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Bong Suk Cha 25 Articles
Correlates of Self-rated Fatigue in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Sook Jung Hyun, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):71-81.
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OBJECTIVE
To elucidate the correlates of self-rated fatigue in Korean employees. METHODS: The data for 10, 176 (men, 7, 984; women, 2, 192; mean age, 34.2; SD: 8.8) employees recruited from a nationwide sample were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to measure the participants' fatigue, sociodemographics (sex, age, education, and marital status), job-related characteristics (work duration, grade at work, work hours, shiftwork, employment type, and magnitude of workplace), and health-related habits (smoking, drinking, coffee intake, and exercise). Two types of measurement for fatigue were used to evaluate the magnitude of fatigue: self-rated question and a standardized measurement tool (Multidimensional Fatigue Scale: MFS). RESULTS: According to the self-rated fatigue, 32% of employees reported that they felt fatigue for the past two weeks, and 9.6% of males and 8.7% of females had experienced excessive fatigue (6 months or more). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that fatigue measured by MFS was more common in women, younger, college or more graduated, single, and employees who do not regularly exercise. Fatigue was also associated with long work hours, and the size of the workplace (< 1, 000 employees). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that fatigue has been considered as a common complaint, and that it is affected by job-related factors like work hours and the workplace size as well as sociodemographics or health-related behaviors. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of fatigue on adverse health outcomes, work performance, work disability, sick absence and medical utilization, and to examine the relationship of job characteristics (e.g.: work demand, decision latitude) to fatigue.
Summary
Epidemiology of Psychosocial Distress in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Sook Jung Hyun, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):25-37.
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the magnitude of psychosocial distress and examine eligible factors associated with the development of psychosocial distress in Korean employees, using a nationwide sample. METHODS: A total of 6, 977 workers were recruited from 245 companies. A structured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job characteristics, social support at work, personality traits (locus of control, type A behavior pattern), self-esteem, and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The results showed that 23 % of workers were categorized as high stress, 73% as moderate, and 5% as normal. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that psychosocial distress was more common in younger workers, both male and female. Regular exercise was negatively associated with increase of psychosocial distress. In job characteristics, as expected, low decision latitude, high job insecurity, and low social support at work were related to high psychosocial distress. Personality traits such as locus of control and type A behavior pattern, and self-esteem were more powerful predictors of psychosocial distress than general characteristics, health-related behavior, and job characteristics. There were some gender differences. While men who are less educated and single (unmarried, divorced, and separated) experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who are educated and married, women who feel high job demand experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who feel low job demand. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of the high stress group was higher than expected, and psychosocial factors like social support and personality characteristics (e. g. locus of control, type A behavior pattern and self-esteem) were more significant factors for psychosocial distress than other variables. This finding suggests that some psychosocial factors, especially inadequate social support, low self-esteem and lack of internal locus of control for the development of psychosocial distress, will also operate as an intervention strategy in the worksite stress reduction program. It is strongly required that worksite stress reduction programs should be established in at both occupational and level as well as in individual levels.
Summary
Assessment on Quality Improvement of the Abstracts of the Original Research Articles in the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Chun Bae Kim, Jun Ho Park, Hwa Soon Lee, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):179-186.
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OBJECTIVES
To compare the quality improvement of the abstracts of original articles, according to the revised manuscript format, of the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine (Korean J Pre Med) was adopted in 1999. METHODS: A total 63 abstracts for 1997, and 49 for 2001, were selected as the original articles from the Kor J Pre Med. This study was carried out by the separate-sample pretest-posttest design. The quality of the abstracts was measured by a checklist of Narine' evaluation criteria, and the other information related to the articles were also surveyed by e-mail and fax or telephone using a self-made questionnaire. From the response rate, a total of 62 abstracts for 1997 and 49 for 2001 were finally analyzed. RESULTS: The mean number of words in an abstract decreased from 285 in 1997, to 250 by 2001. The mean number of key words per abstract decreased from 3.9 in 1997, to 3.6 by 2001. The mean number of inappropriate usage of key words per abstract, by the MeSH standard, decreased from 1.9 in 1997, to 0.4 by 2001. Also, the overall mean score of abstract quality increased from 0.54 in 1997 to 0.61 by 2001. The range of scores for the abstract quality was better in 2001 (0.40~0.77) than in 1997 (0.20~0.81). From the multiple regression analyses of the 1997 and 2001 databases, the intervention of the manuscript format's revision, and the number of English words to the quality score of the abstract, were the only statistically significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the quality of abstracts in the Kor J Pre Med has improved since the revised manuscript format was adopted in 1999. The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine will continuously recommend proposals for more informative abstracts in their journal, and will evaluate the abstracts' content with quality criteria. Future studies should address these issues, and compare the quality of abstracts between different international and domestic journals.
Summary
The Exposure Status and Biomarkers of Bisphenol A in Shipyard Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Cheong Sik Kim, Jun Ho Park, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Heon Kim, Soung Hoon Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):93-100.
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OBJECTIVES
Because shipyard workers are involved with various manufacturing process, they are exposed to many kinds of hazardous materials. Welders especially, are exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the welding and flame cutting of coated steel. This study was conducted to assess the exposure status of the endocrine disruptor based on the job-exposure matrix. The effects of the genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic enzyme metabolisms involved in the metabolism of BPA on the levels of urinary metabolite were investigated. METHODS: The study population was recruited from a shipyard company in the K province. A total of 84 shipbuilding workers 47 and 37 in the exposed and control groups, respectively, were recruited for this study. The questionnaire variables included, age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, drinking and work duration. The urinary metabolite was collected in the afternoon and correction made for the urinary creatinine concentration. The of the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and UGT1A6 genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with the DNA extracted from venous blood. RESULTS: The urinary BPA level in the welders group was significantly higher than in the control group (p< 0.05). The urinary BPA concentration with the wild type UGT1A6 was higher than the other UGT1A6 genotypes, but with no statistical significant. From themultiple regression analysis of the urinary BPA, the regression coefficient for job grade was statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The grade of exposure to BPA affected the urinary BPA concentration was statistically significant. However, the genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotics enzyme metabolism were not statistically significant. Further investigation of the genetic polymorphisms with a larger sample size is needed.
Summary
The Impact of New Work Organizational System on Job Strain, and Psychosocial Distress.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Byeong Hwan Sun, Dong Muk Kang, Mia Son, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):71-76.
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OBJECTIVES
New organizational work systems, and their impact on the mental health of employees, are considered to beone of the most important topics in the area of industrial health. This study was conducted to compare job characteristics (job demand and decision latitude) levels, and psychosocial distress of workers in acompany introducing to new organizational work systems, to those of workers managed by traditional work systems. METHODS: A study sample of 627 shipbuilding workers (446the new work organizational system and 181the traditional system) were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand, decision latitude), and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The decision latitude was not significantly higher in the new work system compared to the traditional system. However, the job demand was significantly higher in the new work system than in the traditional system. The psychosocial distress was higher within the new work system than the traditional system, but no significant relationships were found. The proportion of increased strain was significantly greater with the new system than the traditional system. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increases in the decision latitude did not sufficiently compensate for higher job strain or increased work intensity. If the increase in the decision latitude was temporary, with the typical job demand remaining high, such work can be still be considered to have a job strain. Future research should consider psychosocial distress and fatigue as important problems caused by new work organizational systems, and should be performed to assess their impact through out industry.
Summary
The Effect of Social Support on Chronic Stress and Immune System in Male Manufacturing Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):287-294.
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OBJECTIVES
To examine whether cumulative chronic stress influences the immune status, and to verify the effect of social support on the relationship between these two dimensions in male manufacturing workers. METHODS: A total of 39 workers were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand and decision latitude), psychosocial distress, and social support. The serum levels of CD4 and CD8 were measured as immune markers, and were collected between 8:00 and 10:00am in order to standardize the markers. Nonparametric statistics were used to estimate the differences between job characteristics and the immune markers. RESUJLTS: General characteristics, and health-related behaviors, were not associated with CD4, CD8 or CD4/CD8. No relationships were found between job characteristics and the mean levels of immune reactivity. These results were consistent, even after controlling for social support. Social support failed to modify the relationship toward work demand, decision latitude or psychosocial distress to CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8. CONCLUSION: Cumulative chronic life stress might not influence the immune status, and the effects of social support on the immune function under chronic stress, may not play a crucial role in modifying the relationships. This implication supports that the effect of stress on the immune function may be determined by the characteristics of that stress. Further research should effectively considers the type, magnitude and timing of a stress event, and modifiable factors, such as personality traits, coping style, and hormone excretion levels, on the alteration of immune status.
Summary
A Meta-analysis of the Association between Blood Lead and Blood Pressure.
Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Hong Ryul Choi, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Ho Sung Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):262-268.
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OBJECTIVES
To integrate the results of studies which assess an association between blood lead and blood pressure. METHODS: We surveyed the existing literature using a MEDLINE search with blood lead and blood pressure as key words, including reports published from January 1980 to December 2000. The criteria for quality evaluation were as follows: 1) the study subjects must have been workers exposed to lead, and 2) both blood pressure and blood lead must have been measured and presented with sufficient details so as to estimate or calculate the size of the association as a continuous variable. Among the 129 articles retrieved, 13 studies were selected for quantitative meta-analysis. Before the integration of each regression coefficient for the association between blood pressure and blood lead, a homogeneity test was conducted. RESULTS: As the homogeneity of studies was rejected in a fixed effect model, we used the results in a random effect model. Our quantitative meta-analysis yielded weighted regression coefficients of blood lead associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure results of 0.0047 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.0061, 0.0155) and 0.0004 (95% CI: -0.0031, 0.0039), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The published evidence suggested that there may be a weak positive association between blood lead and blood pressure, but the association is not significant.
Summary
Separate and Combined Effect of Cadmium and Nickel on Blood Pressure in Rats.
Seung Jun Wang, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):127-130.
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OBJECTIVE
To verify the separate and combined effects of cadmium and nickel on blood pressure in rats. METHODS: Following the daily administration of cadmium chloride(CdCl2) and nickel chloride(NiCl2) to rats both individually and in combination with intraperitoneal injection method for one week, systolic blood pressure of the tail was measured at 1 day and 5, 10, 20, 30 days after administration. Each substance was injected into the rats with 0.1 mg/kg bw and 1.0 mg/kg bw concentration. RESULTS: After 0.1 mg/kg bw CdCl2 was injected, a statistically significant difference was found as compared with the control group(only saline) after 1, 5 and 10 days. After 0.1 mg/kg bw NiCl2 was injected, a statistically significant difference was not found compared with the control group. After 0.1 mg/kg bw CdCl2 and 0.1 mg/kg bw NiCl2 were injected simultaneously, a statistically significant difference was found as compared with the control group after 1, 5 and 10 days and compared with 0.1 mg/kg bw CdCl2 group after 5 days and as compared with 0.1 mg/kg bw NiCl2 group after 5 and 10 days. After 1.0 mg/kg bw CdCl2 was injected, a statistically significant difference was found as compared with the control group after 1, 5, 10 and 20 days. After 1.0 mg/kg bw NiCl2 was injected, a statistically significant difference was found as compared with the control group after 1 day and 5 days. After 1.0 mg/kg bw CdCl2 and 1.0 mg/kg bw NiCl2 were injected in combination, a statistically significant difference was found after 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days as compared with 1.0 mg/kg bw CdCl2 after 10, 20 and 30 days and as compared with 1.0 mg/kg bw NiCl2 after 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. CONCLUSION: It was found that the effect of CdCl2 on blood pressure was much more than NiCl2 and a high concentration CdCl2 and NiCl2 in combination delayed the recovery of blood pressure.
Summary
A Meta-analysis on the Association between Chronic Noise Exposure and Blood Pressure.
Chun Bae Kim, Sang Baek Koh, Jai Young Kim, Bong Suk Cha, Hong Ryul Choi, Jong Tae Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Sang Yun Lee, Seung jun Wang, Keeho Park, Dae Youl Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):343-348.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to integrate the results of studies assessing the association between chronic noise exposure and blood pressure. METHODS: Using a MEDLINE search with noise exposure, blood pressure and hypertension as key words, we retrieved articles from the literature that were published from 1980 to December 1999. The criteria for quality evaluation were as follows: 1) the study subjects must have been workers employed at a high noise level area 2) The paper should use average and cumulative noise exposure as method for exposure evaluation. 3) Blood pressure in each article should be reported in a continuous scale Among the 77 retrieved articles, six studies were selected for quantitative meta-analysis. Before the integration of the regression coefficients for the association between blood pressure and noise level, homogeneity tests were conducted. RESULTS: All studies were a cross-sectional design and the study subjects were industrial workers. Five papers used a time-weighted average for noise exposure and only one paper calculated the cumulative noise exposure level. The measurement of blood pressure in the majority of studies were accomplished in a resting state, and used an average of two or more readings. The homogeneity of studies was rejected in a fixed effect model, so we used the results in a random effect model. The results of the quantitative meta-analysis, the weighted regression coefficient of noise associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.03, 0.13) and 0.06 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.13), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that chronic exposure to industrial noise does not cause elevated blood pressure.
Summary
Comparative Hepatotoxicity Assessment of Cadmium and Nickel with Isolated Perfused Rat Liver(IPRL).
Bong Suk Cha, Seung Jun Wang, Sei Jin Chang, Jung Woo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):117-124.
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OBJECTIVES
It is the objective of this study to compare hepatotoxicity of nickel chloride and cadmium chloride with each other through IPRL(Isolated Perfused Rat Liver) method. METHODS: Biochemical indicator of hepatic function such as AST(aspartate aminotransferase), ALT(alanine aminotransferase), LDH(lactate dehydrogenase) and perfusion flow rate were used as the indicator of hepatotoxicity. Oxygen consumption rate were used as viability indicator. 300(+/-50) g - weighted rats were allocated randomly to each group(0 micrometer, 50 micrometer, 200 micrometer NiCl2 and CdCl2 exposure) by 5, totally 25. After Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution flowed into the portal vein and passed the liver cell, it flowed out of vena cava. Liver was administered with each NiCl2 and CdCl2 of each concentration and observed with buffer solution sampling time. Buffer which got out of liver was sampled and then biochemical indicator of hepatotoxicity was measured. RESULTS: AST, ALT, and LDH in buffer increased with sampling time much more in CdCl2 exposure group than NiCl2 exposure group in both 50 and 200 micrometer and statistical significance was verified with 2-way repeated ANOVA. Viability was decreased more and more in all substances during passed time. CONCLUSIONS: It is inferred that CdCl2 has stronger hepatotoxicity than NiCl2. IPRL method would be used widely for acute hepatotoxicity when considerating the benefit of it.
Summary
Effects of Job Strains on Absenteeism from Work.
Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Hong Ryul Choi, Hyong Sik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):505-512.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between job strains and absenteeism from work. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and the study subjects consisted of 1,166 workers who were employed in the small-sized industries. A self administered questionnaire was used to measure the general characteristics, job characteristics(job demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. The Job Content Questionnaire(JCQ) was used to assess job demand(2 items) and decision lattitude(10 items). Social support at work (10 items) was measured using JCQ. Sick absence was collected using self-report and were rechecked by the attendance record of their company. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between job strain and sick absence were estimated. The modifying effect of social support was evaluated by stratification. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between job strain and sick absence. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, the variables related to sick absence were age, marital status, occupation, job demand. Four distinctly different kinds of level of job strain were generated by the combination of job demand and job control: low strain group, high strain group, active group, and passive group. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 1.78(95% CI: 1.26-2.53), and those of active group and passive group were 1.33(95% CI: 1.07-1.66) and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.88-1.47), respectively. The odds ratio of high job strain after adjusting for age and occupation were still significant. The odds ratio of high job strain in low social support was 5.96(95% CI: 2.45-14.51), but that in high social support was 0.73(95% CI: 0.26-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Job strain was associated with increased risk of absenteeism from work, and social support at work modified the association between job strain and sick absence.
Summary
Induction of Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 by N,N-dimethylformamide in Sprague-Dawley Rats.
Sang Baek Koh, Bong Suk Cha, Ki Joon Kim, Seung Kyu Kang, Hyo Seok Joung
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):88-94.
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OBJECTIVES
In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of DMF toxicity, recent studies have focused on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of DMF on the induction of P450 and the activities of other related enzymes in rat liver microsomes. METHODS: DMF was administered to male Sprague Daweley rats by intraperitoneal injection at 0(control), 450(D1), 900(D2), 1,800(D3) mg DMF/kg body weight in olive oil once a day for three days. Hepatic P450 was measured by method of Omura and Sato. We evaluated selective assays for the three drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A1, 2B1 and 2E1. RESULTS: The content of microsomal protein, P450 and b5 were tended to be decreased in DMF treated group, but they were not statistically significant. The activity of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was significantly increased dose dependently(p<0.01), but the activity of NADH-b5 reductase was decreased in the treated group(p<0.01). The activities of PROD and EROD were not significant between control and treated group. The activities of pNPH in the DMF treated groups were higher than that of the control group(p<0.01). When Western immunoblottings were carried out utilizing three monoclonal antibodies which were specific against P4501A1/1, P4502B1/2 and P4502E1, the strong density band corresponding to P4502E1 was observed with the microsomes obtained from the rats treated with DMF. But there were no significant increased in the P4501A1/2 and P4502B1/2 band densities in immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: These result suggested that P4502E1 was inducible by DMF and P4502E1 isozyme might be responsible for the hydroxylation of DMF to HMMF.
Summary
The Association between Job Characteristics, Psychosocial Distress and Homocysteine.
Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):719-727.
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This study was carried out to assess the relationship between jobstrain, psychosocial distress and homocysteine. The study design was cross-sectional, and included 152 industrial workers in middle sized city. A self-adminstered questionnaire measured general characteristic, job strain and psychosocial distress. Blood was drawn into EDTA tube, and total plasma homocysteine was measured by HPLC. Homocysteine in the high job demand group was significantly higher than that in the low job demand. Cholesterol in the high job control group was significantly higher than that in the low job control. Homocysteine was significantly higher in the high job strain group than that in the other group. Folate and vitamin B12 showed a significantly negative correlation with homocysteine. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether the psychosocial distress and other variable contributed to explaining the homocysteine. Stress correlates with the homocysteine.
Summary
Study of repuirements and conditions to be improved for voluntary occupational health program in worksite.
Jae Seok Song, Jong Uk Won, Myong Sei Son, Bong Suk Cha, Jae Hoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):840-851.
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To perform voluntary occupational health program in worksites, regulational supports are necessary. The regulational supports include assessment of current occupational health program and appropriate incentives. The purpose of this study is to find out the requirements of voluntary occupational health program and conditions to be improved. Study population was industrial health managers of both industries with less than 300 workers and over 300 workers, and the member of labor union who is responsible for safety and health in worksite. Two different questionnaire were used to find out the requirements and conditions to be improved respectively. The results were; 1. The category which prevalence rate of occupational injuries and occupational disease should be lower than national average was most important in health managers employed in industries over 300 workers and followed by reporting system, education, worksite policy, work environment assessment, protective equipment, consequently. But those employed in industries less than 300 workers showed high importance in prevalence rate of occupational injuries and disease, reporting system, worksite policy, work environment assessment, protective equipment, education, consequently. 2. The members of labor union thought that worksite policy was most important and the next is education, reporting system, work environment assessment, protective equipment, prevalence rate of occupational injuries and disease. 3. There were difference in importance of education and worksite policy according to the size of industries. Reporting system, prevalence rate of occupational injuries and disease, and worksite policy had different importance between members of labor union and health managers. 4. In the results of questionnaire for conditions to be improved, the most important condition was top manager's willingness except personal protective equipments, and followed by financial support, legal support. The limitations of this study were the problems of representativeness of study population. but voluntary health program should be performed in worksites which have relatively good occupational health system. So, this selection bias could not disrupt our results.
Summary
Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Psychosicial Distress and Occupational Risks.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Ko, Myung Guen Kang, Sang Yul Ko
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):540-554.
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The effects of cigarette smoking on the psychosocial distress, the absenteeism, the occupational injuries, and on the prevalence for the accidents were assessed in 795 male workers who had been employed since March 1994. The results show that the prevalence of current smokers were higher in young men, lower educational level, lower income, single men(unmarried or divorced), alcohol drinkers, and blue collar workers. In the bivariate analyses, the workers with the high job demand and low work control were more likely to smoke, although the relationship was not strong. Those who reported lower satisfaction on his job tended to smoke more. Mean scores of psychosocial well-being Index(PWI) were higher in current smokers than nonsmokers. For the hierarchical multiple regression analyses, interaction terms between cigarette smoking and job stressors(job demand and work control) were not significant. For smokers, the odds ratios for the occupational injuries, and the accidents were 1.40(95% confidence interval 0.77-2.57) and 1.96 (95% confidence interval 0.75-5.09), respectively. The mean absent day were 4.13 for smokers, 3.65 for nonsmokers, although the differences were not statistically significant. It seems that cigarette smoking had not caused any crucial effects on the psychosocial well-being status and the occupational risks. Some considerations for the further research on the relationship of cigarette smoking on the mental health status and the occupational risks were also discussed.
Summary
Reliability and Validity on Measurement Instrument for Health Status Assessment in Occupational Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Guen Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):251-266.
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In order to test scaling assumption, and to assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the Short Form 36(SF-36) health survey questionnaire, we conducted a survey. Samples were 296 workers who had been employed in small sized companies. All scale passed for item internal consistency(100% sucess rate) and item discriminant validity(100% success rate). Reliability coefficients were ranged from a low of 0.51 to a high of 0.85. For 87.5% of the total workers, inconsistent responses were not observed. Only 3.0% of the total workers failed two or more checks. Factor analysis was performed using principal axis factor method and quartimax rotation. In this survey, the SF-36 retained available psychometric properties even when used in a generally healthy worker group. But further study with some consideration to develope health status measurement is expected ; first, the definition of health status should be rationalized. Second, the measurement of outcome is an important consideration in evaluations of quality of care. But ambiguities hinder understanding of this important topic. Third, internal consistency should be interpreted with caution as an indication reliability because it ignores potentially important sources of variation that can occur over time.
Summary
Association between Job characteristics and Psychosocial Distress of Industrial Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Geun Kang, Sang Ryul Koh, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):129-144.
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This study was carried out to assess the relationship between job characteristics(job strain) and psychosocial distress, and to find out the effect of social support on psychosocial distress. The study design was cross-sectional, and included 1,211 industrial workers in middle-sized city. A self-administered questionnaire measured job characteristics(jod demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. Psychosocial distress was measured using PWI(Psychosocial Well-being Index), a 45-item self-administered instrument. Among the 1,211 respondents, the prevalence of psychosocial distress was 24.8%. High job strain (high job demand + low job control) was present in 8% of the subjects. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 4.76 (95% CI : 2.60-8.74), and those of active group and passive group were 3.81(95% CI : 1.82-3.95) and 2.64(95% CI : 1.77-3.94), respectively. The odds ratios of each group adjusted for sex, age, support, and religion were still significant. Our results supported the association between job strain and psychosocial distress. Social support at work, although significantly associated with psychosocial distress, did not modify the association between job strain and psychosocial distress.
Summary
Social support and phychosocial distress among white-collar workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):429-447.
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The effects and roles of social support and stressors (stressful life events and chronic strains) on psychosocial distress were examined in a model with data from a sample of the white-collar workers (N = 416) in Korea. The findings of this study present that mean levels of psychosocial distress were higher' in the female, youth, unmarried and divorced, and low economic status (monthly income). The analysis also shows that, as expected, stressful life and chronic strains as stressors are positively related to occurrence of psychosocial distress, and social support is negatively related to psychosocial distress. Further, the contribution of social support to predicting psychosocial distress is greater in magnitude than that of stressful events, chronic strains, and sociodemographic variables. There is no evidence that social support buffers the impacts of stressors on psychosocial distress, rather social support takes a role of main or direct effects on psychosocial distress. Therefore, the strength of the social support is an important and meaningful strategy to prevent from stress and mental, physical illness.
Summary
Effects of Multiple Exposures to Pesticides on Plasma Cholinesterase Activity and p-nitrophenol Excretion in Rats.
Bong Suk Cha, Jung Gyun Park, Jong Ku Park, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):180-188.
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The effects of multiple exposures to pesticides on plasma cholinesterase(ChE) activities and urinary p-nitrophenol excretion were evaluated in rats. Rats were received single dose i.p. with LD50/100(mg/kg) of organophosphorous(OP), organophosphorous-organochroline(OP-OC), organophosphorous-carbamate(OP-CAB), organophosphorous-organoarsenate(OP-OA) pesticides for 4 consecutive days. In repeated administration of pesticides, plasma ChE activities were decreased, but urinary p-nitrophenol were increased after the first injection and then decreased gradually. The recovery rates of ChE activities and p-nitrophenol excretion at 48 hours after the fourth infection were delayed in comparison with the baseline value of 24 hours before the first injection. Statistical significances were found between OP and other groups except OP-OA group after the second injection in plasma ChE activities, but in urinary p-nitrophenol excretion there was statistical significance only between OP and OP-CAB.
Summary
Research on work stress and mental health status of the industrial workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Keyn Lee, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):90-101.
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Recently concerns on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers were increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the work stress measured by PSI (psychiatric symptom index) according to socio-demographic variables. The study population was consisted with two types of group; manual and clerical workers. The, major findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of psychiatric symptom in manual workers were higher in female, youth, educated, unmarried and divorced, noisy condition, that in clerical workers was higher in aged. Mean scores of psychiatric symptom were highly affected by degree of work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in both groups. The higher the work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, the lower the mean scores of work stress it showed. Psychiatric symptom index was explained with the work autonomy, self-esteem, self-efficacy through multiple stepwise regression. The annual admission rates were high in highly ranked groups on each psychiatric symptom dimension.
Summary
Work Stress and Mental Health of the Industrial Workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Myung Keyn Lee, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):365-373.
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Information on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers was required for optimum staffing and health care management. This study dealt with the relationship between mental health status examined by PSI(psychiatric symptom index) and socio-demographic variables. Especially this study attempted to find relevant determinants of the stress and mental health through multiple stepwise regression analysis based on data obtained from 687 occupational workers. The findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of symptom dimension were higher in youth, female, more educated, unmarried and divorced, and workers in the noisy condition and short duration in job. And it showed high scores in long duration in job for anxiety; college educated for anger; unmarried for cognitive disturbance. The factors affecting the mean scores of psychiatric symptom index were varied according to the types of symptom; age, sex and duration in job for anxiety; age, sex, living with parent, education and marital status for anger; sex and marital status for depression; noisy condition and sex for cognitive disorder.
Summary
Change of Skin Temperature of Workers Using Vibrating Tools in Anthracite Mines.
Jaehoon Roh, Young Hahn Moon, Dongchun Shin, Bong Suk Cha, Soo Nam Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):357-364.
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By implementing epoch-making policies for industrial promotion, the national economy has made a remarkable development. As a result of such economic growth, industrial accidents and occupational diseases have become a serious problem in Korean society. In the presidential order for the execution of the Korean Labor Standard Law, neuritis and other diseases stemming from health impairments due to vibrations in industrial processes are designated to be dealt with as vibration diseases. In the case of vibration disease, industrial accident compensation is not effectively paid. In order to investigate the vibration hazards of rock-drill operation, the authors studied the subjective symptoms and performed physical function tests on a total of 79 persons (vibration exposed group) who used rock-drills, and 39 persons (control group) who did not use rock-drills at anthracite mines. The results of the physical function test were as follows : 1. The right hand was more affected by white finger than the left hand. 2. Independent variables such as duration of rock-drill operation, age, drinking and smoking were identified as statistically significant factors for the occurrence of white finger. 3. In the pain sense threshold, the group with Raynaud's phenomenon showed a statistically higher level than that of the control group. 4. The skin temperature of the group with Raynaud's phenomenon was lower than that of the control group. The recovery time of skin temperature after cooling was delayed compared with the value of the control group.
Summary
Mental Health Status among Users of Medical Facilities in Mining Area.
Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):233-243.
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Our study was designed to identify the difference in the mental health status among hospitalized patients due to occupational diseases and accidents and pre-employment physical examinees, and to identify the relationship between mental health status and socio-demographic variables, and to provide information useful to non-psychiatric clinicians in caring of such patients. Samples were comprised of 189 pneumoconiotic patients, 132 industrial accident-induced patients and 122 pre-employment physical examinees who were interviewed with 90-item symptom cheklist(SCL-90). The following results were obtained: 1) Mean scores of symptom dimension on socio-demographic subgroup showed higher tendencies in older aged, male, lower educated, miner, married, mining residence, and pnemoconiotic patients. 2) Mean scores of total samples on all symptom dimensions were as follows in the order of their magnitudes; Depression, Somatization, Obsessive-compulsive, Anxiety, Psychoticism, Interpersonal sensitivity, Phobic-anxiety, Hostility, and Paranoid ideation. 3) The highest mean scores on each socio-demographic subgroup were as follows; Depression in younger aged and Somatization in older aged; Depression in male Somatization in female; Somatization in lower educated and depression in higher educated; Somatization in miners and depression in non-miners; Somatization in married and Depression in unmarried; Depression in all kind of residences; Somatization in patients and Depression in pre-employment physical examinees(normal). 4) In consequence of stepwise multiple regression, the important socio-demographic variables were age, occupation, diagnostic classification, and residence. Age was the most important variables in Somatization, Depression, Obsessive-compulsive, Anxiety, Phobic ideation, and Psychoticism. Occupation was the most important one in Interpersonal sensitivity and Hostility and also had significant relationships with all symptom dimensions.
Summary
Changes of the Blood Pressure and the Rulse Rate of the Rat after the Noise Exposure.
Jae Hoon Roh, Dong Chun Shin, Bong Suk Cha, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):239-244.
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The vascular reaction such as the indirect blood pressure and the pulse rate of the tail to the noise were examined in 8 naive Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. The sounds used in the experiment were 1KHz and 4 KHz, 95dB pure tone generated by Nagashima Audiometry. The indirect blood pressure and the pulse rate were checked at the rat tail by Polygraph at 5 minutes interval. The results were as follows: 1. The blood pressure and the pulse rate increased maximally 5 minutes after the exposure to both sounds. 2. The blood pressure and the pulse rate returned normal range within 20 minutes after the exposure of both sounds. 3. The increment of the blood pressure and the pulse rate was greater after the sound of 4KHz than after that of 1 KHz, but it wasn't statistically significant.
Summary
An Effect of Revolutions Per Minute (r.p.m.) in the Noise Characteristics.
Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):94-101.
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Noise pollution, both in the environment and in the workplace, has been recognized as a major health hazard - one that can impair not only a person's hearing but also his physical and mental well-being. As industrialization progresses, the prevalence rate of occupational diseases is increasing, especially hearing loss, which has the highest prevalence rate among the occupational diseases. The major cause of noise is the construction of various large industries without any regulation of noise sources. Therefore, we must establish an enactment to control mechanical noise sources as soon as possible. For the purpose of controlling the noise source, we must have exact data about such things as the sound level, the frequency of the peak sound and the revolutions per minute (r.p.m.) of the machine (a measure of the power of its motor). This study was undertaken in order to define the noise characteristics, the power of the machine's motor, the change of the sound level and the peak sound as the r.p.m. increases, and the permissible exposure time, The sample size of this study was 74 machines at 11 plaints in 6 industries. The results are as follows : 1. The breakdown of the types of mechanical noise noted was : 63.6% continuous normal sound, 26.9% intermittent sound, 4.7% continuous repeating sound and 4.6% impulsive sound. 2. With respect to the type of industry, the overall sound level was the highest in the mechanical industry, with 103+/-2.8 dB(A), and lowest in the textile industry, with 89.2+/-1.43 dB(A). 3. With respect to the type of machine, the highest sound level was 124 dB(A) caused by Gauzing(II), in the mechanical industry, and the lowest was 76 dB(A) caused by Attachment (Jup Check) (I) in the timber industry. 4. The shortest permssible exposur time to gauzing(II) in the mechanical industry was less than 15 minutes. 5. Among 74 machines, 68.2% of the peak sound was situated in the high frequency range (52.7% at 2 KHz and 1.4% at 8 KHz). 41.8% of the peak sound was in the middle frequency range (4.1% at 250Hz, 14.8% at 500Hz and 22.9% at 1KHz). 6. If one machine had two motors or more, the peak sound was shifted to the low frequency range. 7. As the r.p.m. increased, the overall and peak sound levels increased without any change of the frequency of the peak sound. 8. whenever the machines had the same king and the same r.p.m., the overall and peak sounds were changed by the physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials and the management.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health