
Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):22-31.
  • 6,086 View
  • 102 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. METHODS: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. RESULTS: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between temporary employment and current smoking and change in smoking behaviors: A prospective cohort study from South Korea (2009–2018)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Taeyeon Kim, Jin-Ha Yoon, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won
    Journal of Epidemiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Temporary Employment Is Associated with Poor Dietary Quality in Middle-Aged Workers in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on the Korean Healthy Eating Index, 2013–2021
    Seong-Uk Baek, Myeong-Hun Lim, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Nutrients.2024; 16(10): 1482.     CrossRef
  • An evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health in Korea: Evidence from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 1998–2018
    Daseul Moon, Roman Pabayo, Jongnam Hwang
    SSM - Population Health.2024; 26: 101689.     CrossRef
  • Initiatives Addressing Precarious Employment and Its Effects on Workers’ Health and Well-Being: A Systematic Review
    Virginia Gunn, Bertina Kreshpaj, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Emilia F. Vignola, David H. Wegman, Christer Hogstedt, Emily Q. Ahonen, Theo Bodin, Cecilia Orellana, Sherry Baron, Carles Muntaner, Patricia O’Campo, Maria Albin, Carin Håkansta
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 2232.     CrossRef
  • Changes in cause-specific mortality trends across occupations in working-age Japanese women from 1980 to 2015: a cross-sectional analysis
    Bibha Dhungel, Kuniyasu Takagi, Shijan Acharya, Koji Wada, Stuart Gilmour
    BMC Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Longitudinal Evaluation of Risk Factors and Interactions for the Development of Nonspecific Neck Pain in Office Workers in Two Cultures
    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Steven M. McPhail, Shaun O’Leary
    Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.2021; 63(4): 663.     CrossRef
  • Initiatives addressing precarious employment and its effects on workers’ health and well-being: a protocol for a systematic review
    Virginia Gunn, Carin Håkansta, Emilia Vignola, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Bertina Kreshpaj, David H. Wegman, Christer Hogstedt, Emily Q. Ahonen, Carles Muntaner, Sherry Baron, Theo Bodin
    Systematic Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of occupational health problems of employees and self-employed individuals who work in different fields
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Yangho Kim
    Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health.2020; 75(2): 98.     CrossRef
  • Nonstandard workers and differential occupational safety and health vulnerabilities
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Jong‐shik Park, Eun Ji Park, Yangho Kim
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2019; 62(8): 701.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of Occupational Category With Risk of Physical and Mental Health Problems
    Jaeouk Ahn, Nam-Soo Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jungsun Park, Yangho Kim
    Safety and Health at Work.2019; 10(4): 504.     CrossRef
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in the Korean working population
    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Jun-Mo Kim, Shaun O’Leary
    Work.2018; 59(1): 93.     CrossRef
  • Self‐employed individuals performing different types of work have different occupational safety and health problems
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Yangho Kim
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2018; 61(8): 681.     CrossRef
  • Nonstandard Employment and Health in South Korea: The Role of Gender and Family Status
    Sojung Lim, Sun Young Jeon, Joongbaeck Kim, Hyeyoung Woo
    Sociological Perspectives.2018; 61(6): 973.     CrossRef
  • “Blue flags”, development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care
    Charlotte Post Sennehed, Gunvor Gard, Sara Holmberg, Kjerstin Stigmar, Malin Forsbrand, Birgitta Grahn
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Occupational Class with Healthcare Utilization among Economically Active Korean Adults from 2006 to 2014: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study of Koreans Aged 19 Years and Older
    Jae-Hyun Kim, Kwang Soo Lee, Yunhwan Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2017; 38(6): 365.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers
    HeeJoo Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Yeon Jin Jang, Ji Young Bae
    Health Care for Women International.2016; 37(3): 290.     CrossRef
  • Economic shocks and health resilience: lessons from the Russian Federation
    Vladimir S. Gordeev, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler, Bayard Roberts
    Journal of Public Health.2016; 38(4): e409.     CrossRef
  • Impact of health insurance status changes on healthcare utilisation patterns: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea
    Jae-Hyun Kim, Sang Gyu Lee, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung-In Jang, Kyung-Hee Cho, Eun-Cheol Park
    BMJ Open.2016; 6(4): e009538.     CrossRef
  • Working conditions, psychosocial environmental factors, and depressive symptoms among wage workers in South Korea
    Minsung Sohn, Mankyu Choi, Minsoo Jung
    International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health.2016; 22(3): 209.     CrossRef
  • Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity
    Leo Pedrana, Marina Pamponet, Ruth Walker, Federico Costa, Davide Rasella
    Global Health Action.2016; 9(1): 28831.     CrossRef
  • Trade liberalization, social policies and health: an empirical case study
    Courtney McNamara
    Globalization and Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises
    Ketevan Glonti, Vladimir S. Gordeev, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Aaron Reeves, David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts, Daisuke Nishi
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(4): e0123117.     CrossRef
  • The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?
    Amaia Bacigalupe, Antonio Escolar-Pujolar
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in health status in Korea
    Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Yu-Mi Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(3): 167.     CrossRef
  • Self-rated health and its determinants in Japan and South Korea
    J.H. Park, K.S. Lee
    Public Health.2013; 127(9): 834.     CrossRef
  • Health Status and Affecting Factors related to Job among Korean Women Employees
    Eun-Young Hong, Sang-Dol Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(9): 4107.     CrossRef
Employment and Married Women's Health in Korea; Beneficial or Harmful?.
Il Ho Kim, Heeran Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):323-330.
  • 4,953 View
  • 49 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study was to investigate whether working married women in different occupational classes affected diverse health outcomes. METHODS: We used data for married women aged 25-59 (N=2,273) from the 2005 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Outcome measures included physical/mental and subjective/objective indicators (self-rated poor health, chronic diseases, depression, and suicidal ideation from reported results; metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia from health examination results). Age-standardized prevalence and logistic regression were employed to assess health status according to three types of working groups (housewives, married women in manual jobs, married women in non-manual jobs). Sociodemographic factors (age, numbers of children under 7, education, household income) and health behaviors (health examination, sleep, rest, exercise, smoking, drinking) and a psychological factor (stress) were considered as covariates. RESULTS: Non-manual married female workers in Korea showed better health status in all five health outcomes than housewives. The positive health effect for the non-manual group persisted in absolute (age-adjusted prevalence) and relative (odds ratio) measures, but multivariate analyses showed an insignificant association of the non-manual group with dyslipidemia. Manual female workers showed significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of almost all health outcomes than housewives except chronic disease, but the associations disappeared after further adjustment for covariates regarding sleep, rest, and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that examining the health impact of work on married women requires the consideration of occupational class.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Women’s Work-Family Multiple Role and Role Combination on Depressive Symptoms in Korea
    Ji-won Kang, Soong-nang Jang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(4): 1249.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-Aged Women in Their 50s: Based on National Health Screening Data
    HyungSeon Kim, YeonHee Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(9): 3008.     CrossRef
  • Gender Difference in Association with Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
    Jeong Mi Seo, Nam-Kyoo Lim, Joong Yeon Lim, Hyun-Young Park
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2016; 25(4): 247.     CrossRef
  • Health Disparities among Wage Workers Driven by Employment Instability in the Republic of Korea
    Minsoo Jung
    International Journal of Health Services.2013; 43(3): 483.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Hazardous Chemical Exposure on Cardiovascular Disease in Chemical Products Manufacturing Workers
    Ki-Woong Kim, Yong Lim Won, Kyung Sun Ko, Kyung-Hwa Heo, Yong Hyun Chung
    Toxicological Research.2012; 28(4): 269.     CrossRef
  • Depression of married and employed women based on social-role theory
    Insook Cho, Sukhee Ahn, Souk Young Kim, Young Sook Park, Hae Won Kim, Sun Ok Lee, Sook Hee Lee, Chae Weon Chung
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2012; 42(4): 496.     CrossRef
  • Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea
    Il-Ho Kim, Young-Ho Khang, Sung-Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2011; 44(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • The Association Between Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Lipid Profiles in Healthy Woman Workers
    Kieun Moon, Sook Hee Sung, Youn-Koun Chang, Il-Keun Park, Yun-Mi Paek, Soo-Geun Kim, Tae-In Choi, Young-Woo Jin
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(3): 213.     CrossRef
Trends in Sex Ratio at Birth according to Parental Social Positions: Results from Vital Statistics Birth, 1981-2004 in Korea.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):143-150.
  • 5,305 View
  • 52 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
South Korea has experienced unprecedented ups and downs in the sex ratio at birth (SRB), which has been a unique phenomenon in the last two decades. However, little is known about socioeconomic factors that influence the SRB. Employing the diffusion theory by Rogers, this study was undertaken to examine the trends in social variations in the SRB from 1981 to 2004 in Korea. METHODS: The data was taken from Vital Birth Statistics for the period from 1981-2004. We computed the annual male proportion of live births according to the parental education (university, middle/high school, primary) and occupation (non-manual, manual, others). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios of male birth according to social position for the equidistant three time periods (1981-1984, 1991-1994, and 2001-2004). RESULTS: An increased SRB was detected among parents with higher social position before the mid 1980s. Since then, however, a greater SRB was found for the less educated and manual jobholders. The inverse social gradient for the SRB was most prominent in early 1990s, but the gap has narrowed since the late 1990s. The mother's socioeconomic position could be a sensitive indicator of the social variations in the sex ratio at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the relationship of parental social position with the SRB were detected during the 1980-2004 in Korea. This Korean experience may well be explained by diffusion theory, suggesting there have been socioeconomic differences in the adoption and spread of sex-detection technology.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Regional Disparities in the Infant Mortality Rate in Korea Between 2001 and 2021
    Hyeongtaek Woo, Ji Sook Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • ‘Not a bowl of rice, but tender loving care’: from aborting girls to preferring daughters in South Korea
    Heeran Chun, Monica Das Gupta
    Asian Population Studies.2022; 18(2): 169.     CrossRef
  • Investigating the Structure of Son Bias in Armenia With Novel Measures of Individual Preferences
    Matthias Schief, Sonja Vogt, Charles Efferson
    Demography.2021; 58(5): 1737.     CrossRef
  • Son Preference and Fertility Decisions: Evidence From Spatiotemporal Variation in Korea
    Seik Kim, Sam-Ho Lee
    Demography.2020; 57(3): 927.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Socio-demographic Factors on the Decreasing Trend in the Sex Ratio at Birth in Korea, 1997-2017
    Jisuk Bae
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(5): 371.     CrossRef
  • Does the Mother or Father Determine the Offspring Sex Ratio? Investigating the Relationship between Maternal Digit Ratio and Offspring Sex Ratio
    Tae Beom Kim, Jin Kyu Oh, Kwang Taek Kim, Sang Jin Yoon, Soo Woong Kim, Martin Voracek
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(11): e0143054.     CrossRef
  • La masculinisation des naissances. État des lieux et des connaissances
    Christophe Z. Guilmoto
    Population.2015; Vol. 70(2): 201.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in health status in Korea
    Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Yu-Mi Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(3): 167.     CrossRef
  • Socio-economic Differentials in Birth Masculinity in China
    Christophe Z. Guilmoto, Qiang Ren
    Development and Change.2011; 42(5): 1269.     CrossRef
  • The Sex Ratio Transition in Asia
    Christophe Z. Guilmoto
    Population and Development Review.2009; 35(3): 519.     CrossRef
Socioeconomic Inequalities in Preventive Services among the Elderly: Results from Medical Checkup, Cancer Check, and BP Check.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):404-410.
  • 4,631 View
  • 48 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Due to the assumptions of homogeneity as well as challenges in the socioeconomic position of the elderly, they have been relatively neglected in studies of health inequalities. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the social inequalities in preventive services among elderly men and women. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 342 men and 525 women aged 65 and over collected during the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age adjusted proportions and logistic regression were used to identify the social patterning of preventive services among elderly Koreans using various social position indicators. RESULTS: The findings of this study generally supported the presence of social gradients in preventive services among the Korean elderly. The likelihood of using the service becomes progressively higher with social position. Educational level, income, and self-rated living status were significantly associated with increased medical checkups and cancer checks. In addition, logistic regression detected educational inequalities only among older women receiving BP checks. After being stratified based on health status and chronic disease status, social disparities still existed when educational level and self-rated living status were considered. Among unhealthy individuals, place of residence was observed as a barrier to medical checkups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated strong and consistent associations between socioeconomic position and preventive services among the elderly in Korea. The results indicate that public health strategies should be developed to reduce the barriers to preventive services encountered by the elderly.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Routine medical and dental examinations: a case study of adults in Tema community 20 in Ghana
    Esther Priscilla Biamah Danquah, Samuel Agyei Agyemang, Samuel Amon, Moses Aikins
    International Journal of Health Promotion and Education.2020; 58(6): 320.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Cancer Screening Behavior in the Elderly : Based on Andersen's Model and Health Belief Model
    Hee-Jung Kim, Mi-jin Yu
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2020; 23(1): 58.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of workers’ general health examination in Korea by health examination period and compliance: retrospective cohort study using nationwide data
    Huisu Eom, Jun-Pyo Myong, Eun-A Kim, Bohwa Choi, Soon Woo Park, Young Joong Kang
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences in mortality rates between frequent and occasional participants of periodic health check-ups: An observational study and propensity analysis
    T.-Y. Wu, Y.-A. Chen, W.-L. Liu, A. Majeed
    European Geriatric Medicine.2015; 6(4): 297.     CrossRef
  • The use of annual physical examinations among the elderly in rural China: a cross-sectional study
    Xi Sun, Yingchun Chen, Xuetao Tong, Zhanchun Feng, Li Wei, Donghua Zhou, Miaomiao Tian, Benyan Lv, Da Feng
    BMC Health Services Research.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Self-rated health and its determinants in Japan and South Korea
    J.H. Park, K.S. Lee
    Public Health.2013; 127(9): 834.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated With Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea
    Kyung-Hyun Choi, Jeongyun Heo, Soyeun Kim, Young-Jee Jeon, Myungju Oh
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2013; 25(6): 476.     CrossRef
  • The effect of neighborhood, socioeconomic status and a community-based program on multi-disease health screening in an Asian population: A controlled intervention study
    Liang En Wee, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
    Preventive Medicine.2011; 53(1-2): 64.     CrossRef
  • Use Characteristics of Health Examinations Services from Health Insurance Subscribers
    Ryoung Choi, Byung-Deog Hwang
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2011; 11(2): 331.     CrossRef
  • Utilização e acesso de idosos a serviços de atenção básica em Porto Alegre (RS, Brasil)
    Lisiane Manganelli Girardi Paskulin, Daiany Borghetti Valer, Lucila Amaral Carneiro Vianna
    Ciência & Saúde Coletiva.2011; 16(6): 2935.     CrossRef
  • The Determinants of the Use of Opportunistic Screening Programs in Korea
    Sungwook Kang, Chang Hoon You, Young Dae Kwon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(3): 177.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health