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Chul Hwan Cha 5 Articles
A study on the Status of Air and Water Pollutants Emission from Industries in Korea .
Chul Hwan Cha, Chang Supp Jang, Hyung Won Kim, Young Ja Sung
Korean J Prev Med. 1973;6(1):27-41.
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In order to provide some basic data for the control of air water pollution in Korea, the suthors have estimated the amount of air and water pollutant emitted from industries which are employed over 20 employes. This study have done from July 1, 1972 to the end March 1973. The results are as follows: 1. Total number of establishments tith over 20 employees is 5,197 in Korea and the largest gorup establishments was the manufacturing of texttiles with 1,363 establishments(26.2%). 2. By order of number of employees it was observed that there 2,800 industries with 20-59(53.9%) employees, 1,101 with 50-99(21.2%), 571 with 100-199(11.0%), 501 with 200-499(9.6%) and 225with over 500(4.3%) respectively. 3. By order of regional distribution, it was observed that there were 2,257 industries in Seoul (43.3%) and 736 industries in Pusan(14.2%). 4. Industrial coal consumption was 596,154 M/T in 1972, but it'11 be 315,000 M/T in 1980, Fuel consumption was 4,972,000 K1 in 1972, and estimated volume will be 19,3700,000 K1 in 1980. 5. Ttotal amounts of air polutants emitted from industris by fuel combustion were sulfur oxides 79,459 tons, carbon monoxide 33,908 tons, particulate 31,304 tons and hydrocarbon 30,280 tons in 1972 but in 1990 there will be sulfur oxides 1,010,474 tons, nitrogen oxides 204,575 tons, carbon monoxide 68,014 tons, particulate 64,820 tons and hydrocarbon 67,622 tons, respectively. 6. Annual emitted air pollutants through the working processes were sulfur oxides 91,250 tons and nitrogen oxides 32,485 tons in 1972, but sulfur oxieds 118,625 tons and nitrogen oxides 42,555 tons will be present in 1980, respectively. 7. Annual emitted air pollutants by national unit area amounted to 0.77 tons/km2/year in 1965 and 14.7 ton/km2/year in 1980. 8. Total industrial wastes from all industries in Korea were estimated at 810,360 tons/day in 1972; manufacturing of chemicals and plastic products showed the highest amount of wastes at 470,000 tons/day. 9. The amounts of water pollutants due to industrial wastes were the .B.O.D., 471.5 tons/day,suspended solid 331.5 tons/day, CN, 2.3 tons/day, and Cr. 3. 4 tons/day in 1972, but it might be evident of a B.O.D of 3.388 tons/day, suspended solid 2,544 tons/day, CN 20.1 tons/day, and 26.5 tons/day in 1990. 10. Total population equivalent of B.O.D. was 943,000 in 1972, and the estimated value in 1990 will be6, 780, 000.
Summary
A Study on Public Nuisance in Han River and Nackdong River: Part II. Survey on Water Pollution.
Chul Hwan Cha, Young Soon Shin, Soon Young Park, Kwang Soo Cho, Chong Yoo Choo, Kyo Sung Kim, Dug Il Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):65-76.
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In view of ever rising water pollution problems of river in the vicinity of large urban communities, the author has made an investigation on the pollution of water sampled from Han River (Seoul area) and Nakdong River (Daegu city area) during the period from july to December, 1970. The water samples were taken twice a month during the study period of 6 months from 7 points (locations) along the main stream of Han River at Seoul city and 5 points of Nakdong River at Daegu city. The samples ware measured and analyzed in accordance with the recognized methods in the "Standard Methods or Examination of Water and waste" by American Public Health Association. The obtained results are as follows: I.Han River. 1. Average turbidity was 5.1 units ranging from 1 to 10 units and the turbidity of down stream was higher than that of the upper stream. 2. pH value showed slight alkalinity (mean ; 7.2) except Yunchang-Dong (6.9). 3. The mean value of Dissolved Oxygen contents (D.O) was 7.2 ppm (range of 3.4-10.5ppm). D.O of the upper stream (8.2 ppm. at Walker Hill boating place, 8.0 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge and Ddookdo) was higher than that of he downstream (5.6ppm. at Yunchang-Dong. 6.4ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge), and D.O in the winter season was higher than that in the summer season, respectively. 4. The mean value of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) was 28.3 ppm. (range of 6.2-64.8ppm). The mean value of B.O.D. was 48.7 ppm. at Yunchang-Dong. 42.3ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge, 34.0 ppm. at the 1st Han River bridge, 28.5 ppm. at the 3rd Han River Bridge, 19.2 ppm. at Dookdo, 13.2 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge, and 10.2 ppm. at the Walker Hill boating place in order of value. B.O.D. in July and August (35.6 and 34.5 ppm.) were the highest and that in November and December (18.6 and 21.2 ppm.) were the lowest. 5. Suspended Solids (SS) were from 15.0 to 667.0 ppm. with the mean of 222.1 ppm "Suspended Solids" of the water samples at Yunchang-Dong and the 2nd Han River Bridge were found to be 378.1 ppm. and 283.9 ppm. respectively which were higher than at the Gwangzang Bridge (134.1ppm.) and at Walker Hill boating place (79.3ppm). 6. Coliform colonies counting of the water samples ranged from 0-2, 500x10/100ml. with the mean value of 205.6x10/100ml. The most contaminated water sample by coliform were from the point of the 2nd Han River Bridge with 640.8x10/100ml while the lowest ones were from Walker Hill boating place with 17.2x10/100ml. There was also a seasonal variation in coliform contamination that is the higher in summer and the lower in winter. II. Nakdong River. 1. The mean value of turbidity was 2.3 units with range of 0 to 9.0 units. The highest point was at Geumho River (7.2 units). and the lowest point was at Gangzung and Moonsan (0.45 and 0.41 units). 2. The mean value of pH was 7.5 (range of 7.1-8.5) and highest point was Geunho River with 8.5. 3. The mean value of D.O was 8.1ppm. (range of 3.4-11.2 ppm.). D.O. of the upper stream showed higher value than that of the down stream, and the winter season than the summer season. 4. B.O.D. ranged from 2.6 to 57.0 ppm. (mean; 20.4 ppm.). The water sample at Geumho River showed the highest value (41.5ppm) while at Moonsan and Gangzung showed the lowest (4.6 and 4.7 ppm.). 5. The mean value of suspended solids was 48.7 ppm. (range of 4.0-182.0 ppm.). The highest month was July (63.7 ppm.) and August (62.1 ppm.) and the lowest month was October (37.0 ppm.) and December (24.4 ppm.). 6. The mean value of the coliform colonies was 22.7x10/100ml. (range of 0-243x10/100ml.). The highest number of the colonies was found in the sample water at the Whawon recreation area (50.5x10/100ml.) followed by the Geumho River (33.9x10/100ml;), the Goryung Bridge (28.3x10/100ml.), Gangzung(0.7x10/100ml), and Moonsan (0.6x10/100ml.).
Summary
A Study on Public Nuisance in Seoul, Pusan and Daegu Cities: Part 1. Survey on Air Pollution and Noise Level.
Chul Hwan Cha, Young Soo Shin, Young Il Lee, Kwang Soo Cho, Chong Yoo Choo, Kyo Sung Kim, Dug Il Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):41-64.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
During the period from July 1st to the end of November 1970, a survey on air pollution and noise level was made in Seoul, Pusan and Taegu, the three largest cities in Korea. Each city was divided into 4-6 areas : the industrial area, the semi-industrial area, the commercial area, the residential area, the park area and the downtown area. Thirty eight sites were selected from each area. A. Method of Measurement : Dustfall was measured by the Deposit Gauge Method, sulfur oxides by PbO2 cylinder method, suspended particles by the Digital Dust Indicator, Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) by the MSA & Kitakawa Detector and the noise levels by Rion Sound Survey meter. B. Results: 1. The mean value of dustfall in 3 cities was 30.42 ton/km2/month, ranging from 8.69 to 95.44. 2. The mean values of dustfall by city were 33.17 ton/km2/month in Seoul, 32.11 in Pusan and 25.97 in Taegu. 3. The mean values of dustfall showed a trend of decreasing order of semi-industrial area, downtown area, industrial area, commercial area, residential area, and park area. 4. The mean value of dustfall in Seoul by area were 52.32 ton/km2/month in downtown, 50.54 in semi-industrial area, 40.37 in industrial area, 24,19 in commercial area, 16.25 in park area and 15.39 in residential area in order of concentration. 5. The mean values of dustfall in Pusan by area were 48.27 ton/km2/month in semi-industrial area, 36.68 in industrial area 25.31 in commercial area, and 18.19 in residential area. 6. The mean values of dustfall in Taegu by area were 36.46 ton/km2/month in downtown area, 33.52 in industrial area, 20.37 in commercial area and 13.55 in residential area. 7. The mean values of sulfur oxides in 3 cities were 1.52mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2, ranging from 0.32 to 4.72. 8. The mean values of sulfur oxides by city were 1.89mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2, in Pusan, 1.64 in Seoul and 1.21 in Taegu. 9. The mean values of sulfur oxides by area in 3 cities were 2.16mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2 in industrial area, 1.69 in semi-industrial area, 1.50 in commercial area, 1.48 in downtown area, 1.32 in residential area and 0.94 in the park area, respectively. 10. The monthly mean values of sulfur oxides contents showed a steady increase from July reaching a park in November. 11. The mean values of suspended particles was 2.89mg/m3, ranging from 1.15 to 5.27. 12. The mean values of suspended particles by sity were 3.14mg/m3 in Seoul, 2.79 in Taegu and 2.25 in Pusan. 13. The mean values of noise level in 3 cities was 71.3 phon, ranging from 49 to 99 phon. 14. The mean values of noise level by city were 73 phon in Seoul, 72 in Pusan and 69 in Taegu in that order. 15. The mean values of noise level by area in 3 cities showed a decrease in the order of the downtown area, commercial area, industrial area and semi-industrial area, park area and residental area. 16. The mean values of noise level by area in 3 cities indicated that the highest level was detected in the downtown area in Seoul and Taegu and in the industrial area in Pusan. 17. The daily average concentration o sulfur dioxides (SO2) in 3 cities was 0.081 ppm, ranging from 0.004 to 0.196. 18. The daily average concentration of sulfur dioxides by city were 0.092 ppm in Seoul, 0.089 in Pusan and 0.062 in Taegu in that order. 19. the weekly average concentration of carbon monoxides (CO) was 27.59 ppm. 20. The daily average concentration of carbon monoxides by city were 33.37 ppm. in Seoul, 25.76 in Pusan and 23.65 in Taegu in that order. 21. The concentration of SO2 and CO reaches a peak from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 22. About 3 times probably the daily average concentration of CO could be detected in the downtown area probably due to heavy traffic emission in comparison with that in the industrial area. 23. As for daily variation of the concentration of SO2 and CO it was found that the concentration maintains relatively higher value during weekdays in the industrial area and on the first part of the week in the downtown area.
Summary
A Study of Clothings for Cold Prevention: Protective Effects of viny1 Sheet against Wind.
Sang Hwang Shim, Chul Hwan Cha, Jong June Yoon, Chung Hee Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):81-87.
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Three combinations of cloths were evaluated for the protective effects of different kinds of clothings in cold environments. Table 1 shows tile components of tile three models of clothings. A prototype was made by putting a sheet of vinyl at the middle layer of raw cotton in a fabric-quilt cloths. A glove mannequin was covered by each of these cloths. The globes contained 1,000 cc of hot water about 40 degrees C. Tele-thermisters were fixed in order to check the temperature of cloths space and water temperature for evaluation of caloric-loss and climate of clothings. Results are summarized as follows : 1) Without wind, there is no significant difference of air temperatures between ski-parka and quilt wear clothing. 2) The prototype with vinyl sheet best protects against wind, the next is the ski-parka. Quilt-wear protects the least. 3) It is well-known that a working-clothing needs not have any separate liners nor outers. 4) For innermost layer of a clothing preventing cold, a cotton-fabrics is recommended and a water-proof cloths for outer layer. 5) Heat-loss was calculated from the cooling degrees of water. Calorie-loss was 910ca1/m2/hr. when bared, but with the prototype of vinyl sheets the calorie-loss was 350cal/m2/hr. (38.5% of bared). Quilt-wear and ski-parka were 380(41.8%) and 440 cal/m2/hr. (48.4%) respectively.
Summary
A Study on the Physical Growth and Health Status in University Students.
E Hyock Kwon, Chul Hwan Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 1968;1(1):67-78.
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For the purpose of ascertaining the status of physical growth and health status of the University students, a intensive survey was conducted by the authors towards a total of 2,638(male; 2,228, female;410) who passed the written entrance examination at the Seoul National University. The items included the measurements on physical growth, various physical indexes, visual acuity, tuberculosis and dental status. The findings and results can be summarized as follows : 1. Physical Growth. No signigicant difference was found in the physical growth between classes(literature and science) and by ages. In males, the means of body height, body weight, chest-girth and sitting height were 168.0+/-5.07cm, 55.7+/-5.71kg, 85.8+/-4.4cm and 91.5+/-2.21cm, respectively. In females, these were 157.4+/-4.57cm, 00.4+/-5.75kg, 80.3+/-4.51cm and 86.1+/-3.30cm, respectively. Basing on the above measurements several physical indexes were calculated as follows ; Relative body weigh 33.15 in males and 32.02 in females. Relative chest-girth 51.07 and 51.01, relative sitting-height 54.46 and 54.70 Rohrer index 1.00 and 1.02, Kaup index 1.97 and 2.04, Vervaeck index 83.63 and 83.03, and Pelidisi index 89.94 and 92.45. 2. Visual Acuity. Among the students of science classes those of 0.8 and below in vision on left and right occupied 46.4% and 45.0%, those of 0.6 and below 39.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Among the students of literature classes those of 0.8 and below occupied 46.3% and 42.9%, and those of 0.6 and below occupied 41.4% and 39.0, respectively. In males those of 0.8 and below occupied 46.8% and 44.5% and 0.6 and below occupied 41.9% and 39.7%, while in females 0.8 and below occupied 43.9%, and 42.4%, and 0.6 and below occupied 38.3%% and 37.3%, respectively. In males those of 0.8 and below in corrected vision occupied 12.1% and 10.3%, while in females 12.9% and 12.2%, respectively. More students of abnormal vision were found among science classes and the proportions of corrected vision were 38.9% and 37.4% in males, and 33.9% and 33.2% in females, respectively. 3. Tuberculosis. Among the total, 55 students were diagnosed as tuberculosis, of whom 50 were minimal cases, 2 were moderately advanced cases and 3 were far advanced cases. 4. Dental Status. Among the total, 81.2% were of decayed teeth, 20.8% filled, 9.5% missed, 5.0% extraction needed, 9.1% sunplatinum bridges, 3.3% golden bridges and 5.5% golden inaly. Regarding tartar on teeth moderate, heavy and light grades occupied 49.5%, 29.7% and 20.3%, respectively and 0.8% had none. 5. Comprehensive evaluation. According to the criteria 4 grades were applied to comprehensive evaluation as follows : A---excellent in physical status B---with some physical defects but no difficulties in study C---need treatment D---need treatment and rest. Out of the total, A grade occupied 21.6%, B 76.2% and C. and D 2. 2.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health