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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2006;39(1): 30-38.
A Multilevel Study on the Relationship between the Residential Distribution of High Class (Power Elites) and Smoking in Seoul.
Chang Seok Kim, Sung Cheol Yun, Hye Ryun Kim, Young Ho Khang
1Department of Urban Engineering, University of Seoul, Korea.
2Division of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Clinical Research Center, Asan Medical Center, Korea.
3Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Korea.
4Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea. youngk@amc.seoul.kr
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the neighborhood socioeconomic position predicts the smoking rates after adjusting for individual socioeconomic position indicators. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2001 Seoul Health Indicators Survey. The neighborhood socioeconomic position was the residential distribution of the high class (power elites), as measured by the location quotients (LQ) for each administrative dong (district). A high LQ denotes a high neighborhood socioeconomic status. The individual socioeconomic position included education, occupation and income. Age-adjusted smoking rates according to the LQ level were computed with the direct method. The total number of subjects in this study (26,022 men and 28,007 women) was the reference. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted with the individuals at the first level and the neighborhoods at the second level to estimate the odds ratios of smoking with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: For men, the age-adjusted smoking rates increased with a decrease in the LQ. For women, the relationship between the age-adjusted smoking rate and the LQ was not clear. The odds of smoking for both genders were greater among those subjects with lower incomes and lower education. The manual occupational class had greater odds of smoking than the non-manual class for the males, while the odds ratio of smoking among females with a manual occupation tended to be lower than those females with a non-manual occupation. For the males, the LQ levels independently predicted smoking after adjustment for individual income. However, this relation between the LQ and smoking in males was explained by full adjustment for the individual socioeconomic position indicators (education, occupation and income). CONCLUSIONS: A low level of neighborhood socioeconom-ic position was associated with higher smoking rates among the men residing in Seoul. This association between the neighborhood socioeconomic position and smoking in men was explained by the individual socioeconomic position. Anti-smoking efforts to reduce geographical inequality in smoking should be directed at reducing the smoking rates between the individuals with different socioeconomic backgrounds in the metropolitan city of Seoul, South Korea.
Key words: Seoul; Multilevel study; Smoking; Power-elite
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