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Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;33(3): 306-312.
Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene and 2-Naphthol as a Biological Exposure Markers of Total Suspended Particulate in the General Population .
Jong Won Kang, Soo Hun Cho, Heon Kim, Daehee Kang, Chul Ho Lee
1Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine.
2Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Institute of Environmental Medicine, SNUMRC.
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are well known environmental pollutants. The measurement of PAH in ambient air is not commonly used, because it is quite difficult to perform and is unreliable. Using biomarkers of PAH can be an alternative approach to this problem. The PAH in ambient air is absorbed in particulate matter. Total suspended particulate(TSP) or particulate matter of less than 10 micrometer in diameter (PM10) can be easily measured. Therefore, TSP or PM10 can be used as a surrogate measurements of ambient air PAH. CONCLUSIONS: We investigated whether the urinary concentration of two biomarkers of PAH, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol, could reflect the total suspended particulate in the general population. METHODS: In order to exclude the effects of occupational exposure and smoking, first grade middle school students were included in this study. Four middle schools within a one kilometer boundary of ambient air monitoring stations were selected. Total suspended particulate was regarded as the marker of airborne PAH. Diet and smoking data were collected by self administered questionnaires, and spot urine samples were collected. Urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The correlation between urinary 1-OHP, 2-naphthol and passive smoking was not statistically significant. The correlation between urinary 1-OHP and TSP indices was not statistically significant. The correlations between urinary 2-naphthol and TSP of two lag days, one lag day, and zero lag days were statistically significant. The statistical significance of two lag days was the strongest (p=0.001), one lag day was the next (p=0.0275), and zero lag days was the weakest (p=0.0349). CONCLUSION: Our results imply that the urinary concentration of 2-naphthol can be applied as a PAH exposure marker for the general population with low PAH exposure.
Key words: Air pollution; Biomarker; Total suspended particulate; PAH; 1-hydroxypyrene; 2-naphthol
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