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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2006;39(1): 53-58.
Human Multi-route Exposure Assessment of Lead and Cadmium for Korean Volunteers.
Eunha Oh, Eun Il Lee, Hosub Lim, Jae Yeon Jang
1Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, Korea. eunil@korea.ac.kr
2Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea.
3Department of Public Health, Graduate School, Korea University, Korea.
4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Korea.
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVES: We wanted to evaluate the main route of exposure to lead and cadmium for the general population in Korea by using multi-route and multi-media exposure assessment METHODS: Samples of air at the homes, samples of the food and water and peripheral blood samples were collected from thirty volunteers living in Seoul (the metropolitan area), Yong-in (the suburban area) and Ansan (the industrial area) in 2001. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric methods were used for the determination of the Pb and Cd levels in the air, food, water and blood samples. RESULTS: The average intake of lead through the air, drinking water and food were 5.06 microgram/day (26.3%), 0.002 microgram/day (0.1%), and 16.4 microgram/day (73.6%), respectively. The average intake of cadmium through the air, drinking water and food were 0.082 microgram/day (0.9%), 0.001 microgram/day (0.007%), and 12.61 microgram/day (99.0%), respectively. The blood lead level was statistically higher in the male subjects than in the female subjects (3.39 and 2.22 microgram/dl, respectively), and only gender was a significant variable on the multiple regression analysis for blood lead. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the intake of lead and cadmium through food was the major route of exposure. A policy to reduce the pollutants according to the exposure routes should be established. However, more studies will be needed to support these data for the general population.
Key words: Lead; Cadmium; Environment; Exposure assessment; Food
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