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J Prev Med Public Health > Volume 42(6); 2009 > Article
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2009;42(6): 349-355. doi: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.6.349
Identification and Application of Biomarkers in Molecular and Genomic Epidemiologic Research.
Kyoung Mu Lee, Sohee Han, Woong Yang Park, Daehee Kang
1Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. dhkang@snu.ac.kr
3Department of Biochemistry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
5Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Biomarkers are characteristic biological properties that can be detected and measured in a variety of biological matrices in the human body, including the blood and tissue, to give an indication of whether there is a threat of disease, if a disease already exists, or how such a disease may develop in an individual case. Along the continuum from exposure to clinical disease and progression, exposure, internal dose, biologically effective dose, early biological effect, altered structure and/or function, clinical disease, and disease progression can potentially be observed and quantified using biomarkers. While the traditional discovery of biomarkers has been a slow process, the advent of molecular and genomic medicine has resulted in explosive growth in the discovery of new biomarkers. In this review, issues in evaluating biomarkers will be discussed and the biomarkers of environmental exposure, early biologic effect, and susceptibility identified and validated in epidemiological studies will be summarized. The spectrum of genomic approaches currently used to identify and apply biomarkers and strategies to validate genomic biomarkers will also be discussed.
Key words: Biomarker; Molecular epidemiology; Genomic epidemiology; Validity; Exposure
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