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Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 1994;27(3): 447-464.
National Survey of Injury and Poisoning on a Representative Sample Population of Koreans.
Joung Soon Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Sung Chill Chang
1School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Korea.
2Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, The Korean Natonal Tuberculosis Association, Korea.
Despite the public health importance of injury and poisoning in terms of its high mortality and incidence, epidemiologic information to be utilized are scarce in Korea. This study was carried out in 1990 on a representative sample population (about 55,000 persons) along with the 6th National Tuberculosis prevalence survey in order to estimate the magnitude of injury and poisoning occurrence and to identify its epidemiologic characteristics which can be aided for establishing preventive strategy pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used by trained interviewer to collect data including general information of the person, various information on the injury and poisoning during the past one year such as time and place of its occurrence, its nature and external causes, type of medical institute attended, duration of treatment and outcome of the accident occurred. In analysis of the data collected incidence rates per 1000 persons by sex, age group and its nature as well as external causes and relative frequencies were calculated. The result obtained are as follows; 1. The incidence rate per 1000 was 30 for both sexes, 39 for male and 22 for female, male being 1.8 times more frequent than female. Age adjusted incidences were not much different from the crude rates. Age group specific rate curve showed binodal shape in both sexes, small peaks in preschool children and higher peaks in older ages. The incidence rate per 1000 people by area was highest in Jeon-bug province (57/1000) and the lowest in Daegu city (11/1000). 2. The place where the injuries occurred were road in 46%, with the boundary of house in 25 %, and working place in 12%. The injuries and poisoning had occurred more frequently during the months from March to August of the year than other months. 3. The relatively frequent injuries by its nature were contusion with intact skin surface (19%), fracture of upper limb (13%), open wound of head neck and trunk (12%) and fracture of lower limb (11%) among males: contusion with intact skin surface (28%), sprains and strains of joints and adjacent muscle(14%), fracture of upper limb(10%) and fracture of lower limb (9%) among females. Higher incidence rate among males than females were fracture of skull(4.5times) open wound and fractures of limbs (2-3 times). Age specific rate of injuries and poisoning by its nature showed increasing pattern by age in fractures of upper and lower limbs and sprains & strains of joints whereas the age group of 30's showed highest incidence in open wounds of upper limb. Fractures of radius and ulna in upper limb, fractures of tibia & fibula and ankle in lower limb were most frequent among fractures of upper and lower limbs. The frequent injuries among sprains and strains of joints and adjacent muscles were that of ankle, foot and back and among open wound were that of head and fingers. 4. Relative frequency of injuries and poisoning by external causes showed following order: other accidents(25%), accidental falls (23%), motor vehicle accident (22%) and other road vehicle accident (l4%) among males and accidental falls (37%), motor vehicle accident (24%) and other accident (l8%) among females. The external causes revealing higher incidences among males than females, were other road vehicle accident (4.8times), vehicle accident not elsewhere classifiable (4.4 times), accidental poisoning (4.4 times), accidents due to natural and environmental factors (2.8times), and suicide & self-inflicted injuries (2.8 times). Age specific incidence by external causes for frequent injuries showed that incidence of other accident steadily increased from 10's till age 50's; motor vehicle traffic accident increased from age 20's and dropped after age 60's; on the other hand accidental fall increased strikingly by age. The most frequent external causes among motor vehicle traffic accidents was motor vehicle traffic accident involving collision with pedestrian (69%), pedal cycle accident (30%) and other road vehicle accident (71%) among other road vehicle accidents; falls on same level from slipping, tripping or standing (44%) and other falls from one level to another among accidental falls; accidents caused by machinery (32%) for male and striking against or struck accidentally by objects or person for female among other accidents. 5. seventy nine percent of the injuries and poisonings were treated in general hospital or hospital/clinic. The duration of treatment ranged from a few days to 123 weeks; the majority (52%) took under 2 weeks, 36% for 3-8 weeks and 40% over 21 weeks. 6. The accident resulted in full recovery of normal healthy state in 62%, residual functional defects in 21% and on process of treatment in 16%.
Key words: injury and poisoning; national survey; annual incidence and relative frequency by nature and external causes; age; sex and area
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