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Brief Report
The Pyramid of Injury: Estimation of the Scale of Adolescent Injuries According to Severity
Hyejin Han, Bomi Park, Bohyun Park, Namsoo Park, Ju Ok Park, Ki Ok Ahn, Yang Ju Tak, Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(3):163-168.   Published online May 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.027
  • 6,678 View
  • 161 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Due to their developmental characteristics, adolescents have a higher probability than other age groups of experiencing injuries caused by accidents, violence, and intentional self-harm. The severity and characteristics of injuries vary by the intentionality and mechanism of injury; therefore, there is a need for a national-level estimate of the scale and the severity of injuries in adolescents that takes these factors into account.
Methods
By using data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance Data, National Emergency Department Information System, the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey, and cause of death statistics, we calculated the emergency department (ED) visit rate, hospitalization rate, and death rate of injuries per 100 000 adolescents for each injury mechanism. The calculated rates were used to generate the injury pyramid ratio (ratio of death rate to hospitalization rate to ED visit rate) to visualize the scale and the severity of the injury.
Results
The mortality rate in adolescents due to injury was 10/100 000; the corresponding rates for hospitalization and ED visits were 1623 and 4923, respectively, resulting in an injury pyramid ratio with the general pyramid form, with a 1:162:492 ratio of deaths to hospitalizations to ED visits. The mortality rate due to suicide/intentional self-harm was 5/100 000, while 35 were hospitalized for this reason and 74 made ED visits. The pyramid ratio of 1:7:15 for intentional self-harm/suicide showed a steep pyramidal form, indicating considerable lethality. The mortality rate due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) was 3/100 000; 586 were hospitalized for this reason, while 1023 made ED visits. The pyramid ratio of 1:195:341 for MVCs showed a gradual pyramid form, indicating that the lethality was low and the scale of injury was high.
Conclusions
The main categories of injuries in adolescents were visualized in pyramid form, contributing to an understanding of the scale of each injury by mechanism in terms of levels of death, hospitalization, and ED visits. These findings will be helpful for understanding how to prioritize injuries in adolescents.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Burden of Childhood Injuries in India and Possible Public Health Interventions: A Systematic Review
    Mohan Kumar, Vineet Kumar Pathak, Saparya Tripathi, Anita Upadhyay, Vivek V. Singh, Chandrakant Lahariya
    Indian Journal of Community Medicine.2023; 48(5): 648.     CrossRef
  • Joinpoint Regression About Injury Mortality and Hospitalization in Korea
    Hyun Jin Park, Ui Jeong Kim, Won kyung Lee, Bohyun Park, Yoonhee Shin, Seonhwa Lee, Eun Jeong Choi, Nam-eun Kim, Ju Ok Park, Hyesook Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identifying intentional injuries among children and adolescents based on Machine Learning
    Xiling Yin, Dan Ma, Kejing Zhu, Deyun Li, Kyoung-Sae Na
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(1): e0245437.     CrossRef
  • The injury mechanisms and injury pyramids among children and adolescents in Zhuhai City, China
    Xiling Yin, Wencan Dai, Yukai Du, Deyun Li
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Intentional and Unintentional Injuries Among Chinese Children and Adolescents
    Xiling Yin, Deyun Li, Kejing Zhu, Xiaodong Liang, Songxu Peng, Aijun Tan, Yukai Du
    Journal of Epidemiology.2020; 30(12): 529.     CrossRef
  • Global Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior, Deliberate Self-Harm and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Children and Adolescents between 1989 and 2018: A Meta-Analysis
    Kim-San Lim, Celine H. Wong, Roger S. McIntyre, Jiayun Wang, Zhisong Zhang, Bach X. Tran, Wanqiu Tan, Cyrus S. Ho, Roger C. Ho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(22): 4581.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea
Akiko Kamimura, Bianca Armenta, Maziar Nourian, Nushean Assasnik, Kimiya Nourian, Alla Chernenko
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):188-194.   Published online April 27, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.044
  • 10,230 View
  • 246 Download
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea.
Methods
Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576).
Results
South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea.
Conclusions
Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.
Summary

Citations

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  • Associations between neighborhood environments and health status among Chinese older people during the pandemic: Exploring mediation effects of physical activity
    Jiahang Liu, Chun Yin, Bindong Sun
    Journal of Transport & Health.2024; 35: 101757.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of air pollution and air quality perception mismatch using mobility-based real-time exposure
    Wanying Song, Mei-Po Kwan, Jianwei Huang, Tai Ming Wut
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(2): e0294605.     CrossRef
  • Does Internet Use Increase Public Perception of Environmental Pollution?—Evidence from China
    Chengzhi Yi, Jiajun Han, Cuihong Long
    Social Indicators Research.2023; 166(3): 665.     CrossRef
  • Associations between direct contact with the oil and worsened health indicators after Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Results from Gulf States Population Survey
    Bingxue Han
    Qeios.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Climate change and mental health in Korea: A scoping review
    Jiyoung Shin, Juha Baek, Sumi Chae
    Journal of Climate Change Research.2023; 14(6-2): 989.     CrossRef
  • The impact of perceived air pollution on labour supply: Evidence from China
    Xiaoqin Li, Yonghui Li
    Journal of Environmental Management.2022; 306: 114455.     CrossRef
  • Development and validation of a new scale to assess air quality knowledge (AQIQ)
    Alessandro Del Ponte, Lina Ang, Lianjun Li, Noah Lim, Wilson Wai San Tam, Wei Jie Seow
    Environmental Pollution.2022; 299: 118750.     CrossRef
  • Exposures, Symptoms and Risk Perception among Office Workers in Relation to Nanoparticles in the Work Environment
    Hans Orru, Henrik Olstrup, Annika Hagenbjörk, Steven Nordin, Kati Orru
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(10): 5789.     CrossRef
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    Reactive and Functional Polymers.2022; 177: 105311.     CrossRef
  • Association between perceived environmental pollution and poor sleep quality: results from nationwide general population sample of 162,797 people
    Yeong Jun Ju, Joo Eun Lee, Dong-Woo Choi, Kyu-Tae Han, Soon Young Lee
    Sleep Medicine.2021; 80: 236.     CrossRef
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    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2021; 28(24): 31289.     CrossRef
  • Evidence for Environmental Noise Effects on Health for the United Kingdom Policy Context: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Environmental Noise on Mental Health, Wellbeing, Quality of Life, Cancer, Dementia, Birth, Reproductive Outcomes, and Cognition
    Charlotte Clark, Clare Crumpler, Hilary Notley
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(2): 393.     CrossRef
  • The analysis of creative thinking skills of junior high school students in learning natural science on environmental pollution materials with different academic skills
    N Maharani, Suratno, Sudarti
    Journal of Physics: Conference Series.2020; 1465(1): 012032.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of economic development, family income and health status in China: The moderating role of environmental pollution perception
    Lijuan Chen, Youqing Fan, Wei Guo
    Journal of Health Psychology.2020; 25(13-14): 2499.     CrossRef
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    Bo Lv, Juan Wang, Junzhe Zhuo, Huilin Yang, Sufang Yang, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song
    Chemosphere.2020; 254: 126802.     CrossRef
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    Susymary J, Deepalakshmi Perumalsamy
    Procedia Computer Science.2020; 171: 689.     CrossRef
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    Wanhyung Lee, Junhyeong Lee, Ui-Jin Kim, Jin-Ha Yoon, Won-Jun Choi, Seunghon Ham, Eun Kyo Chung, Seong-Kyu Kang
    Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.2020; 62(7): e334.     CrossRef
  • Associations between perceived environmental pollution and health-related quality of life in a Chinese adult population
    Bingxue Han
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Fan Yang, Yao Jiang, Krishna P. Paudel
    Healthcare.2020; 9(1): 6.     CrossRef
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    Amin Abbasi, Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef, Wan Zaireen Nisa Yahya
    Green Materials.2020; 8(4): 172.     CrossRef
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    Yan, Chen, Jia, Liu, Ding, Wang, Hu, Ma, Zhang, Li
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(12): 2175.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study
    Motoyuki Nakao, Yoko Ishihara, Cheol-Hong Kim, In-Gyu Hyun
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2018; 51(3): 130.     CrossRef
  • A Multilevel Analysis of Perceived Noise Pollution, Geographic Contexts and Mental Health in Beijing
    Jing Ma, Chunjiang Li, Mei-Po Kwan, Yanwei Chai
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(7): 1479.     CrossRef
  • Neighborhood environments and self-rated health in Mainland China, Japan and South Korea
    Jing Liu, Ye Luo, William Haller, Brenda Vander Mey, Ellen Granberg, Michael L. Goodman
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(9): e0204910.     CrossRef
Bacterial Contamination and Disinfection Status of Laryngoscopes Stored in Emergency Crash Carts
Jae Hyung Choi, Young Soon Cho, Jung Won Lee, Hee Bong Shin, In Kyung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):158-164.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.013
  • 22,789 View
  • 207 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To identify bacterial contamination rates of laryngoscope blades and handles stored in emergency crash carts by hospital and area according to the frequency of intubation attempts.
Methods
One hundred forty-eight handles and 71 blades deemed ready for patient use from two tertiary hospitals were sampled with sterile swabs using a standardized rolling technique. Samples were considered negative (not contaminated) if no colonies were present on the blood agar plate after an 18-hour incubation period. Samples were stratified by hospital and according to the frequency of intubation attempts (10 attempts per year) using the χ2-test and Fisher exact test.
Results
One or more species of bacteria were isolated from 4 (5.6%) handle tops, 20 (28.2%) handles with knurled surfaces, and 27 (18.2%) blades. No significant differences were found in microbial contamination levels on the handle tops and blades between the two hospitals and two areas according to the frequency of intubation attempts. However, significant differences were found between the two hospitals and two areas in the level of microbial contamination on the handles with knurled surfaces (p<0.05).
Conclusions
Protocols and policies must be reviewed to standardize procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles; handles should be re-designed to eliminate points of contact with the blade; and single-use, one-piece laryngoscopes should be introduced.
Summary

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    Infection.2020; 48(1): 125.     CrossRef
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Proportion of Death Certificates Issued by Physicians and Associated Factors in Korea, 1990-2002.
Min Woo Jo, Young Ho Khang, Sungcheol Yun, Jin Yong Lee, Moo Song Lee, Sang Il Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):345-352.   Published online November 30, 2004
  • 2,202 View
  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Previous studies showed that death certification by physicians was an important predictor to improve the quality of death certificate data in South Korea. This study was conducted to examine the proportion of death certificates issued by physicians and associated factors in South Korea from 1990 to 2002. METHODS: Data from 3, 110, 883 death certificates issued between 1990 and 2002, available to the public from the National Statistical Office of Korea, were used to calculate the proportion of death certificates issued by physicians and to examine associated factors with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall proportion of death certificates issued by physicians increased from 44.6% in 1990 to 77.6% in 2002 (mean: 63.5%). However, the proportion was greatly influenced by the deceased's age. In 2002, more than 90% of the deceased aged 51 or less were certified by physicians. A higher proportion was found among deceased who had tertiary education (college or higher) living in more developed urban areas. CONCLUSION: The information regarding the cause of death for younger, well-educated deceased in urban areas of South Korea may show a higher level of accuracy. Epidemiologic research using information on causes of death may well benefit from the continually increasing proportion of death certificates issued by physicians in the future in South Korea.
Summary
Factors Related to Perceived Life Satisfaction Among the Elderly in South Korea.
Minsoo Jung, Carles Muntaner, Mankyu Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):292-300.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.292
  • 5,568 View
  • 84 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study attempted to explore the aging phenomena that now characterize much of Korean society, and assessed issues associated with the life satisfaction experienced during the process of aging. METHODS: By employing the National Survey on the State of Life and the Desire for Welfare of the Elderly, 2004 in South Korea this study attempted to identify the factors that determine subjective life satisfaction among the elderly. The data utilized herein consisted of 3278 elderly people aged 65 years or older, from 9308 households. RESULTS: The results of analysis from the final model after the introduction of 19 variables in 8 factors showed statistically similar explanatory power in men (adj. R2=0.320) and in women (adj. R2=0.346). We found that economic condition was the most influential factor in both men (B=0.278) and women (B=0.336) except perceived health condition variables. The second most influential variable in life satisfaction was health checkups in men (B=0.128) and degree of nutritional diet in women (B=0.145). Those who had experience with chronic diseases also reported significantly lower perceived life satisfaction and this was particularly true of women. CONCLUSIONS: The aging society requires an understanding of the lives of elderly individuals. This study explored factors associated with life satisfaction in old age by using a life satisfaction model. The success of an aging society begins with an accurate understanding of the elderly, and thus political attention will need to be focused on this matter.
Summary

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Workplace Smoking Ban Policy and Smoking Behavior.
Beomsoo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):293-297.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.293
  • 5,282 View
  • 88 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the impact of the workplace smoking ban in South Korea, where the male smoking rate is high (57%), on smoking behavior and secondhand smoke exposure. METHODS: A workplace smoking ban legislation implemented in April 2003 requires offices, meeting rooms, and lobbies located in larger than 3,000 square meter buildings (or 2,000 square meter multipurpose buildings) should be smoke free. A representative cross-sectional survey, the third wave (2005) of health supplements in the National Health Nutrition Survey of South Korea, was used to measure the impact of the 2003 workplace smoking ban implementation on smoking behavior. It contained 3,122 observations of adults 20 to 65 years old (excluding self-employed and non-working populations). A multivariate statistical model was used. The self-reported workplace smoking ban policy (full workplace ban, partial workplace ban, and no workplace ban) was used as the key measure. RESULTS: A full workplace smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 6.4 percentage points among all workers and also decreased the average daily consumption among smokers by 3.7 cigarettes relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 86 percent (= -1.74/2.03)from the sample mean for full workplace ban. However, public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The full workplace ban policy is effective in South Korea. Male group showed bigger impact of smoking ban policy than female group. The public antismoking campaign did not show any effectiveness.
Summary

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    Mark D Eisner
    Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology.2010; 10(2): 121.     CrossRef
  • Employee and Employer Support for Workplace‐based Smoking Cessation: Results from an International Survey
    Michael T. Halpern, Humphrey Taylor
    Journal of Occupational Health.2010; 52(6): 375.     CrossRef
South Korean Study in a Public Health: Preventive Medicine and Sports Environment.
Dan Silviu Radut, You Jin Kim, Byung Nam Min, Ki Jeoung Cho, Jong Young Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):209-214.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.209
  • 3,673 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to develop search filters able to retrieve the South Korean scientific output and relating the fields of public health, preventive medicine, and physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport in MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007. METHODS: The search filters were constructed and applied in MEDLINE accessed through PubMed according to the affiliation and subject. The language and place of publication were identified and the evaluation of the geographical filter performance was done. RESULTS: The search format was successfully elaborated and applied, and the articles originated, published in Korea and/or abroad focusing on the fields of public health, preventive medicine, physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport, added to MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved. Publications in six languages originated in South Korea were detected. CONCLUSIONS: A geographic search filter determined the South Korean research output, and combined with additional filters focused on specific areas. The dynamics of the scientific output followed an increased evolution in all categories. Articles were written mainly in English/Korean. Further research is recommended on developing search strategies in order to retrieve precise and reliable information.
Summary
Perceived Service Quality among Outpatients Visiting Hospitals and Clinics and Their Willingness to Re-utilize the Same Medical Institutions.
Minsoo Jung, Keon Hyung Lee, Mankyu Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(3):151-159.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.3.151
  • 4,881 View
  • 81 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was to determine how the perception and the satisfaction of outpatients who utilized clinics and hospitals are structurally related with their willingness to utilize the same institution in the future. METHODS: Three hundred and ten responses (via convenient sampling) were collected from 5 hospitals and 20 clinics located in Seoul listed in the "Korea National Hospital Directory 2005". Service quality was utilized as the satisfaction measurement tool. For analysis, we used a structural equation modeling method. RESULTS: The determining factors for general satisfaction with medical services are as follows: medical staff, reasonability of payment, comfort and accessibility. Such results may involve increased competition in the medical market and increased demands for quality medical services, which drive the patients to visit hospitals on their own on the basis of changed determining factors for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The structural equation model showed that the satisfaction of outpatients with the quality of medical services is influenced by a few sub-dimensional satisfaction factors. Among these sub-dimensional satisfaction factors, the satisfaction with medical staff and payment were determined to exert a significant effect on overall satisfaction with the quality of medical services. The structural relationship in which overall satisfaction perceived by patients significantly influences their willingness to use the same institution in the future was also verified.
Summary

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    Mina Rostami, Leila Ahmadian, Yunes Jahani, Aliakbar Niknafs
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    Haftom Desta, Tesfay Berhe, Solomon Hintsa
    International Journal of Mental Health Systems.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Appropriate Outpatient Consultation Time for Clinical Departments
    Chan Hee Lee, Hyunsun Lim, Youngnam Kim, Ai Hee Park, Eun-Cheol Park, Jung-Gu Kang
    Health Policy and Management.2014; 24(3): 254.     CrossRef
  • Positioning Patient-Perceived Medical Services to Develop a Marketing Strategy
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  • Analysis of the Factors Related to the Needs of Patients with Cancer
    Jung-A Lee, Sun-Hee Lee, Jong-Hyock Park, Jae-Hyun Park, Sung-Gyeong Kim, Ju-Hyun Seo
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English Abstract
Keywords Network Analysis of Articles in the North Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 1997~2006.
Minsoo Jung, Dongjun Chung, Mankyu Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):365-372.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.365
  • 5,058 View
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  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
There are very few researches on North Korea's academic activities. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the available data are reliable. This study investigated research activities and knowledge structure in the field of Preventive Medicine in North Korea with a network analysis using co-authors and keywords. METHODS: The data was composed of the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine ranged from Vol. 1 of 1997 to Vol. 4 of 2006. It was the matrix of 1,172 articles by 1,567 co-authors. We applied R procedure for keywords abstraction, and then sought for the outcome of network forms by spring-KK and shrinking network. RESULTS: To comprehend the whole networks explicitly demonstrated that the academic activities in North Korea's preventive medicine were predisposed to centralization as similar as South Korea's, but on the other aspect they were prone to one-off intermittent segmentation. The principal co-author networks were formulated around some outstanding medical universities seemingly in addition to possible intervention by major researchers. The knowledge structure of network was based on experimentation judging from keywords such as drug, immunity, virus detection, infection, bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. CONCLUSIONS: Though North Korea is a socialist regime, there were network of academic activities, which were deemed the existence of inducive mechanism affordable for free research. Article keywords has laid greater emphasis on experiment-based bacterial detection, sustainable immune system and prevention of infection. The kind of trend was a consistent characteristic in preventive medicine of North Korea having close correlation with Koryo medical science.
Summary

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    John J Park, Ah-Young Lim, Hyung-Soon Ahn, Andrew I Kim, Soyoung Choi, David HW Oh, Owen Lee-Park, Sharon Y Kim, Sun Jae Jung, Jesse B Bump, Rifat Atun, Hee Young Shin, Kee B Park
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    Do-Hyeon Park, Min-Ho Choi, Ah-Young Lim, Hee Young Shin
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2018; 51(2): 109.     CrossRef
  • Bibliometric and content analysis of medical articles in the PubMed database published by North Korean authors from 1997 to July 2017
    Geum Hee Jeong, Sun Huh
    Science Editing.2017; 4(2): 70.     CrossRef
  • Bibliometric Investigation on Preventive Medicine in North Korea
    Minsoo Jung
    The Health Care Manager.2013; 32(3): 253.     CrossRef
  • South Korean Study in a Public Health -Preventive Medicine and Sports Environment-
    Dan Silviu Radut, You Jin Kim, Byung Nam Min, Ki Jeoung Cho, Jong Young Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(4): 209.     CrossRef
Historical Article
Historical Advances in Health Inequality Research.
Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):422-430.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.422
  • 4,885 View
  • 110 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The socioeconomic inequalities in health have recently become an important public health concern in South Korea, and the issue has gained increasing attention from many South Korean researchers due to the increasing income inequality and widening social polarization following its economic crisis in the late 1990s. However, despite the mounting literature on health inequalities published in recent years, the history of research on health inequality in South Korea is premature in comparison to the long histories in several Western countries. Understanding the historical background underlying the issue of health inequality research may aid in establishing and accumulating scientifically solid evidence in South Korea. It may also direct the South Korean research community to develop research agendas that are more politically and academically appropriate for South Korean society. This paper describes the historical development of health inequality research in the West and introduces several important issues contributing to the advancement of health inequality research. Specifically, the major studies conducted before and after the UK Black Report are presented. In addition, the history and current status of health inequality research in South Korea are documented and evaluated. Finally, several research agendas for the quantitative and qualitative improvement of health inequality research in South Korea are proposed.
Summary

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    Young-Ho Khang, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S33.     CrossRef
English Abstracts
Occupational Differentials in Cigarette Smoking in South Korea: Findings from the 2003 Social Statistics Survey.
Hong Jun Cho, Young Ho Khang, Sung Cheol Yun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):365-370.
  • 2,290 View
  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in smoking rates according to the major occupational categories in South Korea. METHODS: The study subjects were a weighted sample of 24,495 men and 26,121 women aged 25-64 from the 2003 Social Statistics Survey, which was conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office. Occupation was classified according to the Korean Standard Occupation Classification. We computed the age-standardized smoking rates according to gender and occupations after adjusting for the education level, marital status, and self-rated health. RESULTS: For men, the smoking rate in elementary occupations was two times higher than that of clerks (OR= 1.98, 95% CI=1.74-2.26). In general, a more prestigious job(professionals) correlated with lower smoking rates, and less prestigious jobs correlated with higher smoking rates, except for legislators, senior officials and managers. For women, smoking among service workers was 4.1 times higher than among clerical workers (OR=4.11, 95% CI= 2.87-5.88). For women, their occupations, except elementary workers, and the unemployed, the retired and the armed forces, failed to show significant differences in smoking compared with the clerical workers. After adjusting for education, occupational differences in the smoking rate for men were attenuated in most occupations, except for legislators, professionals, and technicians. Further adjustment for marital status and self-rated health had a minimal effect on the occupational differences in the smoking rate for men. For women workers with service or elementary occupations, the ORs of smoking were attenuated with adjustment of the educational levels. However, the ORs of smoking were increased in workers with service, sales or elementary occupations, as well as for legislators, and the unemployed, the retired and the armed forces, after additionally adjusting for marital status. CONCLUSIONS: More prestigious jobs generally correlated with lower smoking rates in both sexes. The anti-tobacco policy should consider smoking rate differentials by occupations.
Summary
Socioeconomic Mortality Inequality in Korea: Mortality Follow-up of the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES) Data.
Young Ho Khang, Hye Ryun Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(2):115-122.
  • 2,786 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine the relationships of the several socioeconomic position indicators with the mortality risk in a representative longitudinal study of South Korea. METHODS: The 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was conducted on a cross-sectional probability sample of South Korean households, and it contained unique 13-digit personal identification numbers that were linked to the data on mortality from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Of 5,607 males and females, 264 died between 1999 and 2003. Cox's regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality. RESULTS: Socioeconomic differences in mortality were observed after adjustments were made for gender and age. Compared with those people having college or higher education, those people without any formal education had a greater mortality risk (RR=2.21, 95% CI=1.12-4.40). The mortality risk among manual workers was significantly greater than that for the non-manual workers (RR=2.73, 95% CI=1.47-5.06). A non-standard employment status was also associated with an increase in mortality: temporary or daily workers had a greater mortality risk than did the full-time workers (RR=3.01, 95% CI=1.50-6.03). The mortality risk for the low occupational class was 3.06 times greater than that of the high and middle occupational classes (95% CI=1.75-5.36). In addition, graded mortality differences according to equivalized monthly household income were found. A reduction of monthly household income by 500 thousand Korean Won (about 400 US dollars) was related with a 20% excess risk of mortality. Self-reported poor living standards were also associated with an increased risk of mortality. Those without health insurance had a 3.63 times greater risk of mortality than the insured (95% CI=1.61-8.19). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the socioeconomic differentials in mortality in a national longitudinal study of South Korea. The existence of socioeconomic mortality inequalities requires increased social discussion on social policies in Korean society. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the socioeconomic inequalities of mortality need to be explored in future studies.
Summary
Validation Studies
Reliability of Education and Occupational Class: A Comparison of Health Survey and Death Certificate Data.
Hye Ryun Kim, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):443-448.
  • 2,141 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was done to evaluate the reliability of education and occupational class between using the health survey and the death certificate data. METHODS: The 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was conducted on a crosssectional probability sample of South Korean households, and it contained unique 13-digit personal identification numbers that were linked to the data on mortality from the Korean National Statistical Office. The data from 263 deaths were used to estimate the agreement rates and the Kappa indices of the education and occupational class between using the NHANES data and the death certificate data. RESULTS: The simple and weighted Kappa indices for education were 0.60 (95% CI=0.53-0.68) and 0.73 (95% CI=0.67-0.79) respectively, if the educational level was grouped into five categories: no-formal-education, elementary-school, middle-school, high-school and college or over. The overall agreement rate was 71.9% for these educational groups. The magnitude of reliability, as measured by the overall agreement rates and Kappa indices, tended to increase with a decrease in the educational class. The number of non-educated people with using the death certificate data was smaller than that with using the NHANES data. For the occupational class (manual workers, non-manual workers and others), the Kappa index was 0.40 (95% CI=0.30-0.51), which was relatively lower than that for the educational class. Compared with the NHANES, the number of non-manual workers for the deceased who were aged 30-64 tended to be increased (8 to 12) when using the death certificate data, whereas the number of manual workers tended to be decreased (59 to 41). CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic inequalities in the mortality rates that were based on the previous unlinked studies in South Korea were not due to a numerator/denominator bias. The mortality rates for the manual workers and the no-education groups might have been underestimated.
Summary
English Abstracts
Socioeconomic Differentials in Health and Health Related Behaviors: Findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey.
Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Seungmi Yang, Moo Song Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):391-400.
  • 2,473 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3, 449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on selfreported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. RESULTS: Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. CONCLUSIONS: The perceived economic hardships predicted the health status among the eighth graders of South Korea. The overall satisfaction of life was associated with the socioeconomic position indicators. Further research efforts are needed to explore the mechanisms on how and why the socioeconomic position affects the health and health related behaviors in this age group.
Summary
Changes in Mortality Inequality in Relation to the South Korean Economic Crisis: Use of Area-based Socioeconomic Position.
Young Ho Khang, Sung Cheol Yun, In A Hwang, Moo Song Lee, Sang Il Lee, Min Woo Jo, Min Jung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):359-365.
  • 2,135 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
An abrupt economic decline may widen the socioeconomic differences in health between the advantaged and disadvantaged in a society. The aim of this study was to examine whether the South Korean economic crisis of 1997-98 affected the socioeconomic inequality from all-causes and from cause-specific mortality between 1995 and 2001. METHODS: Population denominators were obtained from the registration population data, with the number of death (numerators) calculated from raw death certificate data. The indicator used to assess the geographic socioeconomic position was the per capita regional tax revenue. Administrative districts (Si-Gun-Gu) were ranked according to this socioeconomic measure, and divided into equal population size quintiles on the basis of this ranking. The sex- and 5-year age-specific numbers of the population and deaths were used to compute the sex- and age-adjusted mortality rates (via direct standardization method), standardized mortality ratios (via indirect standardization methods) and relative indices of inequality (RII) (via Poisson regression). RESULTS: Geographic inequalities from all-causes of mortality, as measured by RII, did not increase as a result of the economic crisis (from 1998-2001). This was true for both sexes and all age groups. However, the cause-specific analyses showed that socioeconomic inequalities in mortalities from external causes were affected by South Korean economic crisis. For males, the RIIs for mortalities from transport accidents and intentional self-harm increased between 1995 and 2001. For females, the RII for mortality from intentional self-harm increased during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The South Korean economic crisis widened the geographic inequality in mortalities from major external causes. This increased inequality requires social discourse and counter policies with respect to the rising health inequalities in the South Korean society.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health